bacteria 7.012 Indtroductory Biology


Study Materials




Below are problem sets and exams from the last term of 7.012 (fall 2006), to aid you in your studying. Links to past 7.013 problem sets and exams are also included below.   The 7.013 problem sets and exams during spring 2007 will resemble the 7.012 problem sets from fall 2006 quite closely, especially in terms of format and the kinds of questions asked.  Therefore the 2006 7.012 problem sets and exams are the best resource for you to get a sense of what the 7.013 problem sets and exams will look like.

7.013 2004 problem sets are available here.

7.013 2005 problem sets are available here.

7.013 2005 exams are available here.

In addition, below is a LIST OF LINKS for each day of lecture.  These links allow you to explore the topics from each lecture by:
-- viewing photographs and movies,
-- watching animations,
-- reading about famous scientists,
-- researching diseases,
-- and reading about bioethical issues
These will expand your knowledge and appreciation for the subjects at hand.


 7.012 Materials, Fall 2006

 List of Links
  Day of Lecture  Useful Links
-- A list of careers in biology
-- Charles Darwin (theorized on natural selection)
-- A phylogenetic tree
-- The Tree of Life Web Project
Cell Biology
-- A photo of E. coli: image #1
-- A photo of archaea
-- Gunter Blobel (researched the sub-cellular localization of proteins)
-- The organelles of a eukaryotic cell
-- A photo of the cytoskeleton (using GFP)
-- Prokaryotic vs eukaryotic cells: image #1 and image #2
Biochemistry 1
-- Types of bonds: website #1 and website #2
-- Pictures of micelles and lipid bilayers
-- The structure of a membrane
-- An animation of a cell membrane
-- The chirality game
-- Information on carbohydrates
-- Geckos and van der Waals forces
Biochemistry 2
-- The four levels of protein structure
-- Linus Pauling (discovered the alpha helix)
-- A transmembrane protein's structure
-- Structures of three different enzymes bound to three different substrates:
       -- camphor
       -- glucose
       -- hydrogen peroxide
Biochemistry 3
-- Watson and Crick (discovered the structure of DNA)
-- Erwin Chargaff (discovered Chargaff's rule) and a video of him
-- Rosalind Franklin (did X-ray crystallography on DNA)
-- Rosalind Franklin's photo of DNA
-- An animation of DNA structure
Genetics 1
-- Genetics Glossary
-- MendelWeb
-- A photo of Mendel's garden
-- A biography of Mendel
-- A photo of the pea Pisum sativum
-- Do a virtual pea breeding
Genetics 2
-- Animations of mitosis and meiosis
-- A video of mitosis
-- Sturtevant and Morgan (makers of the first genetic map)
-- The genetic map of the onion
-- A photograph of crossing over
-- A photograph of chromosomes in one cell from a human female
-- A game for mitosis and meiosis
Genetics 3
-- Archibald Garrod (studied alkaptonuria)
-- Information about alkaptonuria
-- How to draw pedigrees
Genetics 4
-- A movie of budding yeast
-- A photo of budding yeast: image #1
-- A photo of yeast colonies
-- Beadle and Tatum (discovered the arg pathway)
-- The life cycle of budding yeast
-- Photos of different media in Petri plates
-- Photos of equipment for replica plating
Molecular Biology 1
-- Oswald Avery (discovered that DNA is the transforming principle)
-- Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase (discovered that DNA is the hereditary material)
-- A photo of bacteriophage: image #1
-- A photo of phage infecting a bacterium
-- An animation of the Hershey-Chase experiment
-- Rosalind Franklin
-- Watson and Crick
-- The structure of DNA
Molecular Biology 2
-- An animation of DNA replication
-- Another animation of replication
-- Matthew Meselson and Franklin Stahl (discovered DNA replication is semi-conservative )
-- An animation of the Meselson-Stahl experiment
-- A timeline of the molecular biology revolution
-- The Central Dogma, explained by Francis Crick in 1970
Molecular Biology 3
-- An animation of transcription
-- Another animation of transcription
-- Phil Sharp (discovered splicing)
-- A picture of tRNA
-- An animation of translation
-- Another animation of translation
-- Gobind Khorana (discovered the genetic code)
-- Translation - an interpretive dance from the 1970s
-- The structure of the ribosome
Recombinant DNA 1
-- A picture of EcoR1 bound to DNA
-- A photo of E. coli colonies
-- Animations of:
-- Restriction Enzymes
-- Gel electrophoresis
-- Transformation
-- More animations for recombinant
     DNA technology
Recombinant DNA 2
-- An animation of PCR
-- An animation of primers hybridizing to DNA (click on "Hybridization")
-- Kary Mullis (discovered PCR)
-- A photo of where Taq comes from
Recombinant DNA 3
-- Ethics of genetically modified food
-- A photo of a transgenic mouse, compared to wild-type (on the right)
-- A photo of a transgenic plant: (Golden Rice)
-- Another photo of a transgenic plant: (glowing tobacco)
-- Frederick Sanger (discovered DNA sequencing)
-- An animation of DNA sequencing
-- GenBank (a database of all known DNA sequences)
-- BLAST (a program to compare sequences)
Cell Biology
Development 1
-- A movie of fertilization
-- A photo of fertilization
-- The antennapedia mutant of Drosophila, compared to wild-type (on the left)
-- A photo of the worm C. elegans
-- A photo of zebrafish
-- A photo of species of the frog Xenopus
Development 2
Movies of development of:
-- C. elegans
-- Zebrafish
-- Xenopus
GFP fusion proteins expressed in:
-- C. elegans (glowing pharynx)
-- Mouse (glowing eyes and ears)
-- Zebrafish embryos (glowing eyes)
-- Drosophila (glowing wings)
Stem Cells and Cloning 1
-- Guidelines for working with stem cells
-- A photo of an asymmetric cell division
-- A photo of a blastocyst with ICM
-- An animation of How ES Cells are Made
Stem Cells and Cloning 2
-- Ian Wilmut (cloned Dolly the sheep)
-- A photo of a chimeric mouse
-- A movie of a scientist performing pig cloning (Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer)
Neurobiology 1
-- A photo of Nodes of Ranvier
-- A photo of a myelin sheath
-- Two photos of neurons: image #1 and image #2
-- A photo of the dendrites of a neuron
-- The structure of an ion channel
-- Information about multiple sclerosis
Neurobiology 2
-- Two schematics of the events at a synapse: image #1 and image #2
-- Three photos of neuromuscular junctions: image #1 , image #2 , and image #3
-- A photo of a synapse: image #1
-- An animation of events at a synapse
Neurobiology 3
-- Schematic of the knee jerk reflex
-- The sea slug Aplysia
-- Eric Kandel (researched Aplysia)
Cancer 1
-- An animation of How Cancer Grows
-- Another animation of tumor growth
-- A photo of a liver tumor
-- Photos of brain and breast tumors
Cancer 2
-- A photo of telomeres
-- The chromosomal make-up of a tumor cell (called a "karyotype")
-- A photo of the Philadelphia chromosome
-- Information on CML
-- An animation/video of Gleevec and its discoverer Brian Drucker
Human Disease
Immunology 1
-- A photo of B and T cells
-- A picture of an antibody
-- A photo of blood cells
Immunology 2
-- Two photos of macrophages: image #1 and image #2
-- A movie of a macrophage crawling
-- Information on myeloma
-- A schematic of VDJ recombination
-- Susumu Tonegawa (discovered VDJ)
-- An animation of a T cell receptor
-- Photos of all different viruses
-- Harold Varmus (named HIV)
-- Two photos of HIV viruses: image #1 and image #2
-- Two schematics of viral life cycles: schematic #1 and schematic #2
-- A photo of new HIV particles budding off a host cell: image #1
-- David Baltimore (discovered Reverse Transcriptase)


back to top