bacteria 7.012 Indtroductory Biology


Study Materials



Below are problem sets and exams from 7.014 Spring 2005 and 2004, to aid you in your studying. Be aware that these problem sets and exams were written by a different instructor thus the structure of the problems during the spring of 2007 might differ. These problems, however, are still good practice.

7.014 2004 problem sets are available here.

7.014 2005 problem sets are available here.

7.014 2005 exams are available here.

In addition, below is a LIST OF LINKS for each day of lecture.  These links allow you to explore the topics from each lecture by:
-- viewing photographs and movies,
-- watching animations,
-- reading about famous scientists,
-- researching diseases,
-- and reading about bioethical issues
These will expand your knowledge and appreciation for the subjects at hand.


 List of Links
  Day of Lecture  Useful Links
Random, fun links

-- an animation of how the parts of the cell work together

-- Virtual Scanning Electron Microscopy

-- The late Dr. Vernon Ingram talking to 7.014 students in the spring of 2005 about his role in solving the structure of DNA (download the video for Lecture 10 and watch from 1:45-14:35)


The Biosphere

-- A list of careers in biology

-- Carbon Cycle Research

-- NASA and the Carbon Cycle
-- A tutorial on the Carbon Cycle
-- An article about humans as ecosystems
good web site for Winogradsky column
Different Ways to be alive

-- Melvin Calvin

-- Structure of RuBisCO

-- Photosynthesis and chemosynthesis

-- Chart of different types of microorganisms

-- Richard Branson's contest

Global Metabolism

-- Build your own food web

-- Food web research

-- Homepage for ATLSS (Across Trophic Level System Simulation)

Regulation of Global Metabolism

-- the Biotron

-- Research on the regulation of productivity

-- Regional vs. local effects on biodiversity

Limiting Factors and Biogeochemical Cycles

-- Modeling of biogeochemical cycles here at MIT

-- How changing biogeochemical cycles results in global warming

-- About ice coring

Biochemistry 1
-- A brief history of Molecular Biology
-- Types of bonds: website #1 and website #2

-- The chirality game
-- Information on carbohydrates

-- space-filling models of monosaccharides

Biochemistry 2
-- The structure of DNA

-- The four levels of protein structure

-- Linus Pauling (discovered the alpha helix)
-- Geckos and van der Waals forces
Biochemistry 3

-- Images of micelles and lipid bilayers

-- An animation of a lipid bilayer membrane

-- Lipids in the news

-- A picture of a transmembrane protein

Biochemistry 4

-- Antoine Lavoisier

-- Louis Pasteur

-- Yeast named in after Pasteur

-- J.W. Gibbs

-- Reaction Energy and enzyme animations

-- RNA as a catalyst

Biochemistry 5

-- Two overviews of glycolysis: #1 and #2

-- An overview of the Krebs Cycle

Biochemistry 6

-- Peter Mitchell

-- An overview of Electron Transport Chain

-- ATP as an enerygy source

-- Animation #1 of oxidative phosphorylation (I would recommend slowing down the animation)

-- Animation #2 of oxidation phosphorylation. NOTE - this animation has far more information than we require you to know. You do not need to know all the steps where electrons are passed within and between Complexes. Additionally, the number of protons pumped across the membrane mentioned in the animation is different from what was mentioned in lecture. This animation is more accurate for the number of protons, BUT it is still true that for every NADH produced, 3 molecules of ATP are produced.

DNA as a Genetic Molecule



-- Photosynthesis on the web

-- About cyanobacteria

-- Frederick Griffith

-- Overview of Griffith's experiment

-- Scanning electron micrograph of S. pneumoniae

-- Oswald Avery

Molecular Biology 1

-- A timeline of the molecular biology revolution

-- Chargaff's rules for base-pairing

-- A video of Chargaff talking about the base pairing

-- Watson and Crick

-- Rosalind Franklin

-- Who discovered the structure of DNA?

-- Matthew Meselson and Frank Stahl

-- An animation of the Meselson-Stahl experiment

-- The structure of DNA

Molecular Biology 2

-- An animation of DNA replication (click on either "How Nucleotides are added in DNA Replication" or "DNA Replication Fork"

-- Another animation of replication

-- Arthur Kornberg

Molecular Biology 3

-- Miroslav Radman (first proposed SOS response)

-- An overview of mis-match repair

-- Hereditary Non-polypsis Colorectal Cancer

Molecular Biology 4

-- Central Dogma, as explained by Francis Crick

-- George Gamow's letter suggesting that DNA could be a code to make proteins

-- An animation of transcription

-- An animation translation

-- Practice transcribing and translating a gene

-- structure or tRNA

-- Har Gobind Khorana and Marhsall Nirenberg

-- structure of the ribosome

-- Translation - as an interpretative dance from the 1970's

Molecular Biology 5

-- Tobacco Mosaic Virus

-- Diagram of a retrovirus

-- About HIV

-- David Baltimore

-- An animation of splicing (there is more detail in this video than you need to know, but it is good to watch)

-- Phil Sharp

-- Tom Cech

Gene Regulation

-- An animation of the Lac Operon (click on link titled "A Combination of Switches - the Lac Operon")

-- Francois Jacob and Jaques Monod

Bacterial Genetics 1

-- Genetics glossary

-- photos of different media in petri plates

-- photos of equipment for replica plating

Bacterial Genetics 2

-- photos of bacteriophage: photo #1 and photo #2

-- photo of bacteriophage infecting a bacterial cell

-- a photo of bacteria that have been lysed by phage and the subsequent plaque formation.

-- a description of phage genetics including information about the phage life cycle and phage recombination tests.

Mendelian Genetics

-- A biography of Mendel

-- A photo of the garden pea pisum sativum

-- Try your own pea experiment

-- Learn about mutations in the genes of corn and how they affect the phenotype of corn.

Mitosis and Meiosis

-- A photograph of the chromosomes in a single cell

-- An animation of mitosis and meiosis

-- Leland Hartwell

-- About Down Syndrome

-- Information about gene therapy

-- Movie of a cell dividing

Diploid Genetics

-- Thomas Hunt Morgan

-- a photo of a recombination event

-- Drosophila phenotypes

Recombinant DNA 1

-- An image of EcoRI bound to DNA

-- E. coli colonies

-- Salvador Luria

-- Animations of recombinant DNA technology (click on links titled "Steps in Cloning a Gene", "Restriction Endonucleases", or "Early Genetic Engineering Experiment")

Recombinant DNA 2
-- Animations of generating and screening a DNA library (scroll down to view the animations for "Making a Library" and "Screening a Library")
Recombinant DNA 3

-- A cartoon of agarose gel electrophoresis

-- Walter Gilbert

-- Fred Sanger

-- Animation of DNA sequencing

-- Kary Mullis

-- Animation of PCR

-- Where Taq comes from

Immunology I

-- A photo of a B and T cell

-- A picture of an antibody

-- A photo of red blood cells

-- A photo of a macrophage

-- A movie of a macrophage crawling

Immunology 2

-- A schematic of VDJ recombination

-- Susumu Tonegawa (discovered VDJ)

-- Animation of Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses (click on the first two links)

-- An animation of a T cell receptor

-- A list of common autoimmune dieseases

Population Growth

-- More information on cohort tables

-- Raymond Pearl

-- Joel Cohen

-- Derivation of population growth equations

-- Examples of population growth for different types of growth


-- The Struggle for Existance by Gause

-- Carl Huffaker

Molecular Evolution


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