Annotated Bibliography

This website was designed for the class "Making of the Roman Emperor" by Josephine Elia, Erika Erickson, Stephanie Lee and Zoe Yu. The class is taught by Professor William Broadhead. The following annotated bibliography gives a complete list of the sources used to make this website.

1. Kleiner, Diana E. E. Roman Sculpture. London : Yale University Press, 1992.

Diana Kleiner provides various interpretations of each of the statue elements and provides historical explanations for the different views. In addition, Kleiner compares the statue of Augustus at Prima Porta to other Augustan era statues and gives reference to possible dates through analysis of statue characteristics.

2. Ramage, Nancy. H. Roman Art, 4th ed. Pearson Prentice Hall: 2005, p. 111-112.

Ramage gives the descriptions of the parts of the statue. They are consistent with the descriptions of Kleiner and are found to be trustworthy.

3. Galinsky, Karl. Augustan Culture. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1996.

Galinsky gives a detailed description of the statue. Furthermore, there is a good amount of discussion on the historical events that link closely to the construction of the statue. This is an extremely useful source because it puts the statue in the social, historical, and artistic context of the time.

4. Morford, Mark. “Augustus: Images of Power.” University of Virginia Classics Department. 1995. <>. Accessed October 2005

Mark Morford gives a brief history and description of the Statue of Augustus at Prima Porta, including traditionally accepted interpretations of the statue elements. The primary focus of the etext document is on the major components of the statue: the breastplate, the hair, cupid, and the stance of Augustus, though small pieces of additional trivia are provided. Coins depicting the same topic as the cuirass, the return of the Parthian standards are described shortly at the end of the document.

5. Reeder, Jane Clark. “The Statue of Augustus from Prima Porta, the Underground Complex, and the Omen of the Gallina Alba.” American Journal of Philology 118.1 (1997) 89-118.

Jane Clark Reeder offers an argument of untraditional interpretation of the statue at Prima Porta. The primary argument is that of determining the statue's original location. In the midst of this argument, Reeder also focuses on the cuirass and the hands of the statue, using these two aspects to solidify her theory of the placement. This article, originally found in the Journal of Philology is disorganized and seems to challenge every other interpretation of the statue for the purpose of doing so, not because strong evidence supports these claims.

6. Klynne, Allan, and Peter Liljenstolpe. “Augustus of Prima Porta.” Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala University . 2000. <> Accessed October 2005.

This website, part of the Uppsala University Archaeology Department, gives a brief summary of the attractions at the Villa of Livia outside of Rome . Included in this summary is the Augustus of Prima Porta. Klynne and Liljenstolpe tell of when the statue was discovered and where it is currently displayed. Various interpretations are given concerning the cuirass and hands, especially since the right hand was never recovered and restored specifically to look as though Augustus was giving an address.

7. Klynne, Allan, and Peter Liljenstolpe. “Where to Put Augustus? A Note on the Placement of the Prima Porta Statue.” American Journal of Philology 121.1 (2000) 121-128.

Klynne and Liljenstolpe offer contradictory evidence to the Reeder article, essentially refuting each major point of Reeder's argument in turn. Appraising each source of evidence, both for their article and for Reeders, this article seems more convincing.

8. Strong, Eugenie Sellers. Roman Sculpture: From Augustus to Constantine. New York : Arno Press, 1969.

Strong highlights the manifestation of Roman art as medium to communicate messages of victory, national prosperity and peace. In the interpretation of the breastplate for example, Strong shifts the focus from analyzing who the figures represent, to the message of peace and beauty that the figures deliver to the viewer.

9. Farber, Allen. “Roman Power and Roman Imperial Sculpture.” SUNY Oneonta Art History Department. 2005. <>. Accessed October 2005.

This website gives a summary of messages conveyed by art of the Roman empire , including the statue of Augustus at Primaporta. The purpose of the site is to generate conversation for Dr. Farber's art history course at SUNY Oneonta. Most things are sited, but the purpose of the site should be kept in mind.

10. Cooley, M. The Age of Augustus. LACTORS, 2003.

This is a collection of primary documents from the Augustan period. It gives a good background of the historical events that occurred under Augustus. In the back of the book, there are useful charts of family lineages and timetables.

11. Muller,V. “The Date of Augustus from Prima Porta.” The American Journal of Philology , Vol. 62, No. 4. (1941), pp. 496-499.

This article argues about the production date of the present statue of Augustus from Prima Porta. Evidence suggests that the statue is probably a late replica of an earlier statue.

12. Hopkins, Edward. "" (2005).<> Accessed October 2005.

This website provides a brief introduction to the Parthian Empire. It also displays a collection of Parthian and later Roman coins. The coins provide additional evidence to the time of Parthian defeat.

13. Plutarch. "The Parallel Lives: Life of Crassus." Loeb Classical Library, 1916.*.html

Ancient historian, Plutarch, recounts the horrific Roman losses to the Parthian under Crassus' leadership.

14. "Roma 2002." Accessed October 2005.

This is the Vatican Museum website. It states the current possession of the statue.

home - updated 10.2005 - bibliography