- Designing Shape Memory Alloy Springs For Linear Actuators - A paper from the Texas A&M Mechanical Engineering Department by Christopher G. Stevens. This report discusses the various engineering calculations necessary to design shape memory alloy springs for linear actuators. The report also provides a brief background on the material and mechanical properties of shape memory alloys and focuses on Nitinol wire. The analysis uses a linear extrapolation of published Nitinol wire force versus wire diameter data. There is also a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet in the Appendix, a spring designer can quickly calculate all of the engineering parameters necessary to design a Nitinol wire spring for use in a particular actuator design.
- Biocompatibility evaluation of nickel-titanium shape memory metal alloy - A very complete by Jorma Ryhänen focusing on Nitinol's mechanical properties of shape memory and superelasticity. Then suggesting its use in surgery for self-locking, self-expanding and self-compressing implants. The purpose of the is to determine if NiTi is a safe material for surgical implant applications. There is a chapter on Fundamental characteristics of nickel-titanium shape memory alloy which is a good review of the NiTi mechanical properties.
- SMA Paper - A paper by Darel E. Hodgson, Shape Memory Applications, Inc., Ming H. Wu, Memry Technologies, and Robert J. Biermann, Harrison Alloys, Inc. discussing several different SMA materials including NiTi and CuZn. The paper gives some background history, general characteristics, specific material properties and possible applications.
- Nitinol Technology page - A very useful link from the Nitinol Devices and Components web site.
- The SMA List - A database of researchers associated with shape memory alloys.
- Dynalloy Corporation - Dynalloy, Inc. is a manufacturer of shape memory alloys specially made to be used as actuators. In other words made to provide movement much like a solenoid or motor would for many many cycles. Dynalloy, Inc. manufactures these nickel titanium alloys as small wires under the trade name of Flexinol to differentiate them from other shape memory alloys which do not have these same properties. Flexinol actuator wires contract much like little muscles a distance of approximately 4-5% when they are "on" and relax when they are "off".
- SMA Inc. - Shape Memory Applications Inc. is located in San Jose, CA. They are a manufacturer of a range of nitinol products from wires, tubes, sheets and stents.
- Memry Corp. - Memry Corporation sells numerous nitinol products. Check their website for more information.
- Shape Memory Alloy Database - A site that provides information about 18 companies that supply SMA products.
- Fact Sheet - Louis Braille - An interesting page about Louis Braille.
- Background - An article from the Library of Congress about the Braille system
- Braille: History, Use and Current Research - A very good site with numerous links and articles about Braille.
- How Braille Began - A complete site about the history of Braille.
Manufacturers of Refreshable Braille Displays