ksu [ target_user ] [ -n target_principal_name ] [ -c source_cache_name
] [ -k ] [ -D ] [ -r time ] [ -pf ] [ -l lifetime ] [ -zZ ] [ -q ] [ -e
command [ args ... ] ] [ -a [ args ... ] ]
Must have Kerberos version 5 installed to compile ksu. Must have a
Kerberos version 5 server running to use ksu.
ksu is a Kerberized version of the su program that has two missions:
one is to securely change the real and effective user ID to that of the
target user, and the other is to create a new security context. For
the sake of clarity, all references to and attributes of the user
invoking the program will start with 'source' (e.g. source user,
source cache, etc.). Likewise, all references to and attributes of the
target account will start with 'target'.
To fulfill the first mission, ksu operates in two phases: authentica‐
tion and authorization. Resolving the target principal name is the
first step in authentication. The user can either specify his princi‐
pal name with the -n option (e.g. -n jqpublic@USC.EDU) or a default
principal name will be assigned using a heuristic described in the
OPTIONS section (see -n option). The target user name must be the
first argument to ksu; if not specified root is the default. If '.' is
specified then the target user will be the source user (e.g. ksu .).
If the source user is root or the target user is the source user, no
authentication or authorization takes place. Otherwise, ksu looks for
an appropriate Kerberos ticket in the source cache.
The ticket can either be for the end-server or a ticket granting ticket
(TGT) for the target principal's realm. If the ticket for the end-
server is already in the cache, it's decrypted and verified. If it's
not in the cache but the TGT is, the TGT is used to obtain the ticket
for the end-server. The end-server ticket is then verified. If nei‐
ther ticket is in the cache, but ksu is compiled with the
GET_TGT_VIA_PASSWD define, the user will be prompted for a Kerberos
password which will then be used to get a TGT. If the user is logged
in remotely and does not have a secure channel, the password may be
exposed. If neither ticket is in the cache and GET_TGT_VIA_PASSWD is
not defined, authentication fails.
This section describes authorization of the source user when ksu is
invoked without the -e option. For a description of the -e option, see
the OPTIONS section.
Upon successful authentication, ksu checks whether the target principal
is authorized to access the target account. In the target user's home
directory, ksu attempts to access two authorization files: .k5login and
.k5users. In the .k5login file each line contains the name of a prin‐
without any trailing commands or followed only by '*' then the source
user is authorized. If either .k5login or .k5users exist but an appro‐
priate entry for the target principal does not exist then access is
denied. If neither file exists then the principal will be granted
access to the account according to the aname->lname mapping rules (see
krb5_anadd(8) for more details). Otherwise, authorization fails.
EXECUTION OF THE TARGET SHELL
Upon successful authentication and authorization, ksu proceeds in a
similar fashion to su. The environment is unmodified with the excep‐
tion of USER, HOME and SHELL variables. If the target user is not
root, USER gets set to the target user name. Otherwise USER remains
unchanged. Both HOME and SHELL are set to the target login's default
values. In addition, the environment variable KRB5CCNAME gets set to
the name of the target cache. The real and effective user ID are
changed to that of the target user. The target user's shell is then
invoked (the shell name is specified in the password file). Upon ter‐
mination of the shell, ksu deletes the target cache (unless ksu is
invoked with the -k option). This is implemented by first doing a fork
and then an exec, instead of just exec, as done by su.
CREATING A NEW SECURITY CONTEXT
Ksu can be used to create a new security context for the target program
(either the target shell, or command specified via the -e option). The
target program inherits a set of credentials from the source user. By
default, this set includes all of the credentials in the source cache
plus any additional credentials obtained during authentication. The
source user is able to limit the credentials in this set by using -z or
-Z option. -z restricts the copy of tickets from the source cache to
the target cache to only the tickets where client == the target princi‐
pal name. The -Z option provides the target user with a fresh target
cache (no creds in the cache). Note that for security reasons, when the
source user is root and target user is non-root, -z option is the
default mode of operation.
While no authentication takes place if the source user is root or is
the same as the target user, additional tickets can still be obtained
for the target cache. If -n is specified and no credentials can be
copied to the target cache, the source user is prompted for a Ker‐
beros password (unless -Z specified or GET_TGT_VIA_PASSWD is unde‐
fined). If successful, a TGT is obtained from the Kerberos server and
stored in the target cache. Otherwise, if a password is not provided
(user hit return) ksu continues in a normal mode of operation (the
target cache will not contain the desired TGT). If the wrong password
is typed in, ksu fails.
Side Note: during authentication, only the tickets that could be
obtained without providing a password are cached in in the source
with the first principal listed below, ksu checks if the
principal is authorized to access the target account and
whether there is a legitimate ticket for that principal in
the source cache. If both conditions are met that principal
becomes the default target principal, otherwise go to the
a) default principal of the source cache
If a-c fails try any principal for which there is a ticket in
the source cache and that is authorized to access the target
account. If that fails select the first principal that is
authorized to access the target account from the above list.
If none are authorized and ksu is configured with
PRINC_LOOK_AHEAD turned on, select the default principal as
For each candidate in the above list, select an authorized
principal that has the same realm name and first part of the
principal name equal to the prefix of the candidate. For
example if candidate a) is jqpublic@ISI.EDU and jqpub‐
lic/secure@ISI.EDU is authorized to access the target account
then the default principal is set to jqpublic/secure@ISI.EDU.
Case 2: source user is root.
If the target user is non-root then the default principal
name is target_user@local_realm. Else, if the source cache
exists the default principal name is set to the default prin‐
cipal of the source cache. If the source cache does not
exist, default principal name is set to root@local_realm.
Specify source cache name (e.g. -c FILE:/tmp/my_cache). If
-c option is not used then the name is obtained from
KRB5CCNAME environment variable. If KRB5CCNAME is not
defined the source cache name is set to krb5cc_<source uid>.
The target cache name is automatically set to krb5cc_<target
uid>.(gen_sym()), where gen_sym generates a new number such
that the resulting cache does not already exist.
For example: krb5cc_1984.2
-k Do not delete the target cache upon termination of the target
shell or a command ( -e command). Without -k, ksu deletes
the target cache.
-D turn on debug mode.
Ticket granting ticket options: -l lifetime -r time -pf
The ticket granting ticket options only apply to the case
where there are no appropriate tickets in the cache to
-p option specifies that the PROXIABLE option should be
requested for the ticket.
-f option specifies that the FORWARDABLE option should be
requested for the ticket.
-z restrict the copy of tickets from the source cache to the
target cache to only the tickets where client == the target
principal name. Use the -n option if you want the tickets for
other then the default principal. Note that the -z option is
mutually exclusive with the -Z option.
-Z Don't copy any tickets from the source cache to the target
cache. Just create a fresh target cache, where the default
principal name of the cache is initialized to the target
principal name. Note that -Z option is mutually exclusive
with the -z option.
-q suppress the printing of status messages.
-e command [args ...]
ksu proceeds exactly the same as if it was invoked without
the -e option, except instead of executing the target shell,
ksu executes the specified command (Example of usage: ksu bob
-e ls -lag).
The authorization algorithm for -e is as follows:
If the source user is root or source user == target user, no
authorization takes place and the command is executed. If
source user id != 0, and ~target_user/.k5users file does not
exist, authorization fails. Otherwise, ~target_user/.k5users
file must have an appropriate entry for target principal to
The .k5users file format:
A single principal entry on each line that may be followed by
a list of commands that the principal is authorized to exe‐
cute. A principal name followed by a '*' means that the user
is authorized to execute any command. Thus, in the following
jqpublic@USC.EDU ls mail /local/kerberos/klist
jqpublic@USC.EDU is only authorized to execute ls, mail and
klist commands. jqpublic/secure@USC.EDU is authorized to exe‐
cute any command. jqpublic/admin@USC.EDU is not authorized to
execute any command. Note, that jqpublic/admin@USC.EDU is
specify either a full path or just the program name.
-a args specify arguments to be passed to the target shell. Note:
that all flags and parameters following -a will be passed to
the shell, thus all options intended for ksu must precede -a.
The -a option can be used to simulate the -e option if used
as follows: -a -c [command [arguments]]. -c is interpreted
by the c-shell to execute the command.
ksu can be compiled with the following 4 flags (see the Imakefile):
in case no appropriate tickets are found in the source cache,
the user will be prompted for a Kerberos password. The pass‐
word is then used to get a ticket granting ticket from the
Kerberos server. The danger of configuring ksu with this
macro is if the source user is loged in remotely and does not
have a secure channel, the password may get exposed.
during the resolution of the default principal name,
PRINC_LOOK_AHEAD enables ksu to find principal names in the
.k5users file as described in the OPTIONS section (see -n
CMD_PATH specifies a list of directories containing programs that
users are authorized to execute (via .k5users file).
If the source user is non-root, ksu insists that the target
user's shell to be invoked is a "legal shell". getuser‐
shell(3) is called to obtain the names of "legal shells".
Note that the target user's shell is obtained from the passwd
KSU_OPTS = -DGET_TGT_VIA_PASSWD -DPRINC_LOOK_AHEAD
-DCMD_PATH='"/bin /usr/ucb /local/bin"
PERMISSIONS FOR KSU
ksu should be owned by root and have the set user id bit
ksu attempts to get a ticket for the end server just as Ker‐
berized telnet and rlogin. Thus, there must be an entry for
the server in the Kerberos database (e.g.
host/nii.isi.edu@ISI.EDU). The keytab file must be in an
Man(1) output converted with