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Plasma Cutting

Handouts for 3.37 Welding and Joining Processes

INTRODUCTION

1. "Processes of Joining Materials", by T.W. Eagar, p. 1-47.

2. "Challenges in Joining Emerging Materials," T.W. Eagar, in Proc. of Advances in Joining Newer Structural Materials, Proceedings, International Conference, Montreal, Canada; 23 - 25 July 1990, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 3 - 14.

3."Classification of Welding Processes," by P.T. Houldcroft, Welding Process Technology, Cambridge, University Press, 1977, p. 6.

4. "The Physics and Chemistry of Welding Processes," T.W. Eagar, Advances in Welding Science & Technology, S.A. David, ed., ASM International, Metals Park, OH, 291 - 298, 1986.

FUNDAMENTALS OF BONDING

5. W. P. Gilbreath, "Definition and Evaluation of Parameters that Influence the Adhesion of Metals," Adhesion or Cold Welding of Materials in Space Environments, ASTM STP 431, 1967, p. 128-141.

6. Figure 1 from "Adhesion or Cold Welding of Materials in Space Environments," ASTM STP 431,1967, p. 105.

7. Surfaces and Interfaces (Table 5.1), 183.

8. "Surface Tension Values as Obtained by Different Methods," by Arthur W. Adamson, Physical Chemistrv of Surfaces, 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 1976, p. 38-39.

9. Diagram - Contact Area During Cold Welding, Figures la and 1b.

COLD WELDING

10. "Investigations on Pressure Welding," by R.F. Tylecote, British Welding Journal, March 1954

11. "Mechanism of Solid State Pressure Welding," by H.A. Mohamed and J. Washbum, Welding Research Supplement, Sept. 1975, p. 308s-309s.

12. Figure 13.23 from "Cold welding of wire with an offset flash technique," by Ahmed R. Suitack, Solid State Technology:, Nov. 1975, p. 413.

ADHESIVE BONDING

13. "Sorting Out Structural Adhesives," by Michelle M. Gauthier, Advanced Materials & Processes, July 1990, p. 26-35.

14. "Influence of Constitution on Adhesion" (Chapt. 3), by W .A. Zisman, p. 33-65.

15. "Adherend Preparation: Surface Preparation of Metals," by H.M. Clearfield, et al. in Engineered Materials Handbook, p. 259-264.

16. "Physical Interactions Affecting The Adhesion of Dry Particles," by D.S. Rimai and L. P. DeMejo, Annual Review of Materials Science. 1996,26:21-41.

MICROJOINING

17. "Chip-To-Package Interconnections" (Chapt. 6), by N.G. Koopman, T.C. Reiley, and P.A. Totta, p. 361-453.

DIFFUSION BONDING

18. "Diffusion Welding and Brazing: Fundamentals of the Processes," Diffusion Welding and Bonding, p. 312-315.

19. "Diffusion Bonding Stainless Steel to Alumina Using Aluminum Interlayers," M.G. Nicholas and R.M. Crispin, J. of Materials Science, 11, 1982, p.3347.

20. "TLP Bonding: A New Method for Joining Heat Resistant Alloys," D.S. Duvall, W.A. Owczarski and D.F. Paulonis, Welding Journal, April 1974, p. 203-214.

SOLDERING & BRAZING

21. "Soldering Technology - a decade of developments," by C.J. Thwaites, International Metals Reviews, 1984, Vol. 29, No,2, p. 45-74.

22A. "Typical Chemical Composition Limits of Lead-Tin Solders," T. W. Eagar, 1998.
22B. Solders and Soldering, by Howard H. Manko, McGraw-Hill, 1979. p.68 and figures 3.1, 19.1 & 8.5
22C. Brazing: Manual, 3rd Edition, Revised, P. 62, AWS, 1976.
22D. Brazing Manual, 3rd Edition, Revised, P. 58, AWS, 1976.
22E. Brazing Manual, 3rd Edition, Revised, P. 15, AWS, 1976.
22F. Brazing. Chapt. 4 "Joint Design", p. 404, 410-411.
22G. Schematic tests-l page, 5 figures.
22H. Solders and Soldering, by Howard H. Manko, McGraw-Hi11, 1979, p. 28, 129 (tables 4-2 and 8-2).
22I. Capillary Joining -Brazing and Soft-Soldering. by C.J. Thwaites, Research Studies Press, 1982, p. 97 & 100.

23. Contact Strengthening - Figures 7 & 8

HEAT SOURCES FOR FUSION WELDING

24. "Energy Sources Used for Fusion Welding," ASM Handbook: Welding. Brazing. and Soldering, Vol. 6, by T.W. Eagar, 1993, p. 3-6.

FLAMES

25. "Characteristics of Fuel Gases," Welding Handbook, Volume 2, 7th Edition, AWS, 1978, p. 336-337.

26. "Heat Transfer From Flames Impinging on Flat and Cylindrical Surfaces," by J. E. Anderson and E. F. Stresino, Journal of Heat Transfer. February 1963, pp. 49-54.

27. "The Iron-Oxygen Combustion Process: A Study Related To Oxygen Cutting," by A.A. Wells, British Welding Journal, Sept. 1955, p. 392-400.

ELECTRIC ARCS

28. "Analysis of Electrode Phenomena in the High-Current Arc," by J.D. Cobine and E.E. Burger, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 26, No.7, July 1955, p. 895-900.

29. Arc Physics, Volume 8, Applied Physics and Engineering, by Max Hoyaux, Springer-Verlag, NY 1968, p. 2.

GAS METAL ARC WELDING

30. "Metal Transfer in Gas-Shielded Arc Welding," C. J. Cooksey, D.R. Muener.

LASERS AND ELECTRON BEAMS

31. "High Power Density Welding" (Chapt. 8), by M.B.C. Quigley, Physics of Welding, p. 268-290.

32. "CO2 Laser Materials Processing," C. M. Banas, United Technologies, 1-12.

HEAT FLOW AND TRANSFER

33. "Heat Flow During Welding," by T.W. Eagar, 2 pages, handwritten.

34. "Distribution of Temperatures in Arc, Welding," by N. Christensen, V. de L. Davies and K. Gjermundsen, British Welding Journal. Feb. 1965, p. 54- 74.

35. "Heat Flow to the Workpiece from a TIG Welding Arc," by MBC Quigley, et. al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., Vol. 6, 1973, p. 2250-2258.

36. "Influence of Arc Pressure on Weld Pool Geometry," M.L. Lin and T.W. Eagar, Welding J., 64(6), 163s, 1985.

37. "Convection in Arc Weld Pools," G.M. Oreper, T.W. Eagar, and J. Szekely, Welding J., 62(11), 307, 1983.

RESISTANCE WELDING

38. "Resistance Welding: A Fast, Inexpensive and Deceptively Simple Process," T.W. Eagar, in International Trends in Welding Science and Technology, S.A. David and J.M. Vitek, eds., ASM International, Materials Park,OH, 347, 1992.

POST-WELDING

39. "Embrittlement of Welds" H. D. Solomon, in Treatise on Materials Science and Technology, vol. 25.

WELDING SAFETY AND HEALTH

40. "Welding" (Chapt. 42), by W .S. Beckett, Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Disease. p. 704- 717.


Handouts for 3.371 Fabrication Technology

MATERIALS SELECTION AND DESIGN

1. "Chapter 2: The Price and Availability of Materials," Engineering Materials I- An Introduction to their Properties and Applications, by M. Ashby and D. Jones, Pergamon Press, Oxford, U.K., 1980, pp.13-21.

2. "Fig. 1.1: The evolution of engineering materials," "Fig. 6.41: The selection of cheap, stiff materials for the structural frames of buildings," "Fig. 6.42: The selection of cheap, strong materialsfor the structural frames of buildings," Materials Selection in Mechanical Design, by M. Ashby, Pergamon Press, Oxford, U.K., 1992, p.3, 129, 130.

3. "C4- The Materials Selection Charts, No.1-7, " Materials Selection in Mechanical Design -Materials and Process Selection Charts, by M. Ashby, Pergamon Press, Oxford, U.K., 1992, pp.6-19.

4. "Magnesium Automotive Applications," K. Johnson, Advanced Materials & Processes, June 2002, p. 62-65.

5. "Magnesium," Fire Protection Handbook, A.E. Cote, ed., vol. 2, 19th ed., pg. 8-234.

FAILURE ANALYSIS AND FRACTURE MECHANICS

6. "Failure Analysis and Fracture Mechanics," Metals Handbook Volume 11 - Failure Analysis and Prevention, ASM International, 9th Ed., 1986, by D. Broek, FractuREsearch, Inc., pp.47-64.

7. "Fig. 18: Schematic of marks on surfaces of fatigue fractures...," Metals Handbook Volume 11 -Failure Analysis and Prevention, ASM International,9th Ed., 1986, by S. Antolovich & A. Saxena, Georgia Institute of Technology, p.111.

8. "Fig. 21: Effect of stress raisers on stress concentration..., " Metals Handbook Volume 11- Failure Analysis and Prevention, ASM International, 9th Ed., 1986, by S. Antolovich & A. Saxena, Georgia Institute of Technology, p.113.

METALS PROCESSING

9. "Chapter 7: The revolution of necessity" (partial), Out Of The Fiery Furnace: The Impact of Metals on the History of Mankind, by R. Raymond, The Pennsylvania State University Press, Univ. Park, PA, 1986, pp. 145-150.

10. "Steel Processing Technology," Metals Handbook Volume 1 - Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High-Performance Alloys, ASM International, loth Ed., 1990, by R. Guthrie & J. Jonas, McGill Metals Processing Center, McGil1 University, pp.107-125.

11. "Chapter 20, Section 1: Production of Semi-Finished Steel By Ingot Casting and Rolling," The Making, Shaping, and Treating of Steel, 10th Ed., United States Steel (USS), Publ. by the Association of Iron and Steel Engineers (AISE), 1985, pp.691-701.

12. "Classification of Processes and Flow Charts of Foundry Operations," Metals Handbook Volume 15- Casting, ASM International, 9th Ed., by T. Piwonka, University of Alabama, pp.203-207.

13. "Open-DieForging," Metals Handbook Volume 14- Forming and Forging, ASM International, 9th Ed., 1988, by A. Khare, National Forge Company, pp.61-74.

14. "Chapter 39: Manufacture of Heavy Press Forgings," The Making, Shaping, and Treating of Steel, 10th Ed., United States Steel (USS), Publ. by the Association of Iron and Steel Engineers (AISE), 1985, pp.1191-1204.

WELDABILITY

15. "Introduction to the Selection of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels," ASM Handbook, Vol. 6: Welding. Brazing. and Soldering:, B. Somers, ASM International, 1993, pp. 405-407.

16. "Influence of Welding on Steel Weldment Soundness," ASM Handbook, Vol. 6: Welding, Brazing, and Soldering, A. Lesnewich, ASM International, 1993, pp. 408-415.

17. "Influence of Welding on Steel Weldment Properties," ASM Handbook, Vol. 6: Welding, Brazing, and Soldering, C.C. Chen & A. Pollack, ASM International, 1993, pp. 416-428.

18. "Selection of Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steels," ASM Handbook, Vol. 6: Welding, Brazing, and Soldering, J. Brooks & J. Lippold, ASM International, 1993, pp. 456-470.

19. "Selection and Weldability of Conventional Titanium Alloys," ASM Handbook, Vol. 6: Welding, Brazing, and Soldering, W. Baeslack, J. Davis, & C. Cross, ASM International, 1993, pp. 507-523.

20. "Selection and Weldability of Heat- Treatable Aluminum Alloys," ASM Handbook, Vol. 6: Welding, Brazing, and Soldering, R. Martukanitz, ASM International, 1993, pp. 528-536.

21. "Selection and Weldability of Non-Heat- Treatable Aluminum Alloys," ASM Handbook, Vol. 6: Welding. Brazing. and Soldering, C. Cross & M. Kohn, ASM International, 1993, pp. 537-540.

22. "Welding Metallurgy of Nonferrous High- Temperature Materials," ASM Handbook, Vol. 6: Welding, Brazing, and Soldering, R. Thompson, ASM International, 1993, pp. 566-571.

23. "Selection of Nickel, Nickel-Copper, Nickel-Chromium, and Nickel-Chromium-Iron Alloys," ASM Handbook, Vol. 6: Welding, Brazing, and Soldering, D. Tillack, ASM International, 1993, pp. 586-592.

NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING

24. Nondestructive Testing: Radiography, Ultrasonics, Liquid Penetrant, Magnetic Particle, Eddy Current, by L. Cartz, ASM International, 1995, Pages including:
p. 3 Table 1.1
pp. 5 Table 1.2
pp. 9-10 Table 1.6
pp. 16-21 Chapter 2 Radiography
pp. 24-34 " "
pp. 45-47 " "
pp. 61-62 " "
pp. 81-86 Chapter 3 Ultrasonic Testing
pp. 90-93 " "
pp. 102-103 " "
pp. 127-131 Chapter 4 Liquid Penetrant Inspection
p. 137 " "
pp. 141-145 Chapter 5 Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI)
p. 154 " "
pp. 164-165 " "
pp. 167-170 Appendix 5.1 : Indication Tenns and Magnetic Property Definitions
pp. 173-176 Chapter 6 Eddy Current Testing