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Team 5: Annotated Bibliography
LeVon T. Thomas

1) The GPS Observer. James P. Reilly, Ph.D. Posted: 09/01/2004 Ref ID:1Ref Type:JournalAuthors:Ashkenazi,I,9169,131954,00.html

This article talks about the movement of the North American plate relative to the other tectonic plates in the region.  It also mentions that the movement can cause plates to clash.  Also the certain island nations end up moving their location/geography due to this movement in the plates.

2) Descriptive Model of the July 17, 1998 Papua New Guinea Tsunami Related Publications
   1. Geist, E. L., 1998, Source characteristics of the July 17, 1998 Papua New Guinea tsunami: EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, v. 79 (supplement), p. 571.
   2. Geist, E. L., 1999, Local tsunamis and earthquake source parameters, Advances in Geophysics, v. 39, p. 117-209.

This web site has a lot of data from the tsunami that occurred in Papua New Guineas.  It tells the different morphology of the area and some of the main reasons that the tsunami happened.  It also has the different animation of how it happened and how large of an earthquake it was.  The site tells about how some of the happenings could have warned them of impending danger and trying to find a way mitigating the effects next time.

3) Adams, R. D. (1990). Earthquake occurrence and effects. Injury, 21(1), 17-20; discussion 29-33.

This entry has a lot to do with the way earthquakes happen and how they are formed.  Also about how an earthquake nearby can help to trigure a tsunami by the movement in the sea floor such as a mud slide or other underwater desaster.  Although earthquakes are mainly concentrated in zones close to boundaries of tectonic plates of the Earth's lithosphere, infrequent events away from the main seismic regions can cause major disasters. The major cause of damage and injury following earthquakes is elastic vibration, rather than fault displacement. This vibration at a particular site will depend not only on the size and distance of the earthquake but also on the local soil conditions. Earthquake prediction is not yet generally fruitful in avoiding earthquake disasters, but much useful planning to reduce earthquake effects can be done by studying the general earthquake hazard in an area, and taking some simple precautions.

 4) Ashkenazi, I., and J. Shemer. "Tsunami--the Death Waves." Harefuah 144.3 (2005): 154,9, 232.
---. "Tsunami--the Death Waves." Harefuah 144.3 (2005): 154,9, 232.
This journal article talks about the different aspects of the tsunami that hit the Indian Ocean last year.  It talks about the way that the tsunami works and also about how a lot of the myths are wrong about the medical and physical aspect of the people and the tsunami.  It talks about the dynamics of a tsunami, and how the local goegraphical region under the water had a lot to do with how devistating the last one was.

5) Baldwin, S. L., et al. "Pliocene Eclogite Exhumation at Plate Tectonic Rates in Eastern Papua New Guinea." Nature 431.7006 (2004): 263-7.

    This Journal talks about the Lithospheric plates and how they have been changing over the life of the Earth.  It also talks about different how you can measure how far an island has moved and how because of that we should be more careful in certian areas of the pacific and where the next one could be.  It talks about the tension build up between plates and how it has shifted the sea floor in some areas and how it did in the Papua New Guinea situation.

7) Bryant, Edward. Natural Hazards. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. <>; <>

This book talks about a lot of different natural hazards, but more specifically ones dealing with predicting earthquakes and volcanoes, and also Earthquakes and tsunamis as hazards.  It also talks about different hazards that might be good to look at such as geological hazards or oceanic hazards and also about some of the social impact of these different natural disasters.   It talks about these in a way such that different oceanic hazards such as underwater earthquakes and land slides can make on and how it might be potentially more dangerous.  It also talks about before and after what the sea floor looks like and how we might be able to see the gradual shift to see how it formed.

 8) Tsunami : The Underrated Hazard. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

This article contains all of the listed chapters in it and goes into detain about each aspect.  1. Introduction -- 2. Tsunami Dynamics -- Pt. II. Tsunami-Formed Landscapes -- 3. Signatures of Tsunami in the Coastal Landscape -- 4. Coastal Landscape Evolution -- Pt. III. Causes of Tsunami, 5. Earthquake-Generated Tsunami -- 6. Great Landslides -- 7. Volcanic Eruptions -- 8. Comets and            Meteorites -- Pt. IV. Modern Risk of Tsunami -- 9. Risk. 

9) Eble, M.C., and González, F.I. (1991). Deep-ocean bottom pressure measurements in the northeast Pacific. J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 8(2), 221–233, Retrieved September 20, 2005 from

This paper discusses bottom pressure measuring mechanisms, and explains that they are suited for oceanographical purposes. It makes mention of quartz-crystal transducers, which are commercially available, and says that these are stable and accurate, though external conditions can affect the accuracy of the transducers. It makes mention also of the use being given to these, which is deep-ocean tsunami detection.  This paper also talks about the different devises needed to measure for different things such as land slides and different happenings that could potentially cause the formation of a tsunami.  It also talks about which ones would be good for this certian landscape and which one would not be. 

10)   USGS CMG InfoBank Atlas: Pacific Ocean regions.

This is a detailed map of the sea morphology of the area in the Pacific that we are looking at.  It has the legend to explain it and it also has different options to view the map.  It also has maps of different regions around the world.

11) The rock islands, palau, micronesia.(2003). Geographical, 75(11), 106.

This article describes the unique environmental aspects of Palau, Micronesia. The forests and many different types of saltwater lakes on these islands are not found anywhere else in the world.

13) Tsunami Scattering and Earthquake faults ib the Deep Pacific Ocean, Harold O. Mofjeld, NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Christina Massell Symons, Peter Lonsdale, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Frank I. González, Vasily V. TitovNOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory. Oceanography Vol. 7, No 1/2004

This article talks about the different tectonic plates in the area and how they have contributed to the different tsunamis in the past decades. It gives information about how fast they move in different waters, and at different depths. It talks about the rise of the outer sea morphology and the way the waves move and end up being more destructive.

12)United Nations Environment Programme. After the Tsunami : Rapid Environmental Assessment. Nairobi: Unep, 2005. <>.

This is a report done by the United Nations on different Tsunami happenings over the past years. It talks about the different aspects of it and how they are trying to make their response better and how they can detect these types of disasters better.

13) Conrad, C. P., and C. Lithgow-Bertelloni. "How Mantle Slabs Drive Plate Tectonics." Science 298.5591 (2002): 207-9.

This Journal gives the dynamics of tectonic plates and how they work. It tells us that they all vary and that they can all be described differently. Also when they shift, how it makes different things happen. It talks about the different forces acting on each body and how they react to the different forces.

14) Building the crust at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Deborah K. Smith, Johnson R. Cann. Nature 365 , 707-715 (21 Oct 1993) Review
This article talks about the build up of crust around the area from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge to about Kane-Atlantis.  It talks about how tectonic plates go under one another or over one another and what happens at the other end.  It talks about how on the other end the molten lava and other stuff go to fill in some of the shifting.  The main area they focus on is that of the mid-atlantic ridge.  This is an area in which the sea floor has changed a lot and stuff has come up from the bottom to fill in the cracks. 

15) Hopkin, M. "Triple Slip of Tectonic Plates Caused Seafloor Surge." Nature 433.7021 (2005): 3.
This article talks about the earthquake that happened on December 26, 2005 and how the sea floor is now practically redrawn and how it has and continues to change.  It also talks about how one plate is moving under another and how much it moves per year.

16) Kubo, T., et al. "Metastable Garnet in Oceanic Crust at the Top of the Lower Mantle." Nature 420.6917 (2002): 803-6.

This article talks a lot about experiments that have been done to see how the crust breaks down and how metastable spinel breaks down under certian pressure.  It also talks about how all of this has to do with the subduction of tectonic plates and how this leads to more earthquakes and more volcanoes to relieve the stress put on at this stage.

17) "A Lesson in Plate Tectonics." Extreme Science 2005

This website talks about Tectonic plates and how they work.  It talks about the dynamics of it and the different aspects of the collisions between them.  It also has pictures of the tectonic plates and shows the interaction between them.  It also has animation of how volcanoes play a role in all of this. 

18)Scaillet, B., and G. Prouteau. "Oceanic Slab Melting and Mantle Metasomatism." Science progress 84.Pt 4 (2001): 335-54.

Modern plate tectonic brings down oceanic crust along subduction zones where it either dehydrates or melts. Those hydrous fluids or melts migrate into the overlying mantle wedge trigerring its melting which produces arc magmas and thus additional continental crust. Nowadays, melting seems to be restricted to cases of young (< 50 Ma) subducted plates. Slab melts are silicic and strongly sodic (trondhjemitic). They are produced at low temperatures (< 1000 degrees C) and under water excess conditions. Their interaction with mantle peridotite produces hydrous metasomatic phases such as amphibole and phlogopite that can be more or less sodium rich. Upon interaction the slab melt becomes less silicic (dacitic to andesitic), and Mg, Ni and Cr richer. Virtually all exposed slab melts display geochemical evidence of ingestion of mantle material. Modern slab melts are thus unlike Archean Trondhjemite-Tonalite-Granodiorite rocks (TTG), which suggests that both types of magmas were generated via different petrogenetic pathways which may imply an Archean tectonic model of crust production different from that of the present-day, subduction-related, one

19) New Model for the Structure of the Ocean Crust. J. R. CANN. Nature 226 , 928-930 (06 Jun 1970) Letters to Editor.

This article talks about the dynamics of the process of mantal comming up to fill in the gaps between the tectonic plates.  Also using the ocean floor spreading/plate tectonics theory as a starting point, examining the implications of this theory for processes taking place at mid-ocean ridge. 

20)Preliminary Report on the Earthquake and Tsunami of 23 June 2001 in Southern Peru.  Dr George P.C. © 2001 George Pararas-Carayannis.

This website talks about a tsunami that hit the southern part of Peru in 2001.  It talks about the seismic activity there and where the main activity took place.  The June 23, 2001 earthquake generated a destructive, local tsunami which struck the coastline, primarily near the epicenter region in southern Peru, approximately 20 minutes after the main earthquake shock. Tsunami waves with runups ranging from10 - 15 feet or more were reported. In some coastal areas, the tsunami waves swept one to two miles inland.

21)  Initial Report on 23 June 2001 Arequipa, Peru Earthquake.

This is the initial report done on the tsunami/earthquake that happened in 2001.  This article talks about the sea floor change and how the a lot of the geography changed.  It also talks about the activity done by the movement of the clashing of tectonic plates.