Atomic, Biophysics, Condensed Matter, & Plasma Physics


Areas of Research

Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics Condensed Matter Theory
Biophysics Plasma Physics
Condensed Matter Experiment


The MIT AMO group is anchored by the NSF Center for Ultracold Atoms (CUA), a joint effort between MIT and Harvard.  Their research focuses on creating and understanding quantum systems with strong interactions and correlations. One theme is many-body physics, in which many atoms interact and form new quantum phases of matter. A second theme involves few particles (atoms and photons) with entanglement and correlations.

This research is made possible by newly developed atomic physics techniques and technology including high-resolution lasers, atom and ion traps, and atom interferometry. Ultracold samples of atoms, prepared by laser and evaporative cooling are crucial for this work.

A watershed example of ultracold phenomena is Bose Einstein Condensation, for which Prof. Ketterle received the Nobel Prize in 2001. With Prof. Pritchard, he is now loading these condensates into lattices made of standing waves of light to study phenomena such as the Mott-insulator transition and quantum magnetism. 

A condensate can also be used to refrigerate clouds of Fermi atoms (which lack collisions with each other and are therefore difficult to cool by themselves) in order to realize superfluidity and, in optical lattices, to study the fermionic Mott insulator and magnetic ordering. Another project is the formation of ultracold NaLi molecules from a sodium/lithium mixture. Prof. Zwierlein is conducting experiments on strongly interacting Fermi gases of atoms and molecules. In contrast to bulk materials, in these gases the interactions between particles can be freely tuned to be as strong as quantum mechanics allows. This makes these gases ideal platforms to study the many-body physics of strongly correlated fermions. The group is also pursuing the creation of a degenerate Fermi gas of stable dipolar NaK molecules, which might allow the observation of novel forms of superfluidity and supersolids.

Prof. Chuang studies quantum information with cold atomic systems, based on microfabricated chips for cooling, moving, and controlling small numbers of individual ions at the quantum level. His cryogenic ion traps enable new schemes for controlling polar molecular ions and studying their quantum interactions. Prof. Vuletic works on quantum control of systems with few degrees of freedom. This includes generation of single and twin photons, the use of photons to transfer quantum information between atomic systems, and spin squeezing which can be used to increase the accuracy of atomic clocks beyond the usual shot noise limit. He is also studying collisions between cold ions and neutral atoms.

The Atomic Physics group is vitally involved in educational activities, Prof. Kleppner with the Teaching Opportunities for Students program (TOPS) and Prof. Pritchard with his education group - Research in Learning Assessment and Tutoring (



The field of biophysics has experienced tremendous growth and excitement in recent years. The Physics of Living Systems Group within the Physics Department at MIT includes over 60 scientists spread across eight research groups. Our goal is to combine a rigorous training in physics together with an interdisciplinary approach to modern problems in biophysics. Graduate students in the Department benefit from an interactive and supportive intellectual community, including the opportunity to earn a Graduate Certificate in Biophysics.

Biophysics research within the Department spans many scales, from the structural organization of polymers to the evolutionary and ecological dynamics of populations. Professor George Benedek is one of the pioneers in the biophysics of “soft” materials, and currently works on various forms of protein condensations and phase transitions. Professor Nikta Fakhri combines concepts from biology, soft matter and statistical physics to decode non-equilibrium mechanisms in active living matter. Professor Ibrahim Cissé uses physical techniques to visualize weak and transient biological interactions, to study emergent phenomena in live cells with single molecule sensitivity. Professor Jeff Gore uses microbial populations to experimentally test fundamental ideas in theoretical ecology and evolutionary dynamics.

On the theoretical front, Professor Jeremy England and his group focus on structure, function, and evolution in the sub-cellular biophysical realm. Professor Mehran Kardar is a statistical physicist with interests in pattern formation, protein knots, and the immune response. Additionally, three theorists have joint appointments in the Department. Professor Leonid Mirny is a computational systems biologist with major efforts devoted to characterizing the spatial organization of the genome and the evolutionary dynamics in cancer. Professor Arup Chakraborty uses statistical mechanical methods to complement biological experiments and clinical data to understand how the adaptive immune system works.



As in other fields, progress in condensed matter physics may result from new technology. For example, the capability developed by the electronics industry of making semiconductor and metal structures on the nanometer length scale has made much of the subfield that is now called nanoscience possible. Our Department enjoys a leadership role in this area in semiconductor nanostructures, including single electron transistors and capacitors, as well as with carbon nanotubes and graphene.  A second major focus of the condensed matter physics group is the development and study of novel quantum materials.  The study of these materials integrates nanoscale and ultrafast techniques and opens up new directions where topological degrees of freedom and correlated phases can be accessed.  The MIT Condensed Matter Physics group has enjoyed a tradition of close collaboration and mutual stimulation between theorists and experimenters.

Prof. Ashoori's group uses novel tunneling and charge sensing measurements to study electrons in low-dimensional systems such as graphene, semiconductor quantum Hall systems, and a variety of nanostructures.  Prof. Checkelsky studies the thermodynamic and transport properties of correlated and topological systems hosted in quantum materials synthesized by epitaxial and bulk single crystal growth techniques.  Prof. Dresselhaus’ group has attracted wide attention in the areas of carbon nanotubes, bismuth nanowires and low dimensional thermoelectricty.  Prof. Gedik develops advanced optical and electron spectroscopies to study quantum materials such as topological insulators and high temperature superconductors. He has developed new ways to probe and control excitations in quantum materials with resolution in time, energy and momentum.  Prof. Jarillo-Herrero is working on quantum transport and optoelectronics in novel low dimensional materials, such as graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and topological insulators.



The condensed matter theory group at MIT covers a broad range of activities that can roughly be divided into four major themes:

  • One is the study of strongly correlated materials, where the strong interaction between electrons in the solid state gives rise to novel phenomena. Examples are the fractional quantum Hall effect and high temperature superconductivity.
  • A second direction is the study of how electronic behavior is changed when the electrons are confined to nanometer-size structures, either in man-made quantum dots or in carbon nanotubes or nanowires. The phase coherence of the electron waves leads to novel behavior, and the understanding of phase coherence is crucial for the development of quantum computation and quantum information science.
  • A third theme is nano-photonics: manipulation of light on length-scales substantially shorter than the wavelength of light, on very short time-scales, and at ultra-low energy levels.
  • Finally, tools and concepts of statistical physics are employed to study the structure, function, and evolution of biological molecules, cells, and networks, as well as other complex forms of soft condensed matter. In all of these areas, the methodology includes analytic tools based on field theory methods, the development of computer algorithm, and the use of high performance computation.



The plasma research effort at MIT is concerned with a wide variety of problems, ranging from astrophysical plasmas to laboratory and fusion-grade plasmas, as well as with using plasmas for environmental remediation. This work combines theory and experiment and involves faculty members from physics and other departments. The program has the goals of understanding the physics of plasmas and charged-particle beams and of designing plasma containment devices, with the ultimate aim of achieving the conditions in which a plasma can ignite by fusion reactions. Research is carried out not only on-site, but also at other major national and international laboratories.

Most of the volume of the universe is in the electrodynamic plasma state. Moreover, the dynamics of the universe on a grand scale is described as a gravitational plasma. The theory of galaxies as gravitational plasmas is well-developed and its results, for example, spiral arm structures, are relatively well-correlated with the experimental observations. While many aspects of laboratory plasmas are understood and correlate with experiments in relatively simple magnetic geometries, the physics of high-temperature plasmas on a microscopic scale continues to be an area of intensive investigation.

The dynamics of laboratory plasmas, charged-particle beams, and space and astrophysical plasmas are often strongly influenced by the excitation of collective modes with similar characteristics and common theoretical descriptions. The interaction of collective modes, both with each other and with charged particles, results in a variety of highly nonlinear phenomena of great importance for fusion, astrophysical and nonneutral plasmas, as well as for accelerators and coherent radiation sources.