Last Updated: October 3, 2005
Annotated Bibliography for Mission 2009
Kristin Uhmeyer
Team 5: Earthquake and Tsunami Monitoring

Last Updated: September 23, 2005

  1. National data buoy center - center of excellence in marine technology. (2005). Retrieved Sept 23, 2005 from

This website gives data, updated in real time, from many weather buoys all over the world. The website also has historical archives of weather data over several years. This will be a useful resource to see how different buoys took readings during notable tsunamis.

  1. NOAA. (2005). Retrieved September 23, 2005 from

This website is the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration official website and has lots of information about weather conditions and monitoring devices.

  1. USGS – Current Earthquake Maps. (2005). Retrieved September 23, 2005 from

This website is updated frequently and shows earthquakes from around the world as soon as they occur.

  1. USGS. (2005). Retrieved October 2, 2005 from

This website is the US Geological Survey and has lots of information about earthquakes and earthquake monitoring. It gives information on all recently detected earthquakes, including a recent earthquake in Peru.

  1. Artru, J., Ducic, V., Kanamori, H., Lognonne, P., & Murakami, M. (2005). Ionospheric detection of gravity waves induced by tsunamis. [atmospheres, GPS, ionosphere, tsunamis]. Geophysical Journal International, 160, 840-848. Retrieved September 21, 2005, from the database.

This article talks about a new technique to detect tsunamis using GPS satellites. A tsunami will produce a gravity wave, disturbing the ionosphere’s concentration of electrons above it. This is a characteristic that can be detected by satellites. The technique is analyzed using data gathered from Japan’s GEONET network following the June 2001 Peru tsunami.

  1. Da Silva, J. C. B., New, A. L., & Srokosz, M. (2002). Can internal tidal waves be observed by ocean color satellite sensors? 2002 IEEE international geoscience and remote sensing symposium (IGARSS 2002), jun 24-28 2002, 3 1591-1593.

This article observes the fact that increased levels of near-surface chlorophyll were observed in the central Bay of Biscay, associated with crests of internal ideal waves traveling from the shelf break. This uplifting and change in color on satellite sensors could possibly show the presence of tsunami waves.

  1. Eguchi, T., Fujinawa, Y., Fujita, E., Iwasaki, S., Watabe, I., & Fujiwara, H. (1998). Real-time observation network of ocean-bottom-seismometers deployed at the sagami trough subduction zone, central japan. Marine Geophysical Researches, 20(2), 73-94.

This article describes a networked series of Ocean-Bottom-Seismometers offshore of Japan. This network is capable of detecting tsunami waves on amplitude 1 cm on the ocean floor.

  1. Gonzalez, F. I. (1990). Deep ocean recordings of tsunamis. NIST Special Publication, (796), 53-58.

This article talks about the feasibility of maintaining long-term tsunami monitoring devices, as seen in the Gulf of Alaska for many years.

  1. Gonzalez, F. I., Bernard, E. N., Meinig, C., Eble, M. C., Mofjeld, H. O., & Stalin, S. (2005). The NTHMP tsunameter network. Natural Hazards, 35(1), 25.

This article tells about the Pacific tsunameter network that will improve communications around the globe and enable better detection, warning, and alerts for tsunamis.

  1. Kasahara, J., Shirasaki, Y., & Momma, H. (2000). Multidisciplinary geophysical measurements on the ocean floor using decommissioned submarine cables: VENUS project. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, 25(1), 111-120.

This article describes how one group has used old submarine cables and numerous scientific measuring devices already in place to monitor several deep-sea variables. It is serviced by deep-tow equipment and a ROV.

  1. Kawaguchi, K., Hirata, K., Mikada, H., Kaiho, Y., & Iwase, R. (2000). Expandable deep seafloor monitoring system for earthquake and tsunami observation network. Oceans 2000, sep 11-sep 14 2000, 3 1719-1722.

This article talks about another network of seismographic sensors in Japan, called the Adaptable Observation System. It is designed to be able to extend the observation area. It includes ocean-bottom seismometers and tsunami pressure gauges.

  1. Kondratyev, K. Y., Nakajima, T., Sumi, A., & Tanaka, T. (1998). Priorities of global change and the development of remote sensing in Japan. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19(7), 1259-1282.

This article talks about emerging efforts in “remote sensing” using satellites and their monitoring capabilities with regard to global climate change, global climate cycles, and natural disasters including tsunamis.

  1. Mofjeld, H. O., Gonzalez, F.I., Bernard, E. N., Newman, J.C. (2000). Forecasting the Heights of Later Waves in Pacific-Wide Tsunamis. Natural Hazards, 22, 71-89.

This article uses algorithms to forecast the magnitude and direction of tsunamis approximately four hours after initial occurrence using real-time data from buoy systems. The forecast is modeled as the sum of exponentially decaying wave envelope and varying background water level. The method was applied to data gathered from several past large tsunamis and found to fit the forecasts well. These results are specific to the Pacific ocean.

  1. Momma, H., Kawaguchi, K., & Iwase, R. (1999). New approach for long-term seafloor monitoring and data recovery. Proceedings of the International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, 4, 603-610.

This article talks about the Mobile Seafloor Observatory, which has a Mother Station and Satellite Stations. The Mother Station has several types of instruments including a seismometer and a Tsunami pressure gauge. The device is retrieved once a year to transfer its data.

  1. Momma, H., Fujiwara, N., Kawaguchi, K., Iwase, R., Suzuki, S., & Kinoshita, H. (1997). Monitoring system for submarine earthquakes and deep sea environment. Proceedings of the 1997 oceans conference. part 2 (of 2), oct 6-9 1997, 2 1453-1459.

This article talks about the Comprehensive Seafloor Monitoring System, which also is deployed on the ocean floor with seismometers and tsunami pressure gauges. This system has real-time information transfer to a land station.

  1. Morrissey, W. A. (2005). Tsunamis: Monitoring, detection and early warning systems (CRS Report for Congress No. Order Code RL32739). The Library of Congress: Congressional Research Services. Retrieved September 21, 2005.

This congressional report gives a lot of information about currently proposed methods to detect tsunamis and discusses the pros and cons of different types of detection systems. A large portion of the report is focused on the economic ramifications of certain systems and whether other countries should be allowed free access to US data. Also discussed is the possible need for a warning system on the Atlantic Ocean.

  1. Okal, E. A., Oiatnesi, A., Heinrich, P. (1999). Tsunami detection by satellite altimetry. Journal of Geophysical Research, B. Solid Earth and Planets. 104 (1), 599-615.

This article discusses several tsunamis and their detection by satellite altimetry, showing how some tsunamis could be tracked by specific satellites. However, a number of tsunamis, including several that were larger than their original seismic wave readings predicted, were not detected by the altimetry satellites. As these particular satellites are not fixed-orbit, they may only catch tsunami waves by chance. The 1994 article encourages the promise of satellite detection of tsunamis but asserts that complete detection was not feasible at that point in time.

  1. Global Tsunami Detection and Warning System Act of 2005, HR 499 IH, 109th Congress, 1st Session Cong. (2005). Retrieved September 23, 2005.

This is a report of a congress bill following the Dec 26, 2004 tsunami that increased funding for global tsunami detection and warning systems.

  1. Patzig, R., Shapiro, S., Asch, G., Giese, P., & Wigger, P. Seismogenic Plane of the Northern Andean Subduction Zone from Aftershocks of the Antofagasta (Chile) 1995 Earthquake- American Geophysical Union.

  2. Taft, B., Meinig, C., Bernard, L., Teng, C., Stalin, S., & O'Neil, K. et al. (2003). Transition of the deep-ocean assessment and reporting of tsunamis network - A technology transfer from NOAA research to NOAA operations. Celebrating the past... teaming toward the future, Sep 22-26 2003, 5 2582-2588.

This article talks about the DART system for detecting tsunami waves and talks about the US’s methods for analyzing and distributing the data gathered by the DART buoys