Mathematical Description
Small Perturbation
Symmetry Breaking
Formation Process

Formation of Topological Defects

In this section of the Website you will learn about how topological defects are formed. By understanding the mathematical description of topological defects, the role of symmetry breaking and the perturbative behaviors (the fundamental excitations) from the order parameters, you can take a step further to the kingdom of non-perturbative effects in order to see the formation process of topological defects in the early universe and in a condense matter system.