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Biological Engineering Processes for Electonic Materials
Over hundreds of millions of years, microorganisms have become efficient at building practical, durable structures and materials from available elements, working at nanoscale dimensions. A good example of this is shells, for instance, which protect a variety of sea creatures such as crabs and mollusks.
Inventor and biological engineer Angela Belcher began research in the 1990s with the aim of harnessing this incredible ability and, by providing them with the necessary materials, allowing microorganisms to create more futuristic materials for practical human use. Her groundbreaking work has resulted in so-called “self-assembled” materials that may be used as components in electronic devices such as batteries, display screens, and fuel cells.
A native of Houston, Texas, Belcher attended the University of California at Santa Barbara where she graduated in 1991 with a B.A. from the College of Creative Studies, focusing on biology. She completed a Ph.D. in Inorganic Chemistry at UCSB in 1997. Her doctoral work involved research into how abalones and other living organisms make shells and similar materials.
From 1997 to 1999 Belcher worked as a postdoctoral fellow at UCSB before moving to the University of Texas, Austin, in 1999 where she served as an Assistant Professor in the Chemistry and Biochemistry Department. In 2002 she accepted a post at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She was John Chipman Associate Professor of Materials Science and Engineering and Biological Engineering until 2005, when she was named Germeshausen Professor of Materials Science and Engineering and Biological Engineering.
Belcher’s work is based on the idea that nature can create an infinite number of novel materials if given the proper set of "ingredients" and building conditions. While pursuing her doctoral degree she realized that abalone shells are strong and durable because they are made with proteins using nanoscale structures. What if the organisms that build abalone shells had access to other materials from the periodic table, she wondered, that are necessary for making silicon and electronics? Could they use those elements to make silicon materials?
Through a series of experiments involving DNA manipulation, Belcher was able to identify a process for evolving a virus very quickly and exposing it to a wide variety of elements that the virus could use to create complex, novel materials. She was able to refine the process to the point where, within just a few weeks, viruses were able to produce new substances. One of her initial projects was a virally created battery. The resulting product is packaged in a regular battery case and may be used to power small devices such as a laser pointer. Subsequent projects included virus-based electrochromic materials, that is, materials that change color; virus-based solar cells; and virus-based displays. Many of the products can work together in combination.
Belcher has plans to work through the entire periodic table, using not only viruses, but also yeast and other microorganisms to synthesize a vast array of complex materials in an environmentally responsible way. Through biological synthesis, manufacture of such materials produces much less waste than does traditional manufacturing and in many cases the end products are biodegradable.
In 2003, with colleague Dr. Evelyn Hu, Belcher founded Cambrios Technologies in Mountain View, Calif., to commercialize biologically formed electronic materials. The firm makes low-cost solution-based ITO (indium tin oxide) replacements for transparent conductor materials for touch screen and display applications. In 2007, Belcher founded Siluria Technologies to bring additional new products to market.
She has been recognized with numerous awards and honors for her achievements, including the 2001 Sloan Research Fellowship, the 2001 Packard Fellowship and a 2004 MacArthur Fellowship. Belcher was also named to Fortune Magazine's Top 10 Innovators Under 40 list in 2004 and has been awarded the 2004 Four Star General Recognition Award from the U.S. Army. She has authored over 20 papers and holds some 20 patents or patents pending