Laurence R. Young is the Apollo Program Professor of Astronautics and Professor of Health Sciences and Technology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was the founding Director (1997-2001) of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute. He directs the HST Ph.D. program in Bioastronautics. Dr. Young was elected to the National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine of the NAS and is a full member of the International Academy of Astronautics. He received an A.B. from Amherst College in 1957; a Certificate in Applied Mathematics from the Sorbonne, Paris as a French Government Fellow in 1958; S.B. and S.M. degrees in Electrical Engineering and the Sc.D. degree in Instrumentation from MIT, from 1957-1962.
In 1957 he was with the Sperry Gyroscope Company in the development of flight control systems. From 1958 to 1962 he was a member of the Research Staff at MIT where he worked on inertial guidance systems at the Instrumentation Laboratory and on problems of man-machine interaction at the Electronic Systems Laboratory. During 1961 he did eye movement research at the School of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico. He joined the MIT faculty in 1962, co-founded the Man-Vehicle Laboratory which does research on the visual and vestibular systems, visual-vestibular interaction, flight simulation, space motion sickness and manual control and displays. In 1991 Professor Young was selected as a Payload Specialist for Spacelab Life Sciences 2. He spent two years in training at Johnson Space Center and served as Alternate Payload Specialist during the October 1993 mission. In 1995 he was appointed as the first holder of a new MIT chair, the Apollo Professor of Astronautics. He was Chairman of the Harvard-MIT Committee on Biomedical Engineering and Physics and the Interdepartmental Ph.D. Program in Biomedical Engineering. From 1972-1973 Professor Young was a Visiting Professor at the ETH (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) and the Zurich Kantonsspital, and a Visiting Professor at the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers, Paris. During 1987-88 he was a Visiting Scientist at NASA's Ames Research Center, and a Visiting Professor of Electrical Engineering at Stanford University. He was a Lecturer at Harvard Medical School and continues on the faculty of the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology as a member of the Joint Faculty Committee. Dr. Young has been active on many professional and government committees, including the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board for which he chaired the Airlift Panel and received the Air Force Decoration for Exceptional Civilian Service, the Space Medicine and Biology Committee of the National Academy of Sciences, NASA's Life Science Advisory Committee and the NIH Training Committee on Biomedical Engineering. He chaired the “NRC” Vestibular Panel of the Summer Study on Life Sciences in Space in 1977 and the Life Sciences Group of NASA's Task Force on Scientific Uses of the Space Station. He serves on several NASA Advisory panels relating to life sciences and the Space Station. He currently serves on the Institute of Medicine Standing Committee on Aerospace Medicine and the Medicine of Extreme Environments (CAMMEE). He served on the Committee on Space Station and has been a member of the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, Air Force Studies Board, and the Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics and Biomechanics and the Space Science Board Planning Committee for the International Space Year. He is also a member of the Bárány Society for vestibular research, the Human Factors Society, and the Aerospace Medical Association. He is a Fellow of the IEEE, The Biomedical Engineering Society, The American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering and the Explorers Club, and was selected by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics for its 1982 Dryden Lectureship in Research and its 1992 Jeffries Award. NASA recognized his achievements with a Space Act Award in 1995 for his development of an expert system for astronauts. The Aerospace Human Factors Association awarded him its Paul Hansen award in 1995. He was President of the Biomedical Engineering Society in 1979 and was its Alza Lecturer in 1984. In May 1998, for his contributions to neuroscience, he received the prestigious Koetser Foundation Prize in Zurich.
Professor Young's contributions to the aerospace medical field have been in instrumentation (eye movement measurement) and basic and applied research in the field of vestibular function. His psychophysical work on semicircular canal and otolith function led to models that are applied to flight simulator motion control and are being extended to include visually-induced motion effects. Dr. Young is also recognized for his leadership in the aerospace human factors including applications of manual control theory, and especially for his research on adaptive manual control. His work on the vestibular system has led to his role as principal investigator for experiments on vestibular adaptation to weightlessness conducted aboard five Spacelab missions for which he received NASA's Public Service Group Achievement Award. Author of more than 200 journal articles, Prof. Young serves on the Scientific Advisory Board for the Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. He is an associate editor of the Encyclopedia of Space Science and Technology, a National Space Biomedical Research Institute senior advisor, and a visiting professor at the College de France, Paris, 2002.
Professor Young has also been active in ski injury research. He was Director of the International Society for Skiing Safety and chaired the Ski Injury Statistics Subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials Committee on Snow Skiing before being elected Committee Chairman in 1987. He received the United States Ski Association Award of Merit and the Best Research Paper Award from the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons.
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