Photo1 7.012 Indtroductory Biology
 

Study Materials

 

 

 

Below are problem sets and exams from the last two terms of 7.012 - Fall 04 and Fall 05, to aid you in your studying.

In addition, below is a LIST OF LINKS for each day of lecture.  These links allow you to explore the topics from each lecture by:

-- viewing photographs and movies,

-- watching animations,

-- reading about famous scientists,

-- researching diseases,

-- and reading about bioethical issues

that will expand your knowledge and appreciation for the subjects at hand.

 

  
Problem Sets, 2005
Exams, 2005
2005 PS 1 2005 PS 1 ans
2005 PS 2 2005 PS 2 ans
2005 PS 3 2005 PS 3 ans
2005 PS 4 2005 PS 4 ans  
2005 PS 5 2005 PS 5 ans
2005 PS 6 2005 PS 6 ans  
Problem Sets, 2004
Exams, 2004
2004 PS 1 2004 PS 1 ans
2004 PS 2 2004 PS 2 ans
2004 PS 3 2004 PS 3 ans
2004 PS 4 2004 PS 4 ans  
2004 PS 5 2004 PS 5 ans
2004 PS 6 2004 PS 6 ans  
2004 PS 7 2004 PS 7 ans  
LIST OF LINKS
  Day of Lecture                                                                Useful Links
Introduction

-- A list of careers in biology

-- Eric Lander

-- Bob Weinberg

Biochemistry 1

-- Types of bonds: website #1

    and website #2

-- Pictures of micelles and lipid bilayers

-- The structure of a membrane

-- An animation of a cell membrane

-- The chirality game

-- Information on carbohydrates

-- Geckos and van der Waals forces

Biochemistry 2

-- The four levels of protein structure

-- Linus Pauling (discovered the alpha helix)

-- A transmembrane protein's structure

Structures of three different enzymes bound to three different substrates:

       -- camphor

       -- glucose

       -- hydrogen peroxide

Biochemistry 3

-- Enzymes and chemical reactions:

       website #1 and  website #2

-- Glycolysis: website #1 and

      website #2

Biochemistry 4

-- Watson and Crick (discovered the structure of DNA)

-- Erwin Chargaff (discovered Chargaff's rule) and a video of him

-- Rosalind Franklin (did X-ray crystallography on DNA)

-- Rosalind Franklin's photo of DNA

-- An animation of DNA structure

Genetics 1

-- Genetics Glossary

-- MendelWeb

-- A photo of Mendel's garden

-- A biography of Mendel

-- A photo of the pea Pisum sativum

-- Do a virtual pea breeding

Genetics 2

-- Animations of mitosis and meiosis

-- A video of mitosis

-- Sturtevant and Morgan (makers of the first genetic map)

-- The genetic map of the onion

-- A photograph of crossing over

-- A photograph of the X and Y      

        chromosomes

-- A photograph of chromosomes in 

     one cell from a human female

-- A game for mitosis and meiosis

Genetics 3

-- Archibald Garrod (studied alkaptonuria)

-- Information about alkaptonuria

-- How to draw pedigrees

Genetics 4

-- A movie of budding yeast

-- Two photos of budding yeast:

          image #1 , image #2

-- A photo of yeast colonies

-- Beadle and Tatum (discovered the arg pathway)

-- The life cycle of budding yeast

-- Photos of different media in Petri plates

-- Photos of equipment for replica plating

Molecular Biology 1

-- Oswald Avery (discovered that DNA is the transforming principle)

-- Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase (discovered that DNA is the hereditary material)

-- Two photos of bacteriophage: 

        image #1 and image #2

-- A photo of phage infecting a bacterium

-- An animation of the Hershey-Chase

       experiment

-- Rosalind Franklin

-- Watson and Crick

-- The structure of DNA

Molecular Biology 2

-- An animation of DNA replication

-- Another animation of replication

-- Matthew Meselson and Franklin Stahl (discovered DNA replication is semi-conservative )

-- An animation of the Meselson-Stahl

          experiment

-- A timeline of the molecular      

        biology revolution

-- The Central Dogma, explained by 

          Francis Crick in 1970

Molecular Biology 3

-- An animation of transcription

-- Another animation of  

         transcription

-- Phil Sharp (discovered splicing)

Molecular Biology 4

-- A picture of tRNA

-- An animation of translation

-- Another animation of translation

-- Gobind Khorana (discovered the genetic code)

-- Translation - an interpretive dance from the 1970s

-- The structure of the ribosome

Gene Regulation
-- An animation of chromatin structure
Recombinant DNA 1

-- A picture of EcoR1 bound to DNA

-- A photo of E. coli colonies

Animations of:

-- Restriction Enzymes

-- Gel electrophoresis

-- Transformation

-- More animations for recombinant

     DNA technology

Recombinant DNA 2

-- An animation of PCR

-- An animation of primers hybridizing to DNA (click on "Hybridization")

-- Kary Mullis (discovered PCR)

-- A photo of where Taq comes from

Recombinant DNA 3

-- Frederick Sanger (discovered DNA sequencing)

-- An animation of DNA sequencing

-- GenBank (a database of all known DNA sequences)

-- BLAST (a program to compare sequences)

Recombinant DNA 4

-- Ethics of genetically modified food

-- A photo of a transgenic mouse, compared to wild-type (on the right)

-- A photo of a transgenic plant

              (Golden Rice)

-- Another photo of a transgenic plant

            (glowing tobacco)

Cell Biology

-- Two photos of E. coli:

      image #1 and image #2

-- A photo of archaea

-- Gunter Blobel (researched the sub-cellular localization of proteins)

-- The organelles of a eukaryotic cell

-- A photo of the cytoskeleton

(using GFP)

-- Prokaryotic vs eukaryotic cells:

       image #1 and image #2

Development 1

-- A movie of fertilization

-- A photo of fertilization

-- The antennapedia mutant of Drosophila, compared to wild-type (on the left)

-- A photo of the worm C. elegans

-- A movie of C. elegans crawling

-- A photo of zebrafish

-- A photo of species of the frog Xenopus

-- A photo of the fly Drosophila

Development 2

Movies of development of:

-- C. elegans

-- Drosophila

-- Zebrafish

-- Xenopus

GFP fusion proteins expressed in:

-- C. elegans (glowing pharynx)

-- Mouse (glowing eyes and ears)

-- Zebrafish embryos (glowing eyes)

-- Drosophila (glowing wings)

Cancer 1

-- An animation of How Cancer Grows

-- Another animation of tumor growth

-- A photo of a liver tumor

-- Photos of brain and breast tumors

Cancer 2

-- A photo of telomeres

-- The chromosomal make-up of a tumor cell (called a "karyotype")

Viruses
-- Photos of all different viruses
Neurobiology 1

-- A photo of Nodes of Ranvier

-- A photo of a myelin sheath

-- Two photos of neurons:

       image #1 and image #2

-- A photo of the dendrites of a neuron

-- The structure of an ion channel

-- Information about multiple sclerosis

Neurobiology 2

-- Two schematics of the events at a synapse: image #1 and image #2

-- Three photos of neuromuscular junctions: image #1 , image #2 , and    

                image #3

-- Two photos of synapses: image #1 and

                image #2

-- An animation of events at a synapse

Neurobiology 3

-- Schematic of the knee jerk reflex

-- The sea slug Aplysia

-- Eric Kandel (researched Aplysia)

Immunology 1

-- A photo of B and T cells

-- A picture of an antibody

-- A photo of blood cells

Immunology 2

-- Two photos of macrophages:

          image #1 and image #2

-- A movie of a macrophage crawling

-- Information on myeloma

-- A schematic of VDJ recombination

-- Susumu Tonegawa (discovered VDJ)

-- An animation of a T cell receptor

AIDS

-- Harold Varmus (named HIV)

-- A schematic of the HIV virus

-- Two photos of HIV viruses:

          image #1 and image #2

-- Two schematics of viral life cycles:

         schematic #1 and schematic #2

-- Two photos of new HIV particles budding off a host cell:

         image #1 and image #2

-- An animation of the HIV life cycle

-- David Baltimore (discovered Reverse Transcriptase)

Stem Cells and Cloning 1

-- Guidelines for working with stem cells

-- A photo of an asymmetric cell division

-- A photo of a blastocyst with ICM

-- An animation: how ES cells are made

Stem Cells and Cloning 2

-- Ian Wilmut (cloned Dolly the sheep)

-- A schematic comparing reproductive

       cloning and therapeutic cloning

-- A photo of a chimeric mouse

-- A movie of a scientist performing pig cloning (Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer)

Molecular Evolution

-- Charles Darwin (theorized on natural selection)

-- A phylogenetic tree

-- The Tree of Life Web Project

Molecular Medicine 1

-- A photo of the

           Philadelphia chromosome

-- Information on CML

-- An animation/video of Gleevec and its  

          discoverer Brian Drucker

Molecular Medicine 2
-- Michael Brown and Joseph Goldstein (studied cholesterol and LDL)