The Defense and Arms Control Studies Program sponsors a number of working groups--research collaborations of faculty, staff and students--with each group adopting a distinctive format and topic. One, led by Professor Harvey Sapolsky, examines American defense policies and has been especially concerned with the effect casualties have on the conduct and political acceptability of war. Another, directed by Professor Stephen Meyer, has focused on the security policies of the former Soviet Union and most recently on the adjustments made by the defense industries of the former Soviet Union to new political and economic realities. A third, led by Professor Barry Posen, has concentrated on conventional warfare with special emphasis on nationalism-driven conflicts. A fourth, led by Professor Sapolsky, has been concerned with the impact the end of the Cold War will have on aerospace, shipbuilding, and research and development. A fifth, directed by Professor Theodore Postol, explores defense technology issues, most recently on the future of the ABM Treaty. A sixth, also led by Professor Sapolsky, has been examining the environmental legacies of the Cold War. A seventh, jointly directed by Professors George Rathjens and Jack Ruina, has been exploring American national strategy and force requirements in a world filled with ethnic turmoil and failed states. An eighth, led by Professor Richard Samuels and offered in conjunction with the MIT Japan Program, looks at security issues in Asia. A ninth, led by Dr. Marvin Miller, studies proliferation problems. In addition, the program sponsors several seminar series including the DACS seminars, the Future of War seminars, and the Defense Star seminars. Three major conferences were held: Organizational Issues in the DOE/DOD Cleanup Efforts; Force Projection Capabilities and Polices, and; The Second General Doolittle Workshop -- Airpower after the Gulf War.
The director of the program is Professor Sapolsky, who has sought to encourage the initiatives mentioned above and to increase the program's research and public education activities. Among the Program publications are Breakthroughs, a research journal now in its fifth year; DACS Facts, the program's newsletter, and; DACS Seminars, reports on current topics. A working paper series has also been restarted. Dr. George Lewis became the Program Assistant Director. Major sponsors have been the Carnegie, Ford, and MacArthur Foundations. In addition to ten faculty members, thirty-five graduate students, eight post-doctoral visitors and scholars and two military fellows were affiliated with the program this year.
The Seminar on Peoples and States: Ethnic Identity and Struggle, chaired in 1994-95 by Professor Jean Jackson (Anthropology/Archaeology), examines issues of the creation of ethnic and nationalist identities in relation to the state; the Ford Development Seminar, a workshop funded by the Ford Foundation, explores new conceptual approaches to the study of developing areas. Each lecture is followed by a workshop for doctoral students to discuss methodological issues in field research. It is organized by Dr. Elizabeth Leeds, (CIS).
The MIT-Harvard Joint Seminar in Political Development (JOSPOD), co-organized by Professors Myron Weiner (Political Science) and Jorge Dominguez (Harvard University), dealt in its 30th year with the theme of The Politics of Economic Reform; the Bustani Middle East Seminar, organized by Professor Philip Khoury (History Faculty) has treated such concerns as the prospects for peace in the Middle East, religious fundamentalism, and ethnic identity; the Inter-University Seminar on International Migration, organized by Professor Weiner, concentrates on the themes of security implications of refugee flows and consequences of migration for the labor force. The Migration Seminar sponsored two major conferences during the year organized by Professor Weiner: Japanese and U.S. Immigration, Refugee, and Citizenship Policies in December, 1994 and; Migration in South Africa, held in February, 1995. The Faculty Seminar on Global Environment and Sustainable Development, organized by Professor Nazli Choucri (Political Science), brings together faculty throughout the Institute for discussions on such issues as international environmental regulations and financial and business responses to environmental challenges.
Education is central, with placement of MIT science, engineering, and management students as interns in Japan at the core. Educational activities during the period under review were as follows:
1) The Program placed a record 57 interns. 2) The Program's two summer courses in technical Japanese, one for computer science and electrical engineering and the other for materials science and related engineering, continue to attract a large number of highly qualified applicants. 3) The Program has also begun to work closely with the MIT International Science and Technology Initiative (MISTI), which was established by the Institute's former provost Mark S. Wrighton, to help place interns in the Pacific Rim. 4) The Program is also active in curriculum development and training. The Japan Effectiveness Training (JET) course was offered for the fourth consecutive summer this year; the Program's sponsor retreat last November was attended by 29 individuals from industry and government; four Target Seminars were given during the period under review; and the Program's Video Series currently contains 28 titles and are an important tool for dissemination of information to individuals with time and/or budget constraints.
In research, the Program undertook the following projects during the period under review:
1) The Re-emergence of Great Power Politics in East Asia, under the direction of Program Director Richard J. Samuels. 2) Technology Supply Chains: Customer-Supplier Relationships, under the direction of Professor Charles H. Fine of the MIT Sloan School of Management. 3) The Future of U.S.-Japan Defense Technology Collaboration, under the direction of Research Associate Dr. Michael Green.
Japan-related research findings are also disseminated through the Program's Working Paper series.
Significant activities during the period under review have included:
Partnering With Japan: Managing Risk, Maximizing Benefit (symposium).
Multinationals and East Asian Integration (workshop).
Creating and Managing Corporate Technology Supply Chains: Linking Technology Sourcing Practices to Future Growth and Competitiveness (strategic briefing).
Asia Pacific Crisis Simulation Exercise.
Continued publication of The MIT Japan Program Science, Technology & Management Report.
Japan Science and Technology Databases.
Cooperation with the Institute's Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures on the JPNET (Japanese Network) Project to build a virtual community for Japanese specialists.
Cooperation with the MIT Libraries on the Japanese Scientific and Technical Information Project to create a national resource for Japanese scientific and technical information.
Continuation of the program's dinner series, technology forum lectures, informal talks, IAP events, weekly Japanese lunch table with Japanese cultural activities, and Japanese film showings.
The Program's Corporate Consortium now has 16 members, all of them large American multinationals--and the list of Japanese host organizations continues to grow.
The main objective of Seminar XXI is to develop among the program Fellows new analytic skills for understanding foreign societies, including the instincts to ask different questions about the facts they receive on the job and in turn, to search out alternative interpretations of that data. Seminar XXI meets nine times over the course of the year, with each session focusing on a different foreign country or policy issue. The approach is not meant to cultivate country or functional expertise, but rather to provide concrete examples of the program's essential point: different frames of interpretation through which societies are understood yield fundamentally different answers to the questions policy makers must ask and resolve. By considering the politics of each country through different frameworks of analysis, the range of possible explanations for these countries' behaviors is widened, as is the range of US policy options which can be considered systematically. Each of the nine sessions bring together distinguished faculty from US and foreign institutions.
Affirmative Action: The Center draws its members from the MIT faculty and student body and its support staff through the MIT Personnel Department and our pool reflects the general commitment of MIT to affirmative action goals. General funds presently support part of the salaries of four people, three of whom are women, including our Assistant Director. The Director of the Center is an Asian American and the Managing Director of the MIT Japan Program is a woman.
MIT Reports to the President 1994-95