4 xzc

Environmental Implications - Migratory Species


Throughout the year, hundreds of species migrate to the 1002 region of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. These include birds, mammals and fish which migrate to this region for a multitude of purposes generally between the months of May and October. This region has proven to be a center of biological activity throughout these months due many factors including nutritional benefits, increased safety from predators and a more favorable climate. Thus, a method to extract oil should carefully take into consideration these species and the impact on their habitat and livelihood in order to preserve the current ecosystem. Because the area has been left untouched for centuries, the impact of oil drilling could be severe if the migratory species are not taken into consideration.
For many species, the 1002 region is not a critical stopover along their migratory paths. For example, over 135 bird species visit the area each year, but only a small percentage stay significant periods of time, while even fewer use the area for breeding purposes. For land species, this also holds true. For example, the moose population would be minimally impacted by oil drilling because its calving grounds is in the Old Crow Flats in Canada and their stay in the 1002 region is brief. However, for the few species that do spend a significant amount of time in the region, the environmental impact of oil drilling can be devastating. Disturbances such as roads and noise pollution could potentially affect the survival rates of species which breed and calve in the area, as well as species which depend on the region for nutrition. For instance, the preservation of the 1002 region is essential to the survival of the porcupine caribou herd, which calve there. This is an extremely critical time period for the calves because of their vulnerability to predators and great nutritional need. Therefore it is necessary to identify critical time periods during the year in which the most damage would occur so that oil drilling could be planned accordingly. Also, the impacts of permanent structures and disturbances caused by oil extraction should be properly assessed and evaluated. In order to comprehensively consider the consequences of oil production, this report will present an analysis of major species, the potential impact of drilling, and propose methods of minimizing this impact.


6yyyyy jkllllll