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Avcioglu, Nebahat
Visiting Associate Professor
(Visiting Faculty, Fall 2007)

Naby Avcioglu was trained as an architect at the Istanbul Technical University, and practiced architecture both in Turkey and in England. She wrote her Ph.D. in the Department of History of Art at Cambridge University on the history of the production and dissemination of Ottoman/Turkish architectural knowledge in Europe in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Following her doctorate she has held two Post-Doctoral Research Fellowships, first as Aga Khan Fellow at Harvard University, and second as Barakat Trust Fellow at Oxford University. She taught at the Department of History of Art at Cambridge University and the University of Manchester. In 2003 she spent a sabbatical leave in Paris at the Columbia University Institute for Scholars. Since then she is based at the same Institute. She is also an adjunct associate professor at the American University of Paris. Her research centres on issues of architectural knowledge, practice, dissemination and transformation of forms and cultures, cross-cultural exchanges, urban changes, and social and political aspects of the history of architecture from the early eighteenth century to the present. She is the author several article dealing with these topics, amongst them are 'Ahmed I and the Allegories of Tyranny in the Frontispiece to George Sandys's Relation of a Journey Anno. Dom.1610 ', Muqarnas: An Annual on the Visual Culture of the Islamic World , Brill, 18 (September 2001) pp. 203-226; ' A Palace of One's Own: Stanislas I's (1677-1766) Turkish Kiosks and the idea of Self-Representation', Art Bulletin , vol. 85 no. 4 (December 2003) pp. 662-684; 'Constructions of Turkish Baths as a Social Reform for Victorian Society: the Case of the Jermyn Street Hammam' in The Hidden Iceberg of Architectural History . Papers from the Annual Symposium of the Society of Architectural Historians of Great Britain, eds., Colin Cunningham and James Anderson, (London: 1998) pp. 59-78. Her other articles in press include: 'Istanbul: the palimpsest city in search of its architext ', RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics , accepted, forthcoming; ' Identity-as-form: the Mosque in the West ', Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians ( JSAH ) forthcoming. Her book Turkish architecture in Europe, 1737-1876: Politics and Visual Narratives of the Other , will be out with Ashgate Publishers.

Fall 2007 courses taught

4.614 Religious Architecture and Islamic Cultures

This course introduces the history of Islamic cultures through their most vibrant material signs: their religious architecture that spans fourteen centuries and three continents, Asia, Africa, and Europe. It reviews a number of representative architectural examples (mosques, madrasas, mausolea, etc.) from various periods and places and discusses their architectural, urban, and stylistic characteristics in conjunction with their historical, political, and intellectual environments. The course also analyzes the development of the sacred, commemorative, pious, and educational architecture in the Islamic world in light of a changing Islam from a reform movement in 7th-century Arabia to a global power straddling three continents in the medieval period to a world religion professed by one-sixth of humanity in the present. Films and discussions are used to elucidate the artistic/cultural varieties and historical developments of this architectural vision within both the Islamic and the larger, universal, and cross-cultural contexts.
Throughout the course, a number of critical issues will be considered: How do we define and/or qualify architecture? What is the relationship between architecture and culture? How do we study an architectural tradition that covers several regions and encompasses a variety of cultures and national and ethnic identities? And, what, if anything, is Islamic about this architecture, and how do we understand and describe it vis-à-vis the global history of architecture?
This course is offered in the fall semester. It is taught by Prof. Naby Avcioglu and meets twice a week. It is a 12 unit course, and fulfills the Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences Distribution Requirement (HASS-D) in category III (Visual and Performing Arts). The course has an open book final exam and no prerequisites.
REQUIRED TEXTS: George Michell, ed. Architecture of the Islamic World: Its History and Social Meaning, London: Thames and Hudson, 1978 [reprint 1984]. Richard Ettinghausen, Oleg Grabar, and Marilyn Jenkins-Madina. The Art and Architecture of Islam: 650-1250. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2001. Sheila Blair and Jonathan Bloom, The art and architecture of Islam 1250-1800. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994.
RECOMMENDED TEXTS: Albert Hourani, A History of the Arab Peoples. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1991. Robert Hillenbrand, Islamic architecture: form, function and meaning. Edinburgh : Edinburgh University Press, 1994. John D. Hoag, Islamic Architecture. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1977.

4.629 Special Problems in Islamic and Nonwestern Architecture—City as Palimpsest: The Islamic City from the Pre-modern to Post-modern

The concept of city has been an important yet difficult one for architectural history. A rigorous definition of the Islamic city has also proven uneasy, for the tendency to speak in terms of a distinct phenomenon is still strong in historical discourses. Disentangling the essentializing rhetoric of the Islamic city as this or that, or simply non-Western, the aim of this course is to problematize the palimpsest quality of cities through a genealogical approach to their architectural fabric. This course will examine the architecture of several major cities – Baghdad, Cairo, Jerusalem, Damascus, Istanbul, Aleppo, Isfahan, Tehran, and Ankara, among others – under the category of the palimpsest, which can be defined as an urban structure where layers of historical density become a cultural topography. We will seek to understand how such layers of the palimpsest are organised and how they interact with one another to form a coherent ‘whole’– such as a ‘city’ – while at the same time remaining distinct from each other. To achieve this goal we will focus on the intrinsic relationship existing between the city and a particular architectural feature that has come to characterise it, at a particular moment in the city’s narrative (such as the citadel; the palace; the mosque; the garden; the monument; the house; etc.). The theoretical underpinning of this course is associated most strongly with critical theories of Gérard Genette, Giles Deleuze and Jean Baudrillard.
REQUIRED TEXTS: Gary Bridge and Sophie Watson, eds., The Blackwell City Reader, USA: 2002 Gérard Genette, Palimpsests : Literature in the second degree, 1997. Gilles Deleuze et. all., A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, (University of Minnosota Press, 1987) Aldo Rossi, The Architecture of the City (MIT, 1982). Spiro Kostof, City Shaped (Boston: 1991) Preziosi, Donald, eds. The Ottoman city and its parts : urban structure and social order, 1991. Abu-Lughod, Janet L, Cairo : 1001 years of the city victorious. 1971, Princeton University Press. K.A.C. Creswell. A Short Account of Early Muslim Architecture. ed. James W. Allan. Nezar AlSayyad, Cities and caliphs : on the genesis of Arab Muslim urbanism. New York, 1991. Hourani, A., and S. Stern, The Islamic City: A Colloquium, (Oxford, 1970) Gulru Necipoglu ed., Ars Orientalis, Pre-Modern Islamic Palaces, special issue 23(1993) G. Michell, Architecture of the Islamic World: Its History and Social Meaning. London, 1978. Ira Lapidus, Middle Eastern Cities: A Symposium. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1969. F. E. Peters, Jerusalem and Mecca: The Typology of the Holy City in the Near East (New York University Press, 1986) Oleg Grabar, The Shape of the Holy (Harvard University Press, 1998) Heghnar Watenpaugh, The Image of an Ottoman City : Imperial Architecture and Urban Experience in Aleppo in the 16th and 17th Centuries, Brill : 2006. Elizabeth MacDougall and Richard Ettingausen, eds., The Islamic Garden (Dumbarton Oaks, l976) Sibel Bozdogan, Modernism and Nation building: Turkish Architectural Culture in the Early Republic, (Washington: 2001)

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al-Asad, Mohammad
Visiting Associate Professor
(Visiting Faculty Spring 2005)

Spring 2005 courses taught

4.620 Issues in Modern and Contemporary Islamic Architecture and Urbanism Heritage as a Battleground

This seminar will look at how Heritage has been constructed in the debates of the architectural cultures in the modern and contemporary Islamic world. Why and how has heritage come to name a cluster of issues and values that galvanizes such strong positions and is invoked in such decisive actions, including the reshaping of cities, the dislocation of populations, and large investments of capital. What is the object of heritage? How does heritage relate to the historical imagination, the visible past, the construction of identity, and modernization? How does heritage intervene in such practices as museum building, archaeology, and preservation? What is its relationship to colonial regimes, nation states, and the global tourism industry? When is it "authentic" and when is it contested? What is its relationship to memory and spectacularization? When and how are aspects of "heritage" erased? The course will combine theoretical readings on the construction and exhibition of heritage with the critical examination of specific case studies of projects, sites and ideas.
Required for SMArchS students affiliated with the Aga Khan Program.

4.627 4.628 Special Problems in Islamic and Nonwestern Architecture 19th & 20th Century Architecture in the Eastern Arab World.
This course discusses the evolution of architecture in the eastern Arab world (also known as the Arab Mashriq) during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.   Its geographic scope emphasizes Egypt, the Arabian Peninsula, and the Fertile Crescent. The course examines the production of certain works of architecture in the region as creative undertakings that address specific functional programs and physical givens ranging from technological conditions to climatic factors.   It also presents the architecture of the region within the context of prevailing social, cultural, economic, and political forces.   It therefore links that architecture to the volatile conditions that have defined the evolution of the region during the period under consideration, and that have given the region considerable (and some would argue disproportionate) weight within the context of international politics.   The course consequently connects the architecture of the region to various interrelated issues such as Westernization, modernization, and the relationship between the architect and the state.
Although the course is partly thematic in its emphasis, it also is a survey course that provides an overview of the development of architecture in the region during the modern period.   A major challenge in putting together such a survey is that the amount of published documentation available regarding this subject is incomplete, sporadic, and very often disseminated only locally.   In contrast to more established chronologically and geographically defined fields of architectural history, where taxonomic systems are more or less established, and a corpus of works of architecture representing each field generally is agreed upon, we do not have any common ground from which to begin an inquiry addressing the architecture of the Arab Mashriq during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.   This course therefore presents points of reference that help develop an autonomous field of study out of the works of architecture it examines.
Finally, this course emphasizes on one level bringing together the local knowledge on architecture available for the various geographic components of the Arab Mashriq and developing that knowledge into a regional history.   The course also shows that the architecture of the region is more intimately connected to international architectural developments than generally is perceived.   Over the past century, various internationally acclaimed architects have carried out designs (both built and un-built) in the region.   These include, among others, Auguste Perret, Frank Lloyd Wright, Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius, Oscar Niemeyer, Alvar Aalto, Gordon Bunshaft, Paul Rudolph, Kenzo Tange, Robert Venturi, Ricardo Bofill, Michael Graves, Jean Nouvel, Stephen Holl, and Zaha Hadid.

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Bozdogan, Sibel
(Visiting Faculty Fall 2011 & Spring 2012)

Sibel Bozdogan holds a professional degree in architecture from Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey (1976) and a PhD from the University of Pennsylvania (1983). She has taught architectural history and theory courses at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (1986 - 1991), MIT (1991 - 1999) and the GSD, Harvard University (part-time since 2000). She has also served as the Director of Liberal Studies at the Boston Architectural Center (2004 - 2006) and currently teaches in the new Graduate Architecture Program of Bilgi University in Spring semesters. She works on trans-national histories of modern architecture and urbanism in Europe, the U.S., Mediterranean, and the Middle East, with a specific focus on Turkey. She has published articles internationally, has co-authored a monograph on the Turkish architect Sedad Hakki Eldem (1987), and co-edited an interdisciplinary volume, Rethinking Modernity and National Identity in Turkey (1997). Her Modernism and Nation Building: Turkish Architectural Culture in the Early Republic (University of Washington Press, 2001) has won the 2002 Alice Davis Hitchcock Award of the Society of Architectural Historians and the Koprulu Book Prize of the Turkish Studies Association. She was one of the curators of the "Istanbul 1910-2010: City, Built Environment and Architectural Culture" exhibition in Istanbul Bilgi University in Fall 2010 and has recently completed Turkey: Modern Architectures in History, co-authored by Esra Akcan for Reaktion Books (2012).

Fall 2011 course taught

4.621Orientalism and Representation

Seminar on the historiography and politics of representation with special focus on Orientalist traditions in architecture, art, literature, and scholarship. Critically analyzes pivotal texts, projects, and images that informed the cross-cultural encounters between Europe and the "Orient" from Antiquity to the present. Discusses how political and ideological attitudes and religious beliefs informed both the construction and reproduction of Western knowledge about the Islamic world as well as the revisionist "Oriental" self-representations. Research paper required.

Spring 2012 courses taught

4.611 / 4.613 Civic Architecture in Islamic History - Istanbul: From Imperial Capital to Global City
Seminar on the historiography and politics of representation with special focus on Orientalist traditions in architecture, art, literature, and scholarship. Critically analyzes pivotal texts, projects, and images that informed the cross-cultural encounters between Europe and the "Orient" from Antiquity to the present. Discusses how political and ideological attitudes and religious beliefs informed both the construction and reproduction of Western knowledge about the Islamic world as well as the revisionist "Oriental" self-representations. Research paper required.

4.616 Selected Topics on Culture and Architecture - Global Perspectives on Modern Architecture
The inherited Eurocentric biases of the historiography of modern architecture have more recently been dismantled in favor of recognizing the plurality, heterogeneity and difference of modern architectures across the globe. Recent critical theories and revisionist histories have articulated the need to abandon the very idea of a central, singular and canonic modernism or “a European master narrative” claiming distinction from what was perceived to be its lesser, derivative extensions in peripheral geographies (“non-western”, “Third World” or “other” modernisms to cite some of the terms in circulation). What is proposed instead is a “cosmopolitan modernism” –one that is de-centered, worldwide and heterogeneous; a global history that explores the circulation, translation and domestication of architectural/urban ideas and forms not just between the industrialized west and the countries typically grouped under the term “Third World”, but among different “Third World” countries themselves.
This seminar seeks to review the growing body of recent scholarship paradigmatic of such trans-national perspectives in the history of modern architecture –not only studies of individual countries like Turkey, Japan, China, India, Iran, Brazil, Mexico and Indonesia (such as Bozdogan, 2001; Akcan, 2012; Oshima, 2009; Kuan, 2002; Lu, 2005; Prakash, 2002; Grigor, 2009; Deckker, 2001; Carranza, 2010; and Kusno, 2000 and 2010) but also broader and comparative regional studies (such as Duanfang Lu ed., Third World Modernism: Architecture, Development and Identity, 2010; Mark Crinson, Modern Architecture and the End of Empire, 2003; J.F. Lejeune, Michelangelo Sabatino, eds. Modern Architecture and the Mediterranean, 2010; and Sandy Isenstadt and Kishwar Rizvi eds. Modern Architecture and the Middle East , 2008, as well as special issues of Docomomo Journal on Caribbean, Middle East and Africa). Through these selected works, the seminar will explore the role of architecture in the making (and continuous re-negotiation) of modern national identities of countries outside Europe and North America, from their colonial/imperial beginnings in the 19th century to the building of post-colonial/ post-imperial nation states in the 20th century and the more recent effects of globalization and neo-liberal economic integration in the 21st.
Through weekly discussion of selected texts and contexts, we will focus on how imported discourses of modern architecture and urbanism are contested, selectively appropriated and transformed in peripheral geographies, reflecting the complex internal dynamics and the specific national projects of these countries. The overall objective of the seminar is to critically map the field, identify theoretical and methodological issues common to such trans-national studies of modernism and discuss the ways in which they open up, contribute to or transform the history, theory and criticism of modern architecture. Seminar participants will be required to make class presentations on selected topics/texts/countries and submit a major research paper at the end of the semester.

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Chorbachi, Wasma'a
(Visiting Faculty Fall 2006)

Fall 2006 course taught

4.627/4.628 Special Problems in Islamic Nonwestern Architecture: Arabesque and Islamic Geometric Pattern Design
A multifaceted approach will be taken in the study of the Arabesques and Islamic Geometric design ~ ornament. The course will include an academic study of the historical and intellectual tradition of Islamic design, a hands-on design exercises in creative design creation and an analytical survey of Islamic architectural decoration and ornament. The goal is to give the students a more sophisticated and scientific understanding of the design principles of Islamic ornament.  
The academic segment will involve the lectures covering: an introduction to the history of Islamic design science, as documented through manuscripts, emphasizing specific design examples and the use of algorithm; research materials which illustrate the sharing of scientific design knowledge between geographic regions of the Islamic world and leading to an understanding of cultural interaction in Islamic civilization; and a brief survey of the significant literature in the historiography of Islamic design from the early nineteenth century to the present. In conjunction with these lectures, the students will be assigned brief book reports to be orally presented.
In the hands on segment of the course, the students receive instruction in design science principles of symmetry pattern groups and string groups. The goal will be for students; to learn a common language in which to communicate about Islamic ornament and geometric design; to use this language in the analysis of patterns and in recognizing the point group category of the design; and to be able to generate new creative designs. Students will be expected to carry on weekly design exercise assignments and have by the end of the semester a complete portfolio of all the symmetry group patterns. A participatory analytical approach will be taken in the survey of the use of Islamic architectural decoration and ornament on objects in which the symmetry language learnt would be used. Specific monuments will be assigned for this analysis. Final presentations of projects will be required of each student.
This class is a prerequisite for the Level 3 spring studio to be taught by Mark Goulthorpe and Arindam Dutta.

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Cowherd, Robert
(Visting Faculty Spring 2006)

Spring 2006 courses taught

4.242 Advanced Seminar in City Form

4.628 Cultural Construction of Asian Cities

Virtually all of the world's expected population increase between now (6.3 billion) and the anticipated leveling off around 2100 (9.5 billion) will be in the cities of the developing world, mostly in Asia. China, India and Indonesia are already the first, second and fourth largest nations by population. Together with their neighbors, Asia is home to a majority of humanity and is becoming the most significant economic and environmental field of action. As the global center of gravity shifts to Asia, the ongoing negotiations of collective concerns (climate change, resource scarcity, violent conflict) are increasingly dependent upon a more inclusive perspective. The rapid urbanization occurring in the cities of Asia has taken place under conditions of extreme cultural diversity, vast demographic pressures, and unprecedented speeds of social change. The study of Asia from colonialism to nascent nationalisms, to more recent speculations on global phenomena has long provided vivid grounds for investigating important questions about the relationship between human societies and their built environments: What forces operating in the west account for the shifting definitions of "Asia" over time? How have visual and spatial representations played a role in this process? How has the design of the built-environment been used as an instrument for reproducing power relations? How have images and mythologies of the developed west played a role in the construction of space in Asia's cities?
An important premise of the course is that the special relationship between cultural forces and the built environment is more vividly revealed in the recent histories of architectural and urban formation in Asia than commonly found in other places and times. Of particular interest are the methodologies emerging in recent decades around the changing conceptions of "culture." The literatures associated with the so-called "cultural turn" are developed and applied to our cases to critique and supplement the more familiar analytical tools of political-economy. Even for students never intending to operate in an Asian context, this course offers the opportunity to step outside of their own world long enough to look back and see it with a critical clarity otherwise difficult to attain.
The sequence of readings is designed to posit a series of theoretical framings juxtaposed with relevant case studies drawn from the historic and contemporary accounts of specific contexts offered by the region. Class discussions will build upon the readings to test the various methodologies for their power to account for phenomena presented in each case study. In each case, we will examine the cultural operation of architecture and urban form within a specific context and how this operation relates to contemporary challenges in architecture and urbanism. Some of the issues examined include the concept of "development," religious identity, colonial power structures, postcolonial nationalisms, the role of women, the rise of civil society, heritage conservation, national housing and "new town" efforts, tourism, mega-projects, globalization/counter-globalization, social dualisms, critical regionalism, and various phenomena of hybrid cultural formation.
Each participant is required to develop an individual research project employing some aspect of the methodologies explored in the seminar. These projects may or may not be sited in Asia but should demonstrate the capacity for some methodology of cultural analysis to extend understandings of key phenomena.

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Jarrar, Sabri

(Visiting Faculty Spring 2004)

Spring 2004 course taught

4.613 Civic and Residential Islamic Architecture

Prerequisites: open to grads and undergrads (HASS) Not only a major religion professed by one-sixth of humanity, Islam has also been a major historical force that inspired a distinct civilizational flavor that permeated even the most mundane functions in every Islamic society. This course focuses on the types of architecture that embody these societal functions: the palatial, civic, commercial, military, industrial, residential and landscape architecture, in addition to a number of little-understood monuments that stand midway between the religious and the profane realms. The course uses the chronological survey format to examine distinctive examples of Islamic architecture from the seventh to the twentieth century and analyze the urban, social, and political factors that constituted their particular contexts. The investigations will not only consult modern studies on the buildings and their histories, but will try to see them through the experiences of their contemporaries and actual users.
The course also assesses the formation and developments of architectural traditions, their regional transformations, and the various external and interregional influences that affected them at different historical junctions. A number of discussions are scheduled to further address critical architectural and urban issues. Students are encouraged to contribute to these sessions as part of their requirements. The class is open to both graduates and undergraduates. Three short essays (7-10 pages each) and two class quizzes will be assigned. Graduate students may substitute a research paper for the essays.

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el Kadi, Makram & Jamaleddine, Ziad

(Visiting Faculty Spring 2012)

Makram el Kadi: Born in beirut in 1974, Makram el Kadi received his bachelor of architecture degree from the American University of Beirut in 1997 and his masters of architecture from Parsons School of Design in 1999. After working at the offices of Fumihiko Maki in Japan, he joined Steven Holl Architects where for 5 years he was project architect on numerous international projects, among them the World Trade Center proposal with Richard Meier, Peter Eisenman and Charles Gwathmey, and the winning entry to the natural history museum of Los Angeles county competition. Mr. El Kadi taught architecture studio with Steven Holl at the Columbia University School of Architecture Planning and Preservation GSAPP in 2004 and 2005 and as part of L.E.FT at Cornell University in 2006, and currently teaches graduate studio at MIT where he serves at the Aga Khan visiting Lecturer. He also has a regular teaching position at Yale where was the Louis Kahn visiting assistant professor of architecture and has been part of the Yale faculty since 2009.
Ziad Jamaleddine: Born in Beirut in 1971, Ziad Jamaleddine received his Bachelor’s degree in Architecture from the American University of Beirut in 1995, where he won the Areen Award for excellence in design. He received his Masters degree in architecture from the Graduate School of Design at Harvard University in 1999. Mr. Jamaleddine worked for Steven Holl Architects for 5 years where he was the assistant to project architect for Simmons Hall dormitory at M.I.T, (winner of the National AIA Design award in 2003 and the New York AIA award in 2002), and the project architect for the design and development of the Beirut Marina project in downtown Beirut. Mr. Jamaleddine co-taught Vertical studio and seminar at Cornell University, Third-Year Graduate Advanced Architectural Design Studio at PennDesign, and Vertical Studio at the American University of Beirut, Lebanon.

Spring 2012 course taught

4.514 Architecture Design Option Studio - Affordable Housing in KSA

1. Socio-Cultural Context:
Access to adequate housing has been a central issue in socio-economic policies and urban governance dynamics since the creation of the modern states in the Middle East. From the utopia of the suburban detached houses of North America, to the slums of Mumbai, and the cities of living dead in Cairo, lies a range of housing “conditions” that present clear testimony of the complex matrix of issues and forces that come into play.
Acute rural to urban migration, coupled with some of the world’s highest ratios of population growth, renders countries in the Middle East, and their governments, struggling with the rising challenge of access to adequate housing for the vast majority of the population. The latest events of uprising and unrest loosely referred to as the “Arab Spring” will definitely push this matter to the forefront. Reports indicate a shortage of anywhere between 4.25 to 6 million housing units in these countries, collectively, until 2015, with an estimated annual take-up rate of 1.25 to 1.5 million units a year.
Whilst it may be argued that the challenge is predominantly economic in nature, and that governments and countries have not been able to accommodate their citizens with respect to access to housing due to shortages of all kinds: shortage of land, shortage of money, shortage of regulation, shortage of technical building capacity; the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, one of the largest exporters of oil in the world, and the richest Arab country, presents a particularly interesting case study; specifically because it does not suffer from the shortages listed above, yet no more than 20% of the population own their homes. In this studio, we argue that a key hurdle for access to adequate housing in this context is the shortage of imagination and lack of design sensitivity to the needs of the end user. Golf course residential compounds, high rise modern apartment buildings, do not seem to be among the “adequate” housing types desired by the vast majority of Saudi Arabian families, the bulk of whom belong to the middle and lower middle class, on the income level scale.
2. Site:
The studio aims at investigating design typologies for adequate housing for middle and lower middle income Saudi families. It will take as a case study the city of Riyadh, capital of KSA, where the students will pick their sites after the initial workshop and site visit. The sites will re-examine through infill within the existing urban fabric, the conditions of affordable housing, from notions of privacy, to those of accessibility, constructability and ecology and from the scale of the Unit, to that of the urban block/tray, to that of the larger city block.
3. Program and Typological Investigation:
The focus will be on developing a home/dwelling rather than a house, the difference being one of a spatial experience that is set within the cultural backdrop of Arabian/Saudi patterns of domesticity. The studio will address the idea of expanded living at the collective scale in relation to the culture of privacy by shuffling the housing programmatic components either internally to create a larger public entity or externally by introducing urban amenities within the housing component. This notion of expansion will also be addressed at the unit scale by designing a flexibility that caters for the expansion and growth of the family unit.
4. Research:
Students will benefit from close exposure to the issues at play through presentations by officials from various public authorities such as the municipality of Riyadh, Ministry of Public works and Housing, and The King Abdallah Charitable Foundation for Cooperative Housing as well as from the perspective of developers, presented by Al Mutawir – studio advisor-, a private real estate developer with interest in affordable housing projects in KSA, and other GCC countries, and that have expressed interested in helping the students with their research.

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Hedrick, Christian
(Visting Faculty Fall 2011)

Christian is a PhD candidate and architect. He was awarded the Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst (DAAD) Research Fellowship and will be spending the spring of 2012 at the Technische Universität Berlin. There he will be engaged primarily in archival research pertaining to his dissertation provisionally titled “German Architects and the Encounter with Egypt (1842-1914).” His work utilizes the material generated by these architects in order to contextualize their experience with Egypt and Islamic architecture. His research subjects range from the historiography of architecture in the nineteenth century to architecture’s formal and artistic expressions, as well as its cultural implications both in Germany and Egypt. He spent the fall 2011 semester as a visiting lecturer at MIT for the course Religious Architecture and Islamic Cultures.
Christian received his Master of Architecture from the University of Michigan and Bachelor of Arts in History from John Carroll University.

Fall 2011 course taught

4.614 Religious Architecture and Islamic Cultures
This course introduces the history of Islamic cultures through its architecture. Religious, commemorative, and educational structures are surveyed from the beginning of Islam in 7th-century Arabia to its developing into a world religion professed by one-sixth of humanity today. The survey is chronological with em- phasis on distinguished patrons, influential thinkers, and outstanding designers. Representative examples of mosques, madrasas, mausolea, etc. are analyzed and their architectural, urban, and stylistic characteristics are examined in conjunc- tion with their historical, political, and intellectual settings.
Visual media are used to elucidate the artistic/cultural varieties and historical developments of this architectural heritage. Students are encouraged to raise questions and generate debates during the lectures as well as the discussion ses- sions. The aim is to explore all possible venues of interpretation to better locate Islamic religious architecture within its regional, pan-Islamic, and universal and cross-cultural contexts.

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Elizabeth Dean Hermann
(Visting Faculty Spring 2015)

Elizabeth Hermann is Professor of Landscape Architecture and teaches courses in Urban Design/Landscape Urbanism, Design and International Development, and Islamic Architectural and Urban History.  She is the founder of the DESINE-lab @ RISD which brings design thinking, practices and outcomes together with innovation and entrepreneurship to address issues of global poverty and social and environmental injustice.  Lab initiatives focus on three scales of collaboration and capacity building: Propel which develops programs with local leaders that use design thinking and processes to help create a climate for innovation and entrepreneurship in underserved communities; Alternative Livelihoods which, in collaboration with underserved communities, develops cooperative locally-driven economic strategies focusing on design and environmental stewardship; and Resilient City which strategizes how to aggregate and integrate these programs so as to address environmental degradation, natural disaster management, and persistent poverty at the scale of the city and region.
Hermann received her Ph.D. from Harvard in the history of Islamic urbanism where her work focused on medieval Muslim cities, contagion theory, and designed responses to outbreaks of epidemic disease (Black Death) during prolonged periods of environmental and political upheaval. Hermann has been visiting faculty at Harvard’s Graduate School of Design and in the Aga Khan Program for Islamic Architecture at MIT.  She was a SPURS Fellow in Urban Studies and Planning at MIT, and is a Fellow of the American Academy in Rome.
Hermann has served as a senior advisor for master planning of the new Asian University for Women being built in Chittagong, Bangladesh, an outgrowth of the Task Force on Higher Education in Developing Countries (World Bank/UNESCO 2000). For the past decade she has worked in the megacities of South Asia on issues related to poverty alleviation, women’s rights and empowerment, education, resource management and environmental disasters, sustainable land-use practices within low-income inner-city neighborhoods, livelihood alternatives and enterprise development. She is co-founder of the Institute for Sustainable Urban Societies/ISUS, an international not-for-profit research, education, advocacy and design alliance located in Kolkata, Dhaka and Boston.
Hermann is a contributing author to the Encyclopedia on Women in Muslim Cultures (EWIC) and author of the in-progress book Cities of Silt and Sand: Urbanization, Environment and Cultural Identity in the Bengal Delta and Cooperative Resilience: Community-Driven Development Strategies in South Asia.  She is adjunct faculty at the Watson Institute for International Studies at Brown University and Social Innovator-in-Residence at the Social Innovation Lab at Babson College.

Spring 2015 course taught

Woven Waters: Islam and The Bay of Bengal 4.625J / 11.378J  Water Planning, Policy and Design
This seminar situates the Bay of Bengal, within the larger body of the Indian Ocean, as a center of globalization dating from ancient times to today.  This eastern half of what has been referred to as “an Islamic Sea” is the meeting point of South Asian cultures and China, two regional superpowers of the past posed to regain their global supremacy going forward. 
The seminar will create a visual and written record – an atlas of sorts - of the web of cultures, languages, religions, migrations, resources, trade, architectures, and power structures that have bound this bay together over human history.  It will examine this within regional environmental conditions, both seasonal and long-term change, and local through international policies and agreements that have framed the trajectories of occupation and land use.  Throughout, the seminar will highlight the role that Islam has played it forming the unique character of what today, once again, is being seen as a center of dialogue, exchange and identity, rather than as a dividing line between distinct peoples, nations and regions.  Readings will range from historic traveler’s accounts to modern scholarship and  contemporary literature.
"Picture the Bay of Bengal as an expanse of tropical water: still and blue in the calm of the January winter, or raging and turbid with silt at the peak of the summer rains.  Picture it in two dimensions on a map, overlaid with a web of shipping channels and telegraph cables and inscribed with lines of distance.  Now imagine the sea as a mental map: as a family tree of cousins, uncles, sisters, sons, connected by letters and journeys and stories. Think of it as a sea of debt, bound by advances and loans and obligations.  Picture the Bay….even where it is absent…   Today one in four of the world’s people lives in a country that borders the Bay of Bengal.  More than half a billion people live directly on the coastal rim that surrounds it.  This is a region that has long been central to the history of globalization: shaped by migration, as culturally mixed as any place on earth, and at the forefront of the commodification of nature…  The coastal frontiers of the Bay are among the most vulnerable in the world to climate change; they are densely populated, ecologically fragile, and at the fault lines of new dreams of empire."
Sunil S. Amrith Crossing the Bay of Bengal (2013)

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Shabout, Nada
Sping 2008 AKPIA@MIT Lecturer
(Visiting Faculty Spring 2008)

Nada Shabout was trained in architecture at the New York Institute of Technology, the University of Texas at Arlington and the Architectural Association School of Architecture , London, England. She has also earned BFA fine arts, MA and PhD in the Humanities with a concentration in art history and criticism from the University of Texas at Arlington, 1999. She wrote her dissertation on "Modern Arab Art and the Metamorphosis of the Arabic Letter." A book based on her dissertation "Modern Arab Art: Formation of Arab Aesthetics," was published by the University of Florida Press, 2007. She has been an Assistant Professor of Art History at the University of North Texas since 2002, teaching Arab visual culture and Islamic art. She has been working on the documentation of modern Iraqi heritage, particularly the collection previously held at the Iraqi Museum of Modern Art since her visit to Baghdad in June 2003. She has been organizing panels and presenting around the world on the state of Iraq's modern heritage following 2003, the relationship of identity and visual representations in modern and contemporary Iraqi art, and exhibitions of Middle Eastern arts in the West since 911.
Among her honors is The American Academic Research Institute in Iraq ( TAARII) fellowship 2006, 2007; and Fulbright Senior Scholar Program, 2007 Lecture/Research fellowship to Jordan Project, " Arab Art Now: A Study of the Contemporary Art Vision in Jordan." She is a founding member and first president (2007-2009) of the Association for Modern and Contemporary Art of the Arab world, Iran, and Turkey (AMCA). She is the curator of the traveling exhibition "Dafatir: Contemporary Iraqi Book Art," 2005-07; and "Moments from 20th Century Iraqi Art," at t he Montalvo Art Center , California, 2007- 2008 . She has edited the exhibition catalogue "Dafatir: Contemporary Iraqi Book Art (UNT Art Gallery, 2007).
She is the author several articles that examine legal and ethical responsibilities of the US in Iraq after 2003, including, "The Iraqi Museum of Modern Art: Ethical Implications," Collections ( Vol. 2, no. 4, May, AltaMira Press , 2006 ); "Historiographic Invisibilities: The Case of Contemporary Iraqi Art," the International Journal of the Humanities (volume 3, Number 9, 2006); "The "Free" Art of Occupation: Images for a "New" Iraq," Arab Studies Quarterly (Volume 28, Number 3 and 4 Summer and Fall 2006); and "Preservation of Iraqi Modern Heritage in the Aftermath of the US Invasion of 2003," in Gail Levin and Elaine A. King, eds, An anthology on Ethics in the Art World (Allworth Press, 2006).

Spring 2008 courses taught

4.621 Orientalism and Representation
In the post-9/11 and US-led invasion of Iraq era, representations centered on the Arab/Islamic world are in the forefront again. These representations vary from the cartoons of the Prophet Mohammed that initiated a series of destructive confrontations between “West” and “East,” to exhibitions of the arts of the region. Edward W. Said (1935-2003) Orientalism in 1978 generated the development of postcolonial studies which examines the voice and agency of the “other” which were silenced or absent in the colonial discourse. Nevertheless, a new wave of exhibiting the “Orient” in today’s “global” age attest to the contrary. A popular theme in promoting Arab/Islamic exhibitions in the West has been the concept of “building bridges.” On their outset, these exhibitions claim to reflect a change in Western attitudes towards art outside its boundaries, and declare that visual arts have become a global phenomenon. They are meant to assert that the notion of fine arts as “a peculiarly Western activity” is no longer the only acceptable standard; where in today’s postmodern (or is it global?) art world artistic centers are not limited to certain Western capitals. Nevertheless, it has been widely argued that under the effect of globalization, defined by most non-Western nations as post-imperialism where the postmodern methodological reevaluation of modernism did not necessarily abandon its principles, the identity of contemporary art is unrecognizable.
This seminar addresses a number of key encounters (events, texts, architectural projects, and images) during the modern age and explores contemporary "new Orientalist" political ideologies and how they inform the construction and reproduction of the current knowledge about the Middle East, Arab and Islam. The discussion will particularly focus on exhibitions organized by Western and/or local curators in the West and the Middle East presenting contemporary cultural production from the Middle East in terms of choices, criteria, ethics and themes of display.  "Neo Orientalism" will be investigated in relationship to both traditional orientalist and nationalist narratives. Central in this discussion is questioning postmodernism’s relative acceptance of the “other,” in view of the general inclination of the West to be more sympathetic and acceptable of postcolonial production which falls within postmodern formulations of hybridity, syncretization, and pastiche.
The course includes weekly reading and writing assignments and requires active participation in discussions. A research paper is to be first presented in class during and then submitted at the end of the term. Topics should be decided in consultation with the instructor by the end of the third week of the semester. A short abstract and preliminary bibliography should be submitted by the fourth week. 

4.627 Special Problems in Islamic and Nonwestern Architecture—Contemporary Art in the Middle East
Finally recognized within the global visual context, contemporary art from the Middle East remain as vague and problematic as the name of its region. This course introduces students to the contemporary arts and cultures of the region, which throughout history has been part of the so called Islamic world. With a review of the formation of Islamic aesthetics and Islamic attitudes towards the arts, the course will begin its investigations from the disjuncture of colonialism and its affects on artists' understanding and transformation of modern art as distinctly expressive of new socio-politico realities. While the focus of the course will be on the Arab world, modern and contemporary art in various regional countries will be broadly investigated in terms of production, reception, exhibition and value, in both local and global markets, through exploring and reevaluating discourses of culture, identity, and globalization. The course will introduce students to various methodologies of decoding works, and will examine several moments from the contemporary development around the region and within the new global interest.
The course is open to graduates and undergraduates. It is structured as a pro-seminar. One session each week will be devoted to a lecture on a specific topic. The second session will be a class discussion on the same topic with designated students' presentations on various aspects of the topic. The class requirements are three short papers (7 pp) and two class presentations for undergraduates; the short papers may be substituted by a research paper for graduate students on a topic to be discussed with the instructor and to be presented in the class.

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Schick, Irvin Cemal
(Visiting Faculty Fall 2004, Fall 2007)

Irvin Cemil Schick was born in Istanbul, Turkey, and obtained his Ph.D. at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1989. He has taught at Harvard University and M.I.T., where he is now a researcher. He is the author of The Erotic Margin: Sexuality and Spatiality in Alteritist Discourse and The Fair Circassian: Adventures of an Orientalist Motif (in Turkish), and the editor or co-editor of several books, including Turkey in Transition: New Perspectives, European Female Captives and their Muslim Masters: Narratives of Captivity from "Turkish Lands" (in Turkish), Women in the Ottoman Balkans: Gender,Culture, History, and the M. Ugur Derman 65th Birthday Festschrift.

Fall 2004 course taught

4.631/4.632: Special Problems in Islamic & NonWestern Architecture Space and Gender: Islam, Colonialism, Modernity

This seminar probes the relationship between space and gender as cultural artifacts, by focusing on Muslim societies in the Near and Middle East. We will start by reviewing the literature on the social construction and gendering of space, as well as the religious foundations of sexual segregation and veiling in Islam. The lived reality of seclusion will be explored with reference to autobiographical writings by harem women, and to ethnographic studies of the bodily practices through which space is gendered. Western views of harem life and the critique of seclusion by travelers, missionaries, and feminists will be reviewed, and the importance given to breaking down the boundaries of gendered space in colonial ideology and practice will be discussed. We will then review the critiques of seclusion produced within Muslim societies themselves, and the spatial changes ushered in by the socio-economic changes that have taken place there during the last century or so. Finally, we will assess political Islam from the viewpoint of spatial contestation, focusing on the debate on reveiling both within Muslim countries and in Muslim diasporas in the West. Course Requirements: The seminar will include weekly reading and writing assignments, and will require active participation in class discussions. A research paper must be presented in class and submitted at the end of the term; topics will be decided in consultation with the instructor by the end of the third week of the semester. A short abstract and preliminary bibliography must be submitted by the fifth week.

Fall 2007 course taught

4.628 Special Problems in Islamic and Nonwestern Architecture—Islamic Calligraphy and Architecture
An introduction to the history of Islamic calligraphy and the culture that surrounds it, with special emphasis on its use as an architectural element. We shall review theories of writing and textuality, as well as public writing and the political uses of script. We shall then discuss the importance of the written word in Islam, and the history, styles, and material culture of calligraphy. After a general review of epigraphy in the Islamic context, we shall discuss the uses to which calligraphy has been put in Islamic architecture, from Muslim Spain to Mugal India, with special emphasis on the Ottoman and Persian contexts. A term paper will be required. Knowledge of Arabic script or of languages spoken in the Muslim world not required. Open to advanced undergraduates, with instructor's permission.

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Watenpaugh, Heghnar
Associate Professor, Aga Khan Career Develpment Professor
(Permanent Faculty Fall 2001 through Spring 2005)

Fall 2001-Spring 2005 courses taught

4.609-4.696. Seminar in the History of Art and Architecture/
Special Studies in the History, Theory and Criticism of Architecture and Urban Form. Cosmopolitan Cities of the Mediterranean in the Early Modern Era
Heghnar Watenpaugh/Carla KeyvanianBuilding on the recent scholarly debate on reintegrating the Mediterranean and reconsidering the interconnectedness of its shores, this graduate seminar focuses on the study of Mediterranean cities in the early modern era cross culturally (15th-19th century). Through a thematic structure we will use a comparative approach to the study of cities and questions of cosmopolitanism. Key themes include: The politics of urban design, civic institutions, representations of power, the spatial dimensions of the social construction of difference, including gender, ethnicity, race and religion, and spaces of sociability (taverns, coffeehouses, places of entertainment). In addition we will consider issues of mapping, the representations of cities, and their imageability. Case studies will include Istanbul, Cairo and Aleppo under Ottoman rule (in Turkey, Egypt and Syria of today), Paris (France), Rome, Florence and Venice (Italy), Granada (Spain) in the 15th and in the 19th century. The seminar will also address the resonance of the architecture of the past for urban form and practice today. The seminar will offer ample opportunity for a comparative approach to the study of cities as it will be jointly oled by an expert on Islamic urbanism and a scholar of western urbanism of the early modern period. The course is open to graduate students and qualified undergraduates. No background in specialized architectural history is required.

4.622 Theories and Histories of Architectural Preservation

This graduate seminar addresses the critical issues involved in the practice of preserving architectural forms from the past. Concepts such as "Tradition," "Heritage," "Patrimony," and "Monument" are examined in the context of debates on memory, the historical imagination, the variable meaning of the visible past, imperial and national identities. Major theoretical interventions by Riegl, Ruskin, Viollet-Le-Duc and others, and their legacy are studied. We will also consider the institutions and professionalization of the practice of preservation. Case studies from the West as well as the non-West range from interventions into urban areas, to abandoned settlements, to archeaological sites, to museological and exhibitionary spaces. These issues are considered in the pre-modern and modern periods, as well as in relation to the contemporary global tourist industry and its implications for the conceptualization and the commodification of „traditional‰ environments and architectural "masterpieces".

4.620. Issues in Modern and Contemporary Islamic Architecture and Urbanism: Heritage as a Battleground

This seminar will look at how Heritage has been constructed in the debates of the architectural cultures in the modern and contemporary Islamic world. Why and how has heritage come to name a cluster of issues and values that galvanizes such strong positions and is invoked in such decisive actions, including the reshaping of cities, the dislocation of populations, and large investments of capital. What is the object of heritage? How does heritage relate to the historical imagination, the visible past, the construction of identity, and modernization? How does heritage intervene in such practices as museum building, archaeology, and preservation? What is its relationship to colonial regimes, nation states, and the global tourism industry? When is it "authentic" and when is it contested? What is its relationship to memory and spectacularization? When and how are aspects of "heritage" erased? The course will combine theoretical readings on the construction and exhibition of heritage with the critical examination of specific case studies of projects, sites and ideas.

4.631 4.632 Gender, Space, Architecture

T hese courses place issues of gender at the center of explorations of space and architecture. We will work with theoretical and multi-disciplinary texts to consider gender in relation to particular architectural sites, projects and ideas. The core debates on women and gender in art and architectural history are introduced. In-depth analyses of selected works of art and architecture from various historical contexts highlight issues including gendered practices of space, vision and power, masculinity, and cyberspace. Special emphasis is placed on the experience of women and men in Third World contexts. No background in art of architectural history is required.