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Alfred Beach (1826-1896)
Pneumatic Transit System
Alfred Ely Beach was born on September 1, 1826 in Springfield, Massachusetts. During his lifetime Beach became a prominent figure in the world of invention not only because of his numerous patents and technological advances but also for his involvement in establishing the popular periodical Scientific American. In 1846, as a young man, Beach purchased this magazine with a colleague.
Beach learned a great deal about the publishing business from his father, Moses Beach, while growing up in New York City. His father owned the New York Sun newspaper. In 1846 20-year-old Beach organized Munn & Co., with Orson Munn and Salem Wales, which bought Scientific American. At the time it was a small publication about science, poetry, religion and morality.
Later the magazine grew to become a very high-quality, respected journal and it even endeavored to secure patents for U.S. inventors. Some say the magazine's prominence was partially responsible for a large jump in the number of American patents applied for between 1846 and 1886 - from 600 to 20,000 in those forty years. Meanwhile, Beach traveled on numerous occasions to the United States' Patent Office in Washington D.C., where he soon became very well known.
Beach himself was an avid inventor who secured several patents of his own. In 1847, he got one, for example, on an improvement he made to the typewriter. Ten years later he received a patent for a typewriter that created embossed letters; he saw this as a means to educate and communicate with the blind.
By 1849, Beach had recognized a major problem that would change his life. From his office, he heard the over-congested street noise below and every night it took him nearly an hour to get home. He believed that either an elevated railway or a subway beneath the streets was necessary for New York City. He settled on an idea for a subway, thinking it would be less noisy and less dangerous.
In 1866, Beach began experiments in pneumatic power. He had been granted a patent in 1865 on a design for a pneumatic transit system for mail and passengers that included a design for pneumatic tubes. These types of tubes are still in use in some buildings and in the drive-through tellers at banks.
At the Fair of the American Institute in New York in 1867, Beach exhibited a tube in which a 10-passenger car was driven back and forth by a powerful, 100-horsepower fan. The idea was met with a great deal of interest and enthusiasm, and Beach continued to work on it. He actually dug an 8-foot bore tunnel 300 feet under Broadway, one of New York's main thoroughfares. But he had to do it in secret -- at the time he had to contend with the crooked politics of Tammany Hall and its leader, William "Boss" Tweed, who he knew would extort many thousands of dollars from such a project. In order to avoid any scenarios involving extortion, Beach put up $350,000 of his own money to bankroll the project, thinking that once the public saw the completed work, the politicians would dare not stop him. He was wrong. Although the demonstration was a success, adoption was blocked by politics, and by money, in the end.
Beach closed his secret subway in 1868, and it was forgotten until 1912, when construction workers building the new BMT Broadway line broke through the wall of his station, and found much of it intact. Today, New York's City Hall Station on the N and R lines contains part of the original Beach tube, and a plaque honoring his achievements is on display there. The first subway to open in New York City -- in 1904 -- was not one of Beach's designs.