MIT Reports to the President 1995-96


1995-96 was an exciting and important year in the history of the Chemical Engineering Department. Professor Robert A. Brown, began his eighth year as Department Head and then in January, 1996 was named the new Dean of Engineering. Professor Charles L. Cooney, who replaced Professor Robert Armstrong as Department Executive Officer on July 1, 1995, became Acting Department Head while a search committee chaired by Professor William Deen prepared recommendations to the Dean. With the enthusiastic support of the Department, Dean Brown appointed Professor Robert C. Armstrong as the new Department Head beginning from June 1. Professor Cooney continues as the Executive Officer. During the year, Professors Edward Merrill and Adel Sarofim both announced their retirement effective September 30, 1996. Professor Sarofim will move to the University of Utah and Professor Merrill will remain active in the Department on a part time basis teaching and continuing his research.

On the administrative side of the Department, Robert Morrow our administrative officer retired effective in June and two long time support staff employees also retired during the year. Both Darlene Messmer-Slagle our personnel administrator and Michael Hegarty our financial officer have assumed expanded administrative responsibilities.

The Department continues to thrive with high undergraduate enrollments. For the 1995-96 academic year our undergraduate enrollment continues to exceed class sizes of 100 with 118 sophomores, 101 juniors and 103 seniors. Initiatives in undergraduate education include: two ECSEL sponsored programs to incorporate more design into undergraduate education, initiation of the minor program in biomedical engineering and the successful introduction of a new course in Molecular Aspects of Chemical Engineering. We also completed the construction of a new undergraduate Laboratory in Polymer Science in Building 31 that allows us to double the number of students taking this very popular course each term.

Our graduate program again received a high level of excellent applications. From 366 applications we offered admission to 64 students and 41 students accepted our offer, a yield of 64%. There were 33 students in the David H. Koch School of Chemical Engineering Practice; these students participated in projects at our sites at Dow Chemical and Merck stations. We also added a new site at Molten Metal Technology in Fall River, MA. We were again ranked number one in the country by the annual U.S. News & World Report survey. Support of graduate research in the Department continues at a high level with $17M during the academic year; 50% comes from industry.

It was an especially exciting year for faculty chair appointments: Professor Robert C. Armstrong was named to the Chevron Chair in Chemical Engineering, Professor Jack B. Howard was named as the first Hoyt C. Hottel Professor of Chemical Engineering, Professor T. Alan Hatton became the first Ralph Landau Professor in Chemical Engineering Practice and Professor Robert E. Cohen was named to the new Raymond A. and Helen E. St. Laurent Professor of Chemical Engineering. There were two promotions effective July 1, 1996 with Professor Linda Griffith Cima and Jackie Y. Ying becoming Associate Professors. We have also hired a new assistant professor, Bernhardt Trout who will join us at the end of 1997 after completion of a postdoctoral position at the Max Plank Institute in Germany.

Several of our faculty received significant honors this year. Professor R. A. Brown received the Professional Progress Award of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Professor Paul Laibinis was selected as a Young Investigator of the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Foundation and named the Henry L. and Grace Doherty Assistant Professor of Ocean Utilization. Professor Robert Langer was selected as the recipient of both the William H. Walker award of the American Institute of Chemical Engineering and the prestigious Gairdner Foundation International Award. Professor Adel Sarofim received the Homer H. Lowry Award from the Department of Energy. Professor Jackie Ying received a David and Lucille Packard Fellowship and a Camille Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar Award.


For the year 1991-92, sophomore enrollment was 96, juniors 72, seniors 58, total 226; 1992-93 sophomores 95, juniors 89, seniors 81, total 265; 1993-94 sophomores 115, juniors 90, seniors 84, total 289; 1994-95 sophomores 108, juniors 104, seniors 100, total 312; 1995-96 sophomores 118, juniors 101, seniors 103, total 322.

The trend in increasing enrollment since the 1987-88 academic year continued. The current projection for next year's sophomore class is about 100, indicating as expected that the class size is leveling off. Our classes continue to include about half women, with much interest in the areas of biochemical and biomedical applications of chemical engineering. Our teaching resources, both faculty and space, continue to be strained.


The undergraduate polymer laboratory, initiated by Professor Robert E. Cohen in 1973 and further developed by Profs. Edward Merrill and Paula Hammond, has become an important component of our undergraduate program. With the growing undergraduate enrollment and the increasing importance of polymers in many products, the demand for the course far outgrew the capacity to teach it in building 66. With funding from the Dean's Office and Department we were able to relocate the laboratory to building 31 and double its capacity to 36 students in both the Fall and Spring terms. This elective laboratory meets an important need for undergraduates in satisfying their Department laboratory requirements, as well as introduce them to a central area of modern chemical engineering.


In the 1990-91 year, Masters enrollment was 59, Doctoral enrollment was 164, total 223; 1991-92, Masters 37, Doctoral 164, total 201; 1992-93 Masters 51, Doctoral 159, total 210; 1993-94, Masters 62, Doctoral 147, total 209; 1994-95, Masters 64, Doctoral 166, total 230:1995-96, Masters 56, Doctoral 169, total 225.

The total for 1995-96 includes 67 foreign students, 55 female students, and 14 minority students (not including Asian Americans). Graduate admissions data suggests that graduate enrollment will remain in the low 200s for the next several years.


A total of 33 students participated in the Practice School Program during the 1995-96 academic year. The two permanent stations at Dow Chemical Company in Midland, MI, and the Merck Manufacturing Division in West Point, PA, and a third summer station at Molten Metal Technology in Fall River, MA, provided a wide variety of excellent projects and opportunities for the students. Some projects were also carried out at Dow Corning to supplement those offered by Dow Chemical. Dr. Janet Griffiths and Dr. Barry Johnston continued to serve as directors of the West Point and Midland Stations, respectively. The Fall River Station will be directed by Dr. Andrea O'Connor in June 1996 and Professor Arijit Bose, on sabbatical leave at MIT from the University of Rhode Island, for the remaining two 1996 summer months. Professor T. Alan Hatton continues to direct the Practice School from Cambridge. The stature of the Practice School was again elevated through the establishment of the Ralph Landau Professorship in Chemical Engineering Practice, which chair is to be held by the Director of the Practice School.


Professor Robert C. Armstrong completed a two year term as President of the Society of Rheology, one of the founding member societies of the American Institute of Physics. Professor Armstrong gave invited seminars at the California Institute of Technology, UCLA, and the University of Southern California. He also presented a keynote lecture at the Isaac Newton Institute at Cambridge University. This year he was named holder of the Chevron Chair in Chemical Engineering. Professor Armstrong serves on the National Awards Committee of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

Professor Paul I. Barton received an award from the Exxon Education Foundation. He gave invited lectures at the Chemical Process Control - V Conference, Purdue University and the University of Notre Dame.

Professor Howard Brenner, W.H. Dow Professor of Chemical Engineering, received the 1996 General Electric Gold Medal Senior Research Award of the American Society of Engineering Education. During the year, he was on sabbatical leave from MIT at several universities here and abroad, including an appointment as Lady Davis Professor at the Technion in Haifa, Israel. Invited lectures were presented to various universities in Israel, Mexico, Holland, Switzerland, France and Spain, as well as at various US universities.

Robert A. Brown, Warren K. Lewis Professor, served as Department Head until January when he became Dean of Engineering at MIT. He chaired the first "Frontiers of Engineering Conference" for the National Academy of Engineering. The meeting was held in September of 1995 and brought together 100 leading young engineers from industry and academia to discuss research across all engineering disciplines. He was the Richard Wilhelm Lecturer at Princeton University in the fall. Professor Brown also began a three-year term as a Member-at-Large on the U.S. National Committee on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics of the National Research Council and also began service on the Materials Research Council of DARPA. Professor Brown won the Professional Progress Award of the AIChE in 1996, which will be given to him at the National Meeting in November.

Professor Linda Griffith Cima was promoted to Associate Professor. She gave a number of invited lectures, including the Gordon Conference on Biomaterials, two separate NIH-sponsored workshops on tissue engineering, the Keystone conference on Tissue Engineering, and at Georgia Tech and the University of Wisconsin. She will co-chair the Materials Research Society Spring 1997 meeting, and continues to serve as co-chair of the CBE biomedical engineering curriculum committee. She and her collaborators at Massachusetts General Hospital received international press attention when the BBC ran a documentary showing an experiment in which they demonstrated that cartilage in the shape of a human ear could be grown using a biodegradable polymer construct seeded with cells isolated from cartilage, and the "mouse with the ear" has now become a virtual symbol for tissue engineering.

Professor Robert E. Cohen was named the inaugural Raymond A. and Helen E. St. Laurent Professor of Chemical Engineering. The endowed chair was established with a gift from the late Helen St. Laurent who died in March of 1995. Her husband, Raymond St. Laurent was a member of the class of 1921. Professor Cohen was honored with the Shell Distinguished Lectureship in Materials Science and Engineering at Northwestern University. He also presented invited lectures at Johns Hopkins University and at Bayer Corporation in Leverkusen, Germany. As the Chemical Engineering Department's Graduate Officer, he chaired an Ad Hoc Committee to examine the structure of the Doctoral Program with a focus on reducing the residence time required to complete the doctoral degree in Chemical Engineering.

Professor Charles L. Cooney, was named as Executive Officer of the Department of Chemical Engineering effective July 1, 1995, and from January 15 through May 31, 1996 also served as Acting Department Head. Professor Cooney became co-director of a newly formed Consortium for Advanced Manufacturing in Pharmaceuticals, a joint MIT-Purdue University academic-industry consortium. He also was named chair of the Corporate Relations Committee and joined the newly formed Council on Industrial Relations.

Professor T. Alan Hatton was appointed the Ralph Landau Professor of Chemical Engineering Practice. He has been organizing an Engineering Foundation Conference on "Structured Fluids and Interfaces: Technical Applications and Opportunities for Organized Molecular Assemblies" ( January 1997) and is serving on the organizing committee of the Engineering Foundation Conference on Separation Technology (October 1997). Professor Hatton was appointed a US Editor of the journal "Colloids and Surfaces". He presented invited seminars at the ETH, Zurich, Switzerland, Purdue University, and the University of Virginia.

Professor Jack B. Howard became the first Hoyt C. Hottel Professor of Chemical Engineering. The creation of the Hoyt C. Hottel Chair was announced at a departmental reception in honor of Professor Hottel and Professor Howard. Professor Howard also was elected to the Board of Directors of the Combustion Institute and was appointed to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Committee on Microgravity Combustion Programs.

Professor Paul E. Laibinis was selected as a Young Investigator of the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Foundation and was named the Henry L. and Grace Doherty Assistant Professor of Ocean Utilization. Professor Laibinis was an invited lecturer at the 188th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society in Chicago, the 22nd Conference of the Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Societies, the Gordon Research Conference on "Organic Thin Films", and the 7th Annual Symposium on Photoinduced Charge Transfer at the NSF Center at the University of Rochester. In 1995, he inaugurated a new applied chemistry course entitled "Molecular Aspects of Chemical Engineering" with Professor Hammond.

Professor Robert S. Langer was awarded the International Award, the highest award of the Society of Plastics Engineers, the Ebert Prize (American Pharmaceutical Association), the Gairdner Foundation International Award, and the William H. Walker Award (American Institute of Chemical Engineers). One of his scientific papers was cited as one of the top ten medical advances of 1995 by the Harvard Health Letter. Professor Langer was selected as the Berkeley Lecturer (University of California at Berkeley), and the Avis Distinguished Visiting Professor (University of Tennessee). He also gave the Plenary Lecture at the 3rd Jerusalem Conference on Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology.

Professor Douglas Lauffenburger, also Director of the MIT Center for Biomedical Engineering, is serving as President-Elect of the Biomedical Engineering Society. In this past academic year he presented the Llewelyn-Thomas Distinguished Lectures in Bioengineering at the University of Toronto, as well as invited plenary lectures at the Gordon Conference on Biomaterials & Biocompatibility, the Keystone Symposium on Cell Migration in Development, Homeostasis & Pathology, the Johnson & Johnson Focused Giving Symposium, and the Whitaker Foundation Grantees' Conference.

Professor Gregory C. Rutledge took part in the organization and presentation of the Polymer Section of the Workshop on Molecular Modeling, co-sponsored by MIT, the Institute for Theoretical Physics, and UCSB, to bridge the gap between academic and industrial applications of modeling. He was an invited speaker at the 17th AFOSR Asilomar Conference on Polymeric Materials, at ANTEC'96 (meeting of the Society of Plastics Engineers), and at a symposium commemorating the 35th anniversary of the journal Polymer, of which he is an Editorial Advisory Board member.

Professor Adel Sarofim received the Annual Award for Innovation in Coal in September, 1995 given by the University of Pittsburgh to honor an individual who has made a recent and significant contribution to new technologies, new procedures or new policies toward coal utilization. The citation read "A strong and recurring characteristic of Professor Sarofim's coal conversion research is clarification of fundamental mechanisms underlying coal behavior in practical processes". In March, 1996 he received the Homer H. Lowry Award of the Department of Energy for outstanding research accomplishments in the field of fossil energy. It was stated that "Adel Sarofim is a compassionate human being who inspires students and colleagues, and who contributes significantly across the full spectrum from fundamental science through real-world design concepts".

Professor George Stephanopoulos was elected as the Vice-Chairman of the "Computing and Systems Technology" Division of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. He will take over the chairmanship in 1997. Professor Stephanopoulos was the International Programming Committee chairman for two major international conferences; (I) ISPE-'95, "Intelligent Systems in Process Engineering" (Snowmass, Colorado, July 1995), (II) ESCAPE-6, "European Symposium of Computer-Aided Process Engineering" (Rhodes, Greece, May 1996). He was invited by the chemical engineering students to present the Centennial Lecture of their student chapter at the Technical University of Delft, The Netherlands (October 1995). He also presented invited lectures at Princeton University, McMaster University, Carnegie-Mellon University, Case Western Reserve University, Wayne State University, Kyoto University, Imperial College, and University of Connecticut. In January 1996 he presented a series of lectures at the Technical Centers of Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, Japan Energy Corporation, Bayer AG, and Shell Oil Corp. Academic Press, in its Advances in Chemical Engineering Series (Volumes 21 and 22), published the two-volume work on "Intelligent Systems in Process Engineering: Part I- Paradigms from Product and Process Design, Part II- Paradigms from Process Operations and Control" that Professor Stephanopoulos co-authored with his present and past Ph.D. students.

Professor Daniel I.C. Wang delivered a keynote lecture at the North-South American Conference on Biotechnology in November, 1995 in Cueravaca, Mexico on "The Future Needs in Bioprocess Engineering Research". Professor Wang also delivered a keynote lecture at the International Chemical Congress of Pacific Basin Societies in December, 1995 in Honolulu, Hawaii on "Education and Research in Biochemical Engineering". He was invited to deliver keynote lecture at Cell Culture Engineering V Conference in San Diego, CA in February, 1996 on the "Past Developments and Future Challenges in Animal Cell Culture". In May, 1996, Professor Wang was invited to the Chemical Engineering Department, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China where he delivered a number of lectures on Biochemical Engineering and was given an honorary title of Advisory Professor of Zhejiang University.

Professor Jackie Y. Ying was recognized by several organizations this past year for her research in nanocrystalline materials and mesoporous structures. She received a David & Lucille Packard Fellowship for Science and Engineering, a Camille Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar Award, and the Royal Academy of Engineering ICI Fellowship for Young Academic Chemical Engineer. Professor Ying was an invited speaker at the 1st Annual National Academy of Engineering Frontiers of Engineering Symposium, TMS 1995 Materials Week, Engineering Foundation Conference on Interfacial Materials, 1996 World Car Conference, TMS International Symposium on Nanocrystalline Materials, and MRS Spring Symposium on Porous Materials. This summer she will be giving invited talks at the Office of Naval Research 50th Anniversary Symposium, the Gordon Research Conference on Solid State Chemistry, and the ACS Symposium on Macromaterials. Professor Ying's research is interdisciplinary in nature, with a theme in synthesis of advanced inorganic materials for catalytic, membrane and ceramic applications via structural tailoring on the nanometer scale. She currently holds the first Raymond A. and Helen E. St. Laurent Career Development Chair. She serves on the Editorial Board for the Journal of Porous Materials and Journal of Electroceramics, and is a Guest Editor for Nanostructured Materials and the AIChE Journal. She is on the Board of Directors of Alexander von Humboldt Association of America, and is the Ceramics Area Vice-Chair for the American Institute of Chemical Engineers.



The mission of the Center for Biomedical Engineering (CBE) is to bring engineering into intimate contact with molecular and cell biology, for the purpose of developing innovative approaches to biomedical technology. It brings together efforts of more than 20 investigators at MIT, Harvard Medical School, and BU Medical School, in three major thrust areas: Molecular Engineering, Cell & Tissue Engineering, and Physiological Systems Engineering. The first thrust area primarily deals with characterization of physical and chemical properties of individual biomolecules, mainly proteins and DNA, via high throughput assays. The second aims at creating methodologies for delivering biotechnology-based molecular-, cell-, and tissue-based therapies. The third emphasizes minimally-invasive techniques for quantitative assessment of how these biotechnology-based interventions affect physiological function. CBE supports Core Facilities in Biomolecular Interactions & Cellular Responses, Histology & Immunochemistry, and Quantitative Microscopy & Image Analysis at the present time. It also administers the undergraduate Minor degree program in Biomedical Engineering. In May 1996 it offered, in conjunction with ILP, a Workshop on MIT/Industry Interactions in Biomedical Engineering. In June 1996 it organized and sponsored, along with the School of Engineering and the Departments of Chemical Engineering and Biology and the Whitehead Institute, a Summer Course in Molecular & Cell Biology for Engineering Faculty.


The Center on Airborne Organics was established at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) to conduct research needed to provide the scientific tools for more rational decision making on issues related to the impact of airborne organics on tropospheric ozone, visibility, fine particles, and air toxics; more specifically, to develop improved methodologies and predictive and interpretive models to reliably connect the identities and concentrations of airborne organic compounds with major anthropogenic pollutant emission sources. A key feature of the Center's research program is the development of a mechanistic understanding of the factors that govern the detailed chemical compositions of the effluents from mobile and stationary combustion systems, and how these compositions are influenced by atmospheric transformation, for purposes of both developing better understanding of the use of signatures for source attribution purposes and guiding the development of risk-reducing strategies.

The Center was funded in June, 1992 with Professor Adel Sarofim as Director and Professor John Seinfeld of Caltech and Professor Dick Magee of NJIT as Associate Directors. Professor Jack Howard will take over as Center Director when Professor Sarofim takes early retirement on October 1, 1996. During its first four years of operation, the Center has developed new models for the formation of fine particles from organics both in the atmosphere and in flames, identified which of the sources of organics in ambient air are potential mutagens, and developed analytical techniques for characterizing the organics and relating soot to its sources. The soot prints which are potential signatures for the sources of the elemental carbon in airborne organics have received wide coverage in the media. Center projects funded at MIT include the efforts of Professors Heywood and Hochgreb of the Sloan Automotive Laboratory on the effects of engine deposits on hydrocarbon emissions, the research by Professor Jack Howard on developing comprehensive models of soot formation in flames, the development by Professor Greg McRae of tools for allowing efficiently for the effect of uncertainties in input parameters on the predictions of complex models of atmospheric transformation, and the work on high resolution electron microscopy leading to the soot prints by Professors Sarofim and John Vander Sande of the Materials Science Department.

One of the highlights of the Center's activities have been the summer symposia held annually at Endicott House on the impact of the science being carried out in the Center on some of the more contentious issues in the air pollution field, including the issues of regulating ozone in the Northeast, the implementation of the air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments, and effective technologies for low emission vehicles. The organization of these summer symposia has been greatly assisted by the Science Advisory Committee of the Center, of which a graduate of the Department, Dr. Bob Slott of Shell, has played a key role.


Materials engineering is entering an exciting era with new opportunities to tailor properties via nanostructure processing. Professor Jackie Ying's group is developing two broad classes of materials with designed nanometer-scale structural manipulation. The first is referred to as a nanocrystalline material, which is an ensemble of 1-10 nm-sized crystallites. The nanocrystallites possess unique hybrid properties characteristic of neither the molecular nor the bulk solid state limits. Nanocrystalline processing offers a practical way of retaining the results of property manipulation on the atomic or molecular level. Nanostructured catalysts have been developed with unique quantum confinement effects, ultrahigh surface area, and intimate surface interaction between components. These novel materials exhibit remarkable activities for environmental catalysis, eliminating effectively such pollutants as CO, SO2, NOx, and chlorinated organic compounds. With greater microstructural uniformity, advanced ceramics have also been achieved with superb strength and ductility by the nanocomposite approach for high temperature structural and biomaterial implant applications.

Professor Ying's laboratory is also investigating another class of nanostructured system characterized by the molecular assembly of structures consisting of nanometer-sized cavities or pores. Conventional porous structures with long-range crystalline order are typically limited to aluminosilicates (e.g. zeolites) and phosphates with pore openings of <15Å. The inflexibility in the composition and pore size of such materials does not address the needs of the variety of catalytic reaction and gas adsorption applications that exists in chemical industries. Ability to process nanoporous materials with greater control in compositional and pore structure variation will open up tremendous opportunities in advancing catalysis and separations technologies. Professor Ying's group has developed two approaches for synthesizing nanoporous materials, one involving ligated liquid crystal templating micellar structures, the second employing pillaring agents or molecular props between layered structures. The former led to the achievement of the first family of transition metal oxide molecular sieves, and the latter generated a new class of crystalline layered transition metal molybdates. The new porous structures offer exciting potential for a wide range of catalytic applications, including photocatalysis, stereospecific polymerization, solid acid catalysis, epoxidation and oxidative dehydrogenation.


The Chemical Engineering Department's annual Awards Ceremony provided an opportunity to acknowledge the achievements of our students, faculty and staff during the past academic year. In conjunction with the Student Financial Aid Office, Amoco Foundation Undergraduate Scholarships were acknowledged for recipients Brian J. Banaszak, a junior from New Carlisle, OH, Robert J. Meagher, a junior from Sterling Heights, MI, and Brian J. McDonald, a junior from Fort Myers, FL. Also acknowledged were NSF Scholars Gerardo Corona, a junior from Summit, IL, Shelly-Ann N. Davidson, a junior from North Miami Beach, FL, and Kimberly L. Miller, a junior from Guaynabo, PR. The Dow Chemical Company Outstanding Junior Award recipient was Ritesh A. Shah, a junior from Burr Ridge, IL, for his balanced record of achievement in academics and campus professional and social organizations, as well as work experience. The American Institute of Chemists Foundation honored Jessica R. Oleson, a senior from Auburn, MA, for her potential advancement in the chemical professions, based on her demonstrated record of leadership ability, character, and scholastic achievement. The Robert T. Haslam Cup was awarded to Katherine M. Notter, a senior from Wenatchee, WA, for outstanding professional promise in chemical engineering. The Roger de Friez Hunneman Prize, the oldest prize in the department (begun in 1927), was awarded to Ashish R. Patel, a senior from Burlington, MA, in recognition of outstanding scholarship and research.

The Edward W. Merrill Outstanding Teaching Assistant Award was presented to Radha Nayak, a graduate student from Bangalore, India, for excellence in teaching in an undergraduate subject. A second place award went to Patrick M. Piccione, a graduate student from Sweden. Chemical Engineering Department Special Service Awards were given to Rajesh Venkataramani, a graduate student from Upper St. Clair, PA, Chase E. Orsello, a graduate student from North Saint Paul, MN, and Bryan J. Sanderson, a senior from Charlton, NY, for their unselfish contributions to the success of departmental activities.

The Outstanding Employee Award was presented to Maria Nargi, a Senior Office Assistant in the Chemical Engineering Administration Office, for her exceptional service to the department and its students. The Outstanding Faculty Award from the graduate students, was presented to Professor William M. Deen. Undergraduate students in the department presented an Outstanding Faculty Award to Dr. C. Michael Mohr. Individual Accomplishment Citations were presented to Chemical Engineering Facilities Manager Stephen K. Wetzel, and graduate student Lloyd P.M. Johnston, for their outstanding contributions to departmental life. Wetzel and Johnston were the first-ever recipients of this special award, and each received a personalized citation signed by the Department Head.

Robert C. Armstrong

MIT Reports to the President 1995-96