2-The Vocabulary of Islamic Religious Architecture
Islamic Architecture: Is taken today to mean the architecture built by or for Muslims, or that built in Islamic lands or under Islamic government, a large corpus indeed.
Formal Typology of the Mosque:
1: The Hypostyle Mosque: Mosque in which the prayer hall is formed of rows of vertical supports, or columns, that can multiply indefinitely. Dominant type in the early period.
2: The Iwan Mosque: Mosque in which the prayer hall is an iwan, or more, up to four iwans, surrounding a courtyard. It was the most popular type in the medieval period, and remained dominant in Iran.
3: The Central-Dome Mosque: Mosque in which the prayer hall's space is dominated by a central dome surrounded by smaller and lower semi-domes. It was introduced by the Ottomans in the 15th century.
Functional Typology of Religious Structures
- Structures for prayer:
- neighborhood mosque (masjid).
- congregational mosque (jami‘, or masjid jami‘).
- prayer enclosure(musalla or namaz-gah).
- Structures for religious education
- Qur‘anic school for children (kuttab)
- religious college (madrasa).
- Monastic structures:
- monastic fortress (ribat).
- urban Sufi lodge (khanqah) and/or (takiyya or tekke).
- retreat for a famous sheikh (zawiyya).
- Memorial structures:
- saint (wali) tomb or reliquary(maqam or mazar).
- memorial of a vision (mashhad).
- mausoleum (qubba or turba) with charitable functions attached.
-funerary garden or enclosure (rawd).