NEW APPOINTMENTS AND PERSONNEL CHANGES
The Early Retirement Plan for the faculty saw the retirement of three Institute Professors - Morris Halle, John Waugh, and Hermann Haus. Professor Haus continues on the faculty on a 49% part-time basis. Three new Institute Professors were appointed in the Spring - Peter Diamond of Economics, Thomas Magnanti of Sloan and Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, and Mario Molina of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences as well as the Chemistry Department. Institute Professor John Deutch returned from government service, most recently as Director of the CIA. Late in the academic year it was announced that Institute Professor David Baltimore will leave to become President of the California Institute of Technology.
John Wilson, Director of Foundation Relations, has also been appointed Assistant Provost for Outreach. In this new position he will work to enhance the relations between MIT and historically black colleges and universities.
Helen Samuels, the Archivist of the Institute, left that position and will now work with Associate Provost Philip Clay on policy issues related to maintaining information about students.
Stefano Falconi was appointed the Director of the Office of Budget and Fiscal Planning. This Office has a dotted line relationship to the Provost's Office.
The Education Committee is a subcommittee of Academic Council that is chaired by the Provost. The Education Committee proposed several changes to policies of the Institute:
The Provost as Chief Budget Officer spends a significant amount of time on the Institute's budget plans. Historically, several offices at MIT have been involved in decisions that have a nontrivial impact on the budget. For example, the Student Financial Aid Office makes proposals for the tuition rate for the following year, and the Personnel Office makes recommendations on average salary increases in various categories. This year we have created a new committee, the Budget Planning Committee of about sixteen members, which has met every other month during the academic year in order to review various information that affects the budget for future years. It is hoped that a better flow of information can lead to better control over the budget.
The Provost, working with the Office of the Budget and Fiscal Planning, has developed a model that looks ahead ten years. The model concentrates on unrestricted funds. Unrestricted funds are only one third of the total Institute budget, but the operating deficit is the same whether one looks at the total budget or just at the unrestricted funds. Thus it is hoped that this approach is easier to analyze and understand. In addition, the Provost, working with an outside consultant, has created a large systems dynamics model of the Institute. In such a model it is possible to consider the effects of increased capital expenditures, for example, on both the future size of the endowment and the attractiveness of the Institute to potential new faculty and students. It is hoped that such a model will provide an intuitive understanding of the implications of changes in the way the Institute expends funds.
Research volume at MIT has been relatively flat and actually declining in real terms for several years. The administration has made efforts to build up research support in two areas - industry and international. These have begun to pay off. It is anticipated that we will end the year with industrial sponsored research growing at about 12%, and with overall research growth at about 5%. We expect these efforts to pay off in future years as well. A key measure of the impact of increased research support on the deficit is the growth in the Modified Total Direct Cost base. This figure has, unfortunately, not grown as fast as total volume, and is clearly an area to which we need to pay increased attention in the coming years.
The Technology Licensing Office has had a banner year, with gross income above $20M for the first time. Over $5.5M was raised when RSA, Inc. was sold to a public company, and when Cambridge Heart became a publicly held company. Most of the proceeds from the sale of the stock in these firms was used to endow the RSA, Inc. chair, and the Distinguished Professorship in Health Science and Technology (HST).
Many of the major renovation activities on campus are related to the need to find space for the current occupants of Building 20. Building 20 is still due to be taken down in the first half of 1998. Building 56 was renovated and occupied in this fiscal year. Major work is now going on in Building 16. Both buildings were vacated when the Biology building was completed. Many of their new occupants will be associated with the Chemical Engineering and Chemistry departments, the Toxicology Division, and the HST Division. The MIT Press headquarters was moved off-campus in order to give temporary space for the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy. Other current occupants of Building 20 are to be housed in various parts of the campus.
Fund raising for the new buildings on the site of Building 20 reached a major milestone when the Ray and Maria Stata gift was announced. Pledges now total $15M. In addition, the estimated value of the rents in Technology Square that will no longer be needed is about $35M. The estimated cost of the new buildings will be about $90M. Thus fund raising is continuing.
Senior House was renovated during the summer of 1996. The renovation of the outside of the building will be completed in the summer of 1997.
The Rosalind Denny Lewis Music Library was dedicated in the fall of 1996. This beautiful renovation of the Music Library includes along its interior walls a new piece by Institute Professor John Harbison.
In the summer of 1997 we will begin renovation of classrooms in the main complex. We shall begin with ten classrooms in Building 2. Two of these classrooms will eventually have built-in computers at each desk, initially for the use of students in the Linear Algebra subject, 18.06.
A major renovation has begun of Building 11 to permit most of the staff in the student services area to be centrally located. This is a key part of the Institute's reengineering activities. The Information Services activities previously housed in Building 11 will move to the Graphic Arts facility on Massachusetts Avenue.
The Institute's departments have continued their efforts to increase the number of women and minority faculty hires. Out of a total of 50 faculty appointments, six were made to minorities and eleven were made to women faculty, two of whom are also minorities.
Five minority faculty were appointed Martin Luther King Jr. Visiting Professors. This represented an increase of one from last year's number. Last year was the initial year of this program.
INSTITUTE-WIDE EDUCATIONAL AND RESEARCH INITIATIVES
The faculty, staff and administration of the Institute continued to foster better educational and research relationships with industry and in the international realm. This is consistent with discussions that have taken place in the Councils for Industrial Relationships and International Relationships. A new agreement was signed with Malaysia. The goal is to help develop a new private institute of science and technology which will work closely with Malaysian companies as well as educate engineers at the graduate level. Professors Berger and Lester led a study "Made by Hong Kong" that analyzed the future of Hong Kong in certain industrial areas after the takeover by the Chinese government. Discussions regarding other significant initiatives were held with groups in several other countries in Southeast Asia.
A major industrial partnership was initiated with Merck. This follows an earlier partnership with Amgen. The Merck partnership is at $3M/yr. Discussions were held with other companies, and toward the end of the academic year a strategic partnership agreement was reached with Ford. Ford has been sponsoring research at MIT at the level of approximately $2M/yr. This is expected to grow to at least $4M/yr with increased emphasis on environmental and design issues.
The National Science Foundation announced that MIT will receive a new Engineering Research Center on product design, to be headed by Warren Seering. This Center will be a collaboration of faculty in the Sloan School as well as Engineering. MIT thus will be one of only a few institutions to have more than one such center. The first such center at MIT is the Biotechnology Process Engineering Center, headed by Danny Wang for the past decade.
The Lean Aircraft Initiative (LAI), located in the Center for Technology, Policy and Industrial Development, has spun off a related study, called Lean Sustainment. Whereas LAI emphasizes cost reduction in the military aerospace industry, Lean Sustainment emphasizes cost reduction during the life cycle of aerospace vehicles. Other lean-based programs, such as for satellites and ships, are under discussion.
Funding for environmental research has grown in part as a result of efforts led by the Council for the Environment chaired by the Provost and co-chaired by Professor David Marks. The Alliance for Global Sustainability held its annual meeting at MIT in January, 1997. A $10M gift to AGS by Stephan Schmidheiny was announced. Mr. and Mrs. Lee Martin pledged $8M toward endowing a number of Sustainability Fellows. As part of the Ford agreement, there will be over $1M/yr. of funding for a new consortium on the environment and related environmental initiatives.
The Council for Educational Technology has drafted a major report calling for a significant new project to follow the Athena Project at MIT. It is expected that details for the architecture for a new MIT Information Initiative will be developed in the coming year.
The first class of 35 students in the Systems Design and Management program arrived on campus in January, 1997. Most of the students in this program will take it largely via distance learning. The SDM program is a Masters level program, parallel to the Leaders for Manufacturing Program and offered jointly by the Sloan School of management and the School of Engineering.
Dr. Oscar Arias Sanchez, former President of Costa Rica, and winner of the Nobel Peace Prize, gave the Karl Taylor Compton lectures during the year.
Technology-enabled education is the new focus of the Center for Advanced Educational Services (CAES). We complement that focus with our continuing commitment to professional and life-long learning, as illustrated by our Advanced Study Program (ASP) and Professional Institute (PI) programs. Our educational services are distributed to a broad spectrum of learners, studying in a variety of domains, employing established and emerging pedagogies--delivered by a combination of technology delivery mechanisms--to university students both on and beyond the Cambridge campus and lifelong learners working in industry. Again this year, the students for our courses and programs are broadly distributed, by age, geographical location and educational interest. We complement and support our educational services with a highly distinguished and recognized research laboratory, the Center for Educational Computing Initiatives (CECI).
In order to carry out its new mandate, CAES has continued to build a considerable set of assets from within MIT. CAES has assembled under its "umbrella" strategic units which harness the talents of faculty and staff in technology-enabled education and learning. These units include most notably the Center for Educational Computing Initiatives (CECI) , the Advanced Study Program (ASP), the Professional Institute (PI), MIT Video Productions (MVP), and our most recent addition--the Hypermedia Teaching Facility (HTF). We believe that this collection of mutually supporting assets for technology-enabled education firmly places MIT in a position of strength going forward in this ever growing domain. We have also established close internal working relationships with relevant components of Information Systems including Academic Computing and MIT Cable, as well as academic ties to the Registrar's Office, the Deans of each the five schools, and interested faculty members, to ensure collaboration and reduce duplication of effort.
The CAES mission has been informed by the reports of three Institute-wide initiatives. These high-level MIT committees have focused on technology-enhanced education and how it should affect the MIT learning experience, both on and off campus.
It is likely that the recommendations of EDTECH will be to devote "an effort comparable to Project Athena" toward technology-enabled education at MIT, both for on-campus and off-campus learners. We expect our evolving mission to be consistent with these recommendations. We stand prepared to assist in the development of both the physical and intellectual infrastructure required to build MIT's distance learning capabilities to world class standards. For those who wish to read more about this subject, see "Education Via Advanced Technologies," IEEE Transactions on Education, (39) 3, August, 1996, pp. 436-443 (related article published in OR/MS Today).
Several key milestones have been achieved in our second year of operation, specifically:
These efforts are described below.
Center for Educational Computing Initiatives
While CECI retains its overall mission to remain a preeminent research organization in the area of application of technologies to education, CECI professionals have been working to find synergy between its traditional research initiatives and the goals of the other CAES units. We viewed the geographical separation of CECI from the other groups in CAES as a major barrier to achieving a tighter integration of activities and staffs. Renovation of the third floor of Building 9 and the move of CECI into that space has finally brought the groups together. We have also integrated the computer operations functions of the two groups in an effort to apply CECI's more extensive expertise in this area to support CAES's ongoing work.
9-150: A Technology-Enabled Learning Center
Conceptual design and initial schematics were completed, and funding secured, to dramatically transform the 35 year old lecture hall, "9-150," into a state-of-the-art technology-enabled learning center. Demolition and construction will begin in September, 1997. The new facility will benefit several important constituencies: our on-campus faculty and students and our growing numbers of off-campus learners. The recommendations herein build from the EDTECH final report and have the approval of the Dean for Undergraduate Education and the Dean of the School of Architecture and Planning (who also serves as the senior Co-chair of the EDTECH Council).
The plan proposes to create--from a 172 seat traditional auditorium--in the cubic footage and "air space" of 9-150 three integrated and mutually supporting learning facilities:
A 45 seat tiered amphitheater in the lower level, technology-equipped for integrated on campus and off campus teaching and learning. The SDM program will be its anchor tenant with six courses scheduled for February, 1998 and synchronous delivery of programs to our strategic corporate and educational partners in Venezuela, Argentina, Peru, and Chile (February, 1998 completion).
On the upper level, an 800 sq. ft. technology-equipped room, hereafter called the "Stephen P. Kaufman Teaching Studio." Funds have been graciously committed by Stephen Kaufman EC '63 in support of this space. This facility is primarily for helping our faculty and teaching assistants to become better teachers in the full range of traditional teaching pedagogies and technological environments, from "chalk and talk" to web-based hypermedia courseware; it is secondarily to be used (on an as available basis) for distance learning (February, 1998 completion).
Also on the upper level, an 800 sq. ft. re-configurable classroom with each student location being computer-equipped, designed as a flexible learning studio that is conducive to goal oriented learning primarily in the area of engineering design. This studio will also be equipped with technologies supporting distance learning (later completion).
Time zone differentials, idiosyncratic telecommunication monopolies/privatization policies, and the varied deployment of information technology throughout the world have provided both anticipated and unanticipated results in the demand for MIT "virtual" educational content. Matching technical capability and specific dedicated systems on both the delivery and receiving sides has been complex and critical to our success rate this year. Anecdotally, we noted an anticipated interest from Industrial Liaison Program companies and Pacific Rim corporations in establishing two-way interactivity; we were unexpectedly surprised and pleased by the level of interest shown by universities and technology partners in Latin America. Distribution agreements have been signed with partners in Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Peru to deliver live content over satellite and compressed video signals. Our strategic partnership with PictureTel Corporation was a favorable factor in providing technology, bridging services, and trouble shooting solutions to these countries. Clearly, time zone incompatibilities elsewhere in the world present different opportunities and constraints and will guide and inform us going forward.
Since December 1996, CAES has been distributing pre-recorded and live small scale programs via the PBS Business Channel (TBC) LLC. This distribution relationship is a new venture for CAES, and the parameters of the relationship are still being defined. 1996 -1997 program titles included: "Challenges Facing Business Corporations", Professor Arnoldo Hax ; "The Future of Capitalism" Professor Lester Thurow; "Bits of Life -The Digital Renaissance" Professor Michael Hawley; a four-part seminar series from the MIT-Japan/China Program, and a live teleconference featuring Professor Peter Senge. A new half hour production funded by PBS, "Big M Manufacturing," focused on the Leaders for Manufacturing program at MIT. Producers at CAES and TBC are presently compiling the programming schedule for the 1997-1998 season. CAES will become a critical provider of content as the programming hours (via these methods and driven to the desk top) during fourth quarter 1997 and first quarter 1998 when TBC increases its programming by a factor of four.
Philanthropic Alliances and Corporate Sponsors
Proposals to the Lord Foundation, NYNEX Foundation, Atlantic Philanthropic, and Sloan Foundation were prepared in support of small scale experiments, for instance, planning, delivery and evaluation of five MIT subjects collaboratively offered from five schools using five delivery technologies, alternative pedagogies and five different types of learners.
CAES is grateful to its current sponsors including IBM, Turner Broadcasting, PictureTel, ADCOM Communications, and Lotus Institute for its generous support during the current year.
Synchronous Delivery of MIT
The Advanced Study Program Strategic relationships have been signed with various educational organizations and corporations including the Universidad Gabriela Mistral in Santiago, Chile and San Ignacio de Loyola in Lima Peru, and YPF in Argentina and Venezuela. Compressed video technology has been used to deliver credit bearing courses including: 13.716 Management of Technological Change and 13.61 Project Management (Professor Ernst Frankel), 15.820 Advanced Marketing Management (Professor William Qualls) and 15.968 Economic Concepts for Engineers and Managers (Professor Shlomo Maital).
MIT Video Productions provides analog and digital equipment, facilities, and expertise to members of the Institute community involved in the creative, scholarly, promotional and research applications of video. Highlights of last year's activities include the video documentary of the Research Lab for Electronics' 50th anniversary exhibit. Working in partnership with the Dean's Office in the School of Engineering, and with support from the President's Office, production of a historical series featuring recent faculty retiree's is progressing. MVP became increasingly involved in the public relation's mission of the Institute. Working closely with the President's Office and the News Office, MVP produced a fast paced overview of the Institute titled "MIT: Mind and Hand". MVP also continues to work with the News Office in the production of video materials for distribution to electronic media outlets.
HONORS AND AWARDS
Scott Dynes, Lestra Litchfield, Ana Beatriz Chiquito jointly received an award for the best paper entitled, "The case for database support in multi/hypermedia application development and use", presented at the 1997 World Conference on Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia and Educational Telecommunications meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, held in Calgary, Canada.
Technology Support of Systems Design Management (SDM)
Beginning in Spring, 1996, CAES provided initial housing for the SDM program and MVP provided compressed video hardware and staff effort to enable delivery of its certificate and degree distance learning offerings to a dozen remote sites in the US and Canada. The shift in teaching style and presentation materials necessary to deliver course material over these modalities has evolved and more efficient and more robust facilities have been developed to ensure uninterrupted audio and visual signals and redundancy. Since the faculty teaching in the program are forerunners in this area, lessons learned from their experience have been a guiding force in the development of our new facilities described above.
Professors Tom Magnanti and John Williams are enthusiastic about the new learning facilities and have expressed interest in working with CAES for non-credit course offerings which we can offer to ASP fellows.
Marketing activities cross boundaries for all five CAES strategic business units, and encompass activities and projects across the Institute. Since last year's report, we developed a marketing strategy, communications plan, and prepared promotional materials, brochures and graphical images about our new activities. The number and frequency of individuals/corporations requesting information, information sessions, facility tours, and meetings grew exponentially. We now view relationship building (rather than transactional based marketing and sales) a key to our activities in this area.
In the Fall of 1996 CAES co-sponsored with the Industrial Liaison Program MIT's first distance education conference, entitled, "Distance Learning: The Strategic Revolution in Professional Development & Employee Education" and trade show. Designed for human resource professionals, managers, and training professionals, the conference was attended by 250 people locally as well as four sites via video conferencing. The two day event featured talks and sessions by colleagues in distance learning including the American Association for Higher Education, Andersen Consulting, the Stanford Center for Professional Development, and the Instituto Technologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (Mexico), PictureTel Corporation, and the National Technological University. The second day included a "trade show" where participants could get detailed information and/or demonstrations of distance learning programs and technology.
The Infinite Corridor series was renewed last year. ILP and CAES co-produced a four series set of programs for ILP affiliated companies. CAES affiliated faculty featured in this series include Professor Hax, Professor Michael Dertouzos, Professor Paul Krugman and the "50K competition."
Advanced Study Program
ASP experienced a growth in half-time and full-time on-campus fellows for both academic terms, while the number of quarter time fellows--those enrolled in only one credit bearing subject--grew even faster. During the Fall of 1996 48 students representing 10 countries (Argentina, Brazil, France, Japan, Korea, Ivory Coast, Spain, Taiwan, USA and Venezuela) and 33 diverse industries and government departments enrolled as fellows.
During the spring of 1997 we enrolled 52 students representing 12 countries (Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, France, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Korea, Spain, Taiwan, USA and Venezuela) and 34 diverse industries and government departments. The enrollment was up by approximately 30% relative to the Spring of `96.
United States citizens represented the highest percentage of our student population, on a per country basis.
General Motors NAO Validation Center and Cadillac/Luxury Car Engineering & Manufacturing Division in the USA along with Delphi in Luxembourg received a course on Modeling and Simulation of Dynamic Systems by Professor Neville Hogan by videotape. The faculty-student interaction throughout the course was conducted by electronic mail. The students gave a high rating to the course. In the spring of `97, a select number of managers from Lagoven, oil company in Venezuela, received a short course by video conference on Dynamic Strategic Planning by Professor Richard deNeufville.
The activities of the Professional Institute remained stable and remarkably unchanged from the previous years as illustrated in the following table:
Hypermedia Teaching Facility
The Hypermedia Teaching Facility delivers quality hypermedia curriculum via the Internet. Initial efforts have been in Mechanical Engineering and as of July 1, 1997 the facility is now housed in Building 9 and reports to CAES. The "curricular hyperweb" is remotely accessible to current and continuing (alumni/alumnae) students as well as industrial partners at large. Our digital non-linear editing system allows us to compress video files for delivery on the Web in quick time format, yet has the capability of mastering programs for broadcast. During the last year, two hypercourses were developed as pilot projects to create a systematic methodology for re purposing video courses developed by CAES. The first pilot was based on the Machine Shop videos made by Dr. Erik Vaaler and partially supported by Instructional Systems Inc. This course is currently being beta tested. The other course runs in parallel with a live economics course delivered to multi-points in South America. Courses in the hypermedia curriculum include: 2.001--Mechanics and Materials, 2.006--Thermal Fluids Engineering II, 2.25--Advanced Fluid Mechanics, 2.40--Thermodynamics, 2.70 module on Machining, 2.672--Project Laboratory, 2.792--Quantitative Physiology, 2.993--Special Topics in Mechanical Engineering, and 15.968--Economic Concepts for Engineers and Managers.
This is the final year of the large, DARPA/NSF-funded project in networked delivery of multimedia information. The project, originally based at CAES and directed by Professor Shaoul Ezekiel, is now jointly managed by CAES and CECI, with Professors Richard Larson and Steve Lerman serving as co-Principal Investigators. In this final year, we have continued improving the technology that was developed to offer an Internet CNN Newsroom, and an Internet-based delivery of news prepared in standard, analog form by Turner Broadcasting.
Extending our capabilities in computing in the humanities, CECI is now providing the technological support to Professor Peter Donaldson's Shakespeare Project, and Dr. Janet Murray has been working with Professor Henry Jenkins in Film Studies on a NEA-funded program to use multimedia to teach in this area.
This was the second year of involvement in the Army Research Laboratory's Federated Laboratory program. Professor Lerman represents MIT in a coalition of other universities and corporations including Lockheed-Martin, Motorola, GTE and Bellcore. Our component of this group's large, multi-faceted research program focuses on issues of Internet delivery of information in highly heterogeneous networks, including work on caching algorithms.
CECI is currently funded by Continental Cablevision (now called MediaOne) to explore how low cost, high speed Internet connections that they are delivering via cable modems to residential customers can be used to create new services, including educational offerings, that were previously not feasible due to bandwidth limitations.
The collaboration with the University of Bergen in Norway and EAFIT University in Colombia continues to develop interactive, multimedia software to teach Spanish. This work builds on the extensive experience MIT gained during Project Athena. However, Operacion Futuro is developing a full, second year curriculum rather than a small module within a single course. A major publisher has recently tested the prototype software developed by CECI and is now negotiating to publish Operacion Futuro.
CECI has been working with Professor Dennis McLaughlin of the Deptartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering to develop a simulator for ground water contamination cleanup. This work builds on a project Professor McLaughlin started during Project Athena. Work has included extending the simulation algorithms, redoing the user interface and migrating the entire software system to Microsoft Windows platforms.
Working with Professor Peter Perdue of the History Section and the Long Bow video production company, CECI has developed a full prototype of a digital archive of film, video, audio, images and text about post-WWII China. This prototype was written in the AthenaMuse 2 authoring system developed by CECI. It has been presented to approximately 18 foundations for major funding, which if granted, will lead to the complete implementation of the archive, including digitizing over 300 hours of video from Long Bow's archives.
CECI has been working on a research project funded by Houghton-Mifflin Company. This project is developing a series of software object classes to represent complex documents and the information to manage educational delivery of those documents. These are being prototyped in the Java programming language and tested on materials supplied by Houghton-Mifflin.
Dr. Janet Murray, the former Director of the Laboratory for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, joined the CECI staff this year. She brings her extensive experience in directing computer-based learning projects in the humanities. She recently published Hamlet on the Holodeck: The Future of Narrative in Cyberspace (Free Press, Simon and Schuster, 1997). Dr. Nishikant Sonwalker, the Director of the Hypermedia Teaching Facility, joined the CAES development staff in the latter part of the year. He brings extensive experience in hardware/software systems in providing a crucial wrap around web-environment for our educational offerings.
The assets of CAES include the full range of services and activities needed for MIT to begin to assume a preeminent position in technology-enabled learning, both on and off campus. Building from our new base of relative strength, here is a summary of future plans--both short term and longer term:
More information about this Center can be found on the World Wide Web at the following URL: http://www-caes.mit.edu/
Richard C. Larson
The mission of the Center for Materials Research in Archaeology and Ethnology (CMRAE), a consortium of eight Boston-area educational and cultural institutions, is to advance our understanding of prehistoric and non-industrial culture through analysis of the structure and properties of materials associated with human activity. Plant and animal food remains, human skeletal material, as well as metal, ceramic, stone, bone, and fiber artifacts are the objects of study, along with the environments within which these materials were produced and used. At the Center for Archaeological Materials (CAM) at MIT, investigators concentrate on the materials processing technologies that transform natural materials into cultural objects.
At MIT, CAM is administered by the Department of Materials Science and Engineering (DMSE). Considerable progress was made in the development of a curriculum for the establishment of a new, undergraduate major in Archaeology and Materials, approved by DMSE faculty as Course III-C. The faculty also approved the establishment of an interdisciplinary doctoral degree program in Archaeological Materials. Both sets of curricula will be reviewed by the appropriate MIT committees during the 1997-1998 academic year with the expectation that they will be in place by the fall 1998 semester.
Archaeological Science, the CMRAE/CAM undergraduate subject introduced during the 1995-1996 academic year, was offered jointly for the first time by DMSE and the Chemistry Department. It continues to enjoy high popularity among students from CMRAE institutions. Seventy-five students enrolled: 54 from MIT, nine from Brandeis University, seven from Harvard University, three from the University of Massachusetts, and two from Wellesley College; 13 faculty members from five CMRAE institutions lectured in the subject. Professor Heather Lechtman taught the year-long CMRAE graduate subject, Materials in Ancient Societies: Metals, to eight students from four CMRAE universities. Noteworthy among their laboratory findings was the discovery of the earliest brass (Cu-Zn) alloy artifacts known in prehistory, from the site of Nuzi in ancient Persia. The Nuzi artifacts were lent to the class for study by Harvard University's Semitic Museum.
The outstanding event for CAM was the award to tenure to Professor Dorothy Hosler. Her remarkable book, The Sounds and Colors of Power, confirms the intellectual strength of the center's perspectives and provides continuity to CAM's long-standing leadership in the field of the materials science of material culture. Professor Hosler continued her archaeological/geological field research in west and central Mexico to determine the metallic ore mining, processing, and extractive metallurgy technologies carried out in ancient Mesoamerica. She began a new field investigation with a UROP student in Chiapas, Mexico. They are investigating the manufacture of rubber by ancient Mexican peoples for use in the widespread and ritual Mesoamerican ball game. Professor Lechtman received a grant from the Brennan Foundation which supported a three-month period of geological fieldwork in Chile and Bolivia for the purpose of locating and sampling ores containing arsenic and/or nickel. Such ores may have served as sources for the rare, ternary copper-arsenic-nickel alloys she has found in artifacts from the region that date to the Middle Horizon (roughly A.D. 600-900).
CAM was enriched by the research of three post-doctoral associates. Their work included the laboratory investigation of copper fasteners from the USS Constitution and from other period British ships; analysis of an unusual cloisonné inlay technology used on ceramic vessels from north and west Mexico; and the electron microscopy of metal, matte, and slag materials produced during the experimental co-smelting of copper oxide and copper sulfarsenide ores.
In addition to realizing the establishment of undergraduate and graduate degree-granting programs, CAM/CMRAE expects to respond to a new initiative undertaken by the National Science Foundation. The aim of the Foundation's Integrative Graduate Education and Research Training Program (IGERT) is to prepare doctoral candidates
with multidisciplinary backgrounds and the technical, professional, and personal skills essential to addressing the varied career demands of the future ... [through] ... development of innovative, research-based, graduate education and training activities that will produce a diverse group of new scientists and engineers well-prepared for a broad spectrum of career opportunities.
CMRAE has been educating graduate students in science, engineering, social science, and the humanities since the center's establishment in 1977. We are eager to enter the new NSF competition and to bring our deep fund of experience to bear on the education of scholars broadly and in depth.
The Council on Primary and Secondary Education (CPSE) develops programs that bring the strengths of MIT to bear on the American K-12 educational system. There are four main programs sponsored by the Council: The Institute for Learning and Teaching; the MIT/Wellesley Teacher Certification Program; the Forum on Public Education; and the MIT's Educational Outreach Programs directory. The Council's Chairman is also involved in a number of K-12 educational efforts, including the New England Science Teachers and a collaboration with the Association of American Universities.
PROFESSIONAL GROWTH OF EDUCATORS
TILT provides professional development for educators that uses a project centered around a common technology, such as water delivery systems, as a vehicle for developing skills in team building, group dynamics, effective communication, negotiation, grant writing, brainstorming, mind mapping, working with different learning styles, group reflection and debriefing, and computer use. The traditional TILT model is a community-based team of teachers, school administrators, and their champions in the community (parents, school board members, university representatives, or industrialists) that spends three-weeks in July in residence on MIT's campus followed by a year of planning how to implement and integrate TILT ideas back in the team's home community.
In 1996, TILT's summer residential component ran from July 8-26 and teams attending came from Ashtabula County, OH; the ECSEL Program; and Boston Public Schools. Each year, TILT chooses different technologies to investigate, in the past looking at water treatment and delivery, construction, mass transportation, telecommunications power generation, and health care. In 1996 teams explored either MIT's cogeneration power plant, the MIT identification card system, or automatic teller machines. Each team was linked to a site (a facility or business engaged in the technology) and explored in detail one technical aspect of the technology, determining who it serves and how it serves them. Teams examined how the sciences, mathematics, and the social sciences intertwine to produce the technology, how it might be changing, and how it compares with trends in education. All teams returned to their communities in August with the charge to share their experiences with colleagues in their home community and to promote school improvement. To help them maintain communication with TILT, MIT, and other community groups, each team was given seed money and was loaned a laptop computer with a subscription to America Online for one year.
TILT'96 was funded by the Alden Trust, Ashtabula County Schools, the Bey and Phyliss Blanchard Fund, James A. Daley Fund, Harcourt-General Charitable Foundation, Massachusetts Department of Education Goals 2000 Grant, National Science Foundation's Engineering Coalition of Schools for Excellence in Education and Leadership. In addition, TILT'96 received funds or support from MIT's Office of the Provost and MIT libraries. Support for the UROP students was provided by the MIT Class of 1992.
TILT will look a little different in 1997; it has joined with the Whittier Institute for Learning and Teaching (WILT), a successful TILT spin-off at Whittier Regional Vocational School in Haverhill, MA. Teams from Ashtabula, OH; the ECSEL Program; Lawrence Public Schools; and Greater Lawrence Regional Vocational High School will join two teams from Whittier itself for an eight-day institute running August 16-23 and patterned after the TILT model. Due in part to the shortened time available, the research/technical project focus has been sharpened to an in-depth study of measurement and measurement tools in a number of selected North Shore businesses.
One of TILT's long-range goals is to spin off a wide variety of TILT models and satellite operation. In addition to WILT, there are four other efforts underway:
An impact study funded by the Noyce Foundation began in 1996. The study will focus on eight TILT teams in Massachusetts and will determine the impact of TILT on individuals, teams, school systems, curriculum, and students. Preliminary reports will be made to the Noyce Foundation program officer in fall of 1997, with a final report due in late spring of 1998.
TILT's staff was severely reduced over the past year. Alan Dyson, one of TILT's founding members, accepted early retirement from MIT in 1996. While he is no longer on the MIT payroll, he continues to consult actively with TILT and remains the liaison between TILT and the Ashtabula County, OH, teams. TILT also lost Christopher Craig, another founding member. He, like Mr. Dyson, continues to consult for TILT, and is the liaison for the Harlem Choir Academy in New York City. Due to a shortage of funds, TILT was forced to lay off both Kelley Fisher, TILT's secretary, and Linda Breisch, TILT Design Team member and communications manager.
More information about TILT can be found on the World Wide Web at the following URL: http://web.mit.edu/tilt/www/
MIT/WELLESLEY TEACHER CERTIFICATION PROGRAM
To foster the growth of a cadre of new teachers who meet MIT's standards of excellence in science and mathematics, yet appreciate the value of different ways of approaching and understanding a problem, MIT has created a joint program with Wellesley College, the Teacher Education Program (TEP). It prepares undergraduates for Massachusetts State Certification in mathematics and science at the middle and high school levels. This program, started in the fall of 1993, has now been integrated into MIT's Department of Urban Studies and Planning. Enrollment in TEP's introductory Course 11.124 has steadily increased, and eight students in the program completed the certification process in 1997.
Undergraduates in the program must complete a major in the subject area in which they wish to teach. In addition, they must complete three courses at MIT and two at Wellesley; one of the latter is a seminar taken in conjunction with the required 150 hours of supervised practice teaching. Students must also complete 75 hours of supervised classroom observations.
TEP is currently funded by the National Science Foundation through a collaborative called TEAMS-BC (Teacher Education Addressing Math and Science in Boston and Cambridge), which consists of MIT, Harvard, UMASS Boston, Wheelock College, and the Boston and Cambridge school systems. NSF has awarded TEAMS-BC a grant of $5,000,000 over five years. TEP is supervised by Professor Jeanne Bamberger.
The Noyce Prize, a $10,000 prize provided by the Noyce Foundation, is awarded each year to an outstanding graduating senior who has chosen a career in teaching and who has completed (or will complete) certification requirements to teach math or science in a public school. This June, the award was given to Tim Piwowar, a graduating senior in mathematics. The first recipient of the prize, Sally Buta (Course 3, 1994) is now teaching physics at Cambridge Rindge and Latin High School, in Cambridge, MA. The second recipient, Ricardo J. Campbell (Course 10, 1995), is teaching 8th grade science at the Longfellow School in Cambridge, MA. Last year's recipient, Catherine Lavelle (Course 18, 1996) is teaching mathematics in the Lincoln Middle School in Lincoln, MA.
More information about TEP can be found on the World Wide Web at the following URL: http://web.mit.edu/teacher-ed/www/
FORUM ON PUBLIC EDUCATION
CPSE continued its series of seminars, the Forum on Public Education. Thomas Payzant, Superintendent of Boston Public Schools, participated in a panel discussion entitled "Focus on Children" on December 9, 1996. John Silber, Chairman of the Massachusetts Board of Education, delivered a seminar on "Education in Massachusetts and the Nation: Problems and Opportunities" on February 12. A seminar by Frank Levy based on his new book Teaching the New Basic Skills was postponed due to inclement weather. It has been tentatively rescheduled for early September. The Forum on Public Education is sponsored jointly by MIT's Council on Primary and Secondary Education and the Boston Museum of Science. The purpose of the seminar series is to foster conversation between leaders in the educational reform movement and the public at-large.
EDUCATIONAL OUTREACH DIRECTORY
Early this spring, the Council published a new edition of MIT's Educational Outreach Programs. Approximately 65 programs are listed; programs are either conducted on MIT's campus or have the involvement of a person from MIT's faculty, staff, or student body. The directory is now also available through the Council's home page on the World Wide Web.
UPDATE ON JOINT VENTURE WITH SCIENCEMEDIA, INC.
ScienceMedia, Inc., is a toy company created by MIT alumna Joan Roth that promotes science literacy through toys and TV, the goal being to attract children usually turned off by science. The company produces science kits that contain all necessary equipment for an experiment, full instructions, and science trading cards. The first product line focused on Better Sports Through Science, and is in its second production run. A new product line focusing on earth science is in development. MIT's name and logo appear on the kit box, and royalties from sales are shared with CPSE.
PROGRAMS BY THE CPSE CHAIRMAN
For the past year, Professor Latanision, Chairman of CPSE, has been on sabbatical, working with the American Academy of Arts and Science in Cambridge, MA, to implement suggestions made in last year's white paper Role Of Universities In K-12 Education. He was instrumental in developing a proposal, referred to as the College Presidents' Initiative, that was submitted to the Association of American Universities (AAU) early this year. The presidents of six major universities-Robert Berdahl of the University of Texas-Austin, Gerhard Casper of Stanford, Charles Vest of MIT, Lee Bollinger of the University of Michigan, Neil Rudenstine of Harvard, and David Ward of the University of Wisconsin-Madison-propose connecting AAU planning efforts now underway with the National Research Council and the Academy to act collectively in the areas of college admissions policy, teacher preparation, and response to the effects of K-12 educational reform on basic undergraduate curriculum.
During this past year, Professor Latanision has also worked with the federal School-to-Work (STW) Office to bring it together with the business community and business schools around the theme of work-based learning. On June 16, 1997, Professor Latanision, Professor Robert Schwartz of Harvard University, and Dr. Howard Hiatt of Brigham & Women's Hospital hosted a roundtable discussion between business leaders and research university faculty in Massachusetts. Discussion centered around the expectations and realities of industrial involvement in work-based learning. This topic will be taken up as well at the national meeting of the National Research Council in September.
Professor Latanision directs the Science and Engineering Program for Middle and High School Teachers, which shares the Council's goal of science literacy for all students. Key to a good education is an enthusiastic, knowledgeable teacher. Since 1989, this program has endeavored to give educators a unique perspective of how the basic sciences, mathematics, and engineering are integrated to meet the technological challenges and needs of commerce and society. In 1997, the program ran from June 23-28 and had 50 participants from across the United States.
The alumni of this program, now totaling approximately 500, become members of the New England Science Teachers (NEST). This year, NEST members came to MIT's campus on June 27th for a two-day meeting to assess the program and determine future directions for the organization. NEST will be supported by a grant from Raytheon through 1998.
More information about NEST can be found on the World Wide Web at the following URL: http://web.mit.edu/nest/www/
NEST members are in the initial planning stages of a new project, Scientists Online (SOL), that will link NEST teachers and their students who are studying topics in science, mathematics, and technology with MIT faculty volunteers who have expertise in that area. Descriptions of faculty expertise and availability will be listed on the NEST home page, and online facilitators will coordinate and monitor the interactions between the K-12 classrooms and the MIT faculty.
In August, Professor Latanision will be relinquishing his role as a co-principal investigator for the NSF-supported statewide systemic initiative in Massachusetts, PALMS (Partnerships Advancing the Learning of Mathematics and Science). PALMS reaches the end of its Phase I in August, and will be embarking on a slightly new direction in its Phase 2.
Over the past year, Linda Breisch, Communications Manager for CPSE, has also assisted PALMS by acting as a regional coordinator for the central part of Massachusetts. PALMS Phase 2 no longer requires this role, so Ms. Breisch will be leaving the PALMS project at the end of June, 1997.
More information about the Council can be found on the World Wide Web at the following URL: http://web.mit.edu/cpse/www/
R. M. Latanision
Reporting to the Provost, the Facilities Use Committee formulates and implements policy for the use of Institute facilities by recognized MIT groups, guests from off-campus, and by non-MIT organizations hosted by Faculty and recognized campus groups.
Chaired by Stephen Immerman, Director of Administration and Operations, Office of the Dean of Students and Undergraduate Education, this year's committee membership included Margaret Bates, Dean for Student Life, Office of the Dean of Students and Undergraduate Education; Mary Callahan, Assistant Registrar, Schedules; Gayle Fitzgerald, Director Conference Services, Events and Information Center, Public Relations Services; Michael Foley, Associate Director of Operations, Campus Activities Complex; Elizabeth Garvin, Director, Class Programs, Alumni Association; Anne Glavin, Chief, Campus Police; Margaret Jablonski, Associate Dean, and Section Head, Residence and Campus Activities; Edmund Jones, Administrative Assistant, Music and Theater Arts; Sandra Lett, Administrative Assistant, Facilities and Scheduling, Athletics; Dan Martin, Assistant Department Head for Facilities and Operations, Athletics; Paul Parravano, Assistant for Community Relations, Office of the President; Clarise Snyder, Concert Director, Music and Theater Arts; Mary Tobin, Supervisor, Operations Center, Physical Plant; Susan Tomases, Program Director, Alumni Association; Tina Trager, Event Coordinator, Campus Activities Complex; and Phil Walsh, Director, Campus Activities Complex.
The following changes in committee membership occurred this year: Nancy Cavanagh, Administrative Officer, Music and Theater Arts retired. Clarise Snyder and Edmund Jones were appointed to the Committee to fill this vacancy. Margaret Bates and Dan Martin were added to the Committee to represent their respective departments.
Re-engineering information and updates that were shared with the Committee included changes to the Event Registration Process, the introduction of local zones by Physical Plant, and the review of campus dining.
During the 1996-97 year, in addition to a number of smaller meetings, the Institute hosted the United Church Coalition, the American Computer Experience Camp, the Summer Research Conference, the graduation ceremony of Cambridge College, the City Days Festival, the 3rd International Conference on Carbon Dioxide, two Career Connection Job Fairs, the American Physical Society Conference, the New England Board of Higher Education, a conference on Artificial Intelligence, the North American Power Symposium, the Participatory Design Conference, the Massachusetts Junior Classical League Conference, a concert by the Cambridge Community Chorus, a banquet for the Cambridge Mental Health Association, St. Paul's AME Easter Service, the Yale Alumni Seminar, the Massachusetts State Science Fair, the Massachusetts Biotec Council, the Massachusetts Future Problem-Solving Bowl, the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church Conference, the Massachusetts Special Olympic Games, and the Wet Ice Conference.
Stephen D. Immerman
The Office of Educational Opportunity Programs was created in January of 1992 to organizationally locate both the MIT/Wellesley Upward Bound and MIT Educational Talent Search Programs. MIT has operated the Upward Bound Program since 1966 and began operation of the Educational Talent Search Program in September of 1991.
Upward Bound and Educational Talent Search are two of six US Department of Education Special Programs For Students From Disadvantaged Backgrounds (TRIO Programs) created under the Higher Education Act of 1965.
The goal of these Programs is to provide college admission and preparatory information, academic support, advising, career information, and college and career exploration opportunities to the economically and/or educationally disadvantaged youth of Cambridge and Somerville.
To a large extent, the development of both Programs was influenced by the research done by psychologist Kurt Lewin and his associates. Lewin's hypothesis was that ego growth and academic performance were closely related. Moreover, he concluded that a developing ego needs to experience success in a warm and personal, structured environment for greatest development, in both a personal and social sense. Lastly, it was determined that this personal and social growth could be achieved through intervention outside of the institutions of family and school. Educational Talent Search and Upward Bound, through their year-round academic support and advising, represent just such interventions.
It has been long established that the effects of failure can be reversed through gradual structured achievement. Moreover, the result of the increasing success is a corresponding increase in the individual's level of aspiration. The Educational Talent Search Program, now in its 6th year, is reporting increasing success. Further, the Upward Bound Program continues its lengthy record of success (90+ percent college enrollment of graduates and 70 percent retention of participants annually) achieved during its 30 year existence through the application of Kurt Lewin's theory and careful attention to the impact of Program expectations.
Finally, since much of what students think they can achieve has been directly related to what others think they can accomplish, the participants' perceptions of their abilities are, to a significant degree, determined by staff expectations. Thus, and largely due to this quasi-parenting relationship, the Programs are able to exert such an influence upon the participants that their academic persistence grows and results in increased post-secondary enrollments.
MIT EDUCATIONAL TALENT SEARCH
The MIT Educational Talent Search Program (ETS) is a year-round, co-educational, program, located in Building 20, designed to assist participants, in grades 6-12, who live and/or attend school in Cambridge and Somerville to continue in a course of education leading to graduation from secondary school and enrollment in post-secondary educational programs. The Program is funded to serve 675 participants from disadvantaged backgrounds.
The following is an overview of the Program's year-round operation:
The academic year program is designed to inform, assist and support participants during the school year through a number of after school, evening, weekend, and school holiday activities.
The ETS staff are available at our offices via appointment or on a drop-in basis, five days a week. The Program provides assistance to the two public high schools, one parochial high school and 26 elementary (K-8) schools in the target area. ETS staff are available at Cambridge Rindge & Latin School and Somerville High School, four days per week, on an alternating schedule basis, and North Cambridge Catholic High School one day per week. Target elementary schools are served through quarterly in-school presentations, and weekend and vacation workshops and exploratory activities throughout the school year.
The Program offers workshops to supplement the instructional support provided to participants. The workshops are offered to provide more specific support or to address special interests (e.g., SAT preparation, Word Processing, Time Management, Peer Pressure, Computer Skills, etc.) and are offered on a regular and as needed basis.
In an effort to assist participants as they attempt to cope with problems of an academic, social, family or personal nature, the Program offers support and referrals in the areas of school guidance, academic and vocational preparation, and personal adjustment.
In an effort to provide both participants and their families with information relative to college choice, preparation, and the admission and financial aid processes, the Program held four parent and eleven student information nights, took participants to five local College Fairs and sponsored eighteen college visits. The Program made five career exploration tours. The sites visited were; Middlesex Juvenile Court, Cambridge & Somerville Police Headquarters, Lotus, and Cambridge City Hall, as part of its career exploration effort.
The Program provided seven field trips for the purpose of increasing the intellectual, social, and cultural development of the participants. Some of the sites visited were; Museum of Science, New England Aquarium and Butternut Basin Ski Area. In addition, the Program regularly visits several points of interest, i.e., libraries, museums and laboratories, on the MIT campus.
In conjunction with the Mayor's Summer Youth Program, 8th-10th grade participants were provided with college information through a college fair and two college tours.
The Program's follow-up survey of its members of the Class of 1996 yielded the following: 58% of all senior class members enrolled in a post-secondary educational program; 14% of these members enrolled in two-year programs; 23% enrolled in four-year public institutions; 59% enrolled in four-year private institutions; and 4% enrolled in proprietary programs or enlisted in the armed forces.
MIT/WELLESLEY UPWARD BOUND
The MIT/Wellesley Upward Bound Program is a year-round, co-educational, multi-racial, college preparatory program for high school youth who reside or attend school in Cambridge. Currently in its 30th year, the Program serves 70 academically promising young men and women from disadvantaged backgrounds. The goal of Upward Bound is twofold: (1) to motivate client high school youths such that they persist on to post-secondary education; and, at the same time, (2) to provide them with the fundamental skills necessary for success at the collegiate level.
The following is an overview of the Program's operational phases:
The six week summer program, conducted in residence at Wellesley College, is designed to provide the participants with a rigorous academic experience. Classes are taught by experienced high school teachers, and graduate and undergraduate students from MIT, Wellesley College and other local colleges and universities. Upward Bound participants must enroll in three classes, each of which meets for an average of five and one-half hours per week. Also, participants may request or be assigned to tutorials whenever the need arises. Each participant is required to enroll in a Mathematics course, an English course and an elective course (Social Studies, Science or Foreign Language). Science electives include: physical science, biology, chemistry, physics and computers while Social Studies address United States, African-American and World Histories. The Foreign Language electives are Spanish I and II as well as French I and II. The Mathematics courses range from arithmetic to calculus and Language Arts courses cover basic English and grammar through research paper writing and literature. Lastly, due to an agreement with the Cambridge Public Schools, students may receive summer school credit for failed courses taken for review.
The academic year program located at MIT, plays an equally important role in the educational development of participants. Building upon the motivation and enthusiasm developed during the summer, the academic year program is designed to assist and support the participant while in school. To accomplish this task, the following programs have been developed, staffed primarily by MIT and Wellesley College students when appropriate. We continually strive to maintain MIT and Wellesley College students' participation through our continued involvement as a pre-practicum site for the Wellesley College Teacher Certification Program and through various outreach efforts.
The Upward Bound office is open for study, on a drop-in basis, four days a week: Monday and Thursday from 3:00 to 6:00 PM and Tuesday and Wednesday 3:00 to 8:00 PM. Tutors are available to assist participants with homework problems in addition to meeting individuals and/or small groups for specific content area tutorials.
The Program offers classes, specifically for the 9th & 10th grade students, in Mathematics and Language Arts to supplement the instruction received at the target school. Also, workshops are offered monthly to address more specialized participant needs (e.g., SAT Preparation, Computers, Study Skills Development, Time Management, Job Readiness Skills, etc.).
In an effort to help participants cope with the myriad of problems; academic, social, family, etc., the Program offers support in the areas of guidance, college, career and personal adjustment. The college advising component includes campus visits to many of the local colleges and universities and attendance at two local college fairs, while the career advising component offers exposure to career options through our Speaker Series and Job Site Visitation Program.
The Program provides numerous field trips which have as their purpose, the intellectual, social and cultural development of the participants. Such trips included; the Museum of Science, the Omni Theater, theatre productions, skiing, bowling, and roller-skating.
Ninety-four percent of the Program's graduating seniors have enrolled in the following institutions: Boston University, Brandeis University, Bridgewater State College, Emmanuel College, Fitchburg State College, Lasell College, Newbury College, Northeastern University, Rutgers University, Syracuse University, University of Massachusetts at Boston, Wentworth Institute of Technology, and Western New England College.
Ronald S. Crichlow, Evette M. Layne
MIT Reports to the President 1996-97