Academic year 1996-1997 was a watershed for the future of the department. In the wake of nine retirements/ departures in June of 1996, the department conducted a detailed, extensive and professional strategic planning exercise. The result was a reaffirmation of our focus on the intellectually and industrially robust field of aerospace, coupled with a commitment to redirect the intellectual basis of the Department to set and serve the future directions of this industry. The new vision of the department which emerges is one which stands on three broad disciplinary bases: the traditional engine and airframe disciplines; the disciplines of real time system critical aerospace information engineering; and the disciplines required to architect and engineer extremely complex systems.
In terms of normal events, it was a strong year for the department. Undergrad enrollment began to climb, the MEng program grew, and departmental participation in SDM, with a first class of 35, was significant.
Only one faculty member was added, Prof. Carlos Cesnik in Materials and Structures, Prof. Ed Greitzer to leave to visit the United Technologies Research Center, and Prof. Steve Hall became the Assistant Department Head.
Undergraduate Enrollment over the Last Twelve Years
A total of 238 applications were received for the Fall, 1997 term. Out of this, 134 were admitted and 67 accepted the offer of admission. Enrollment for Fall, 1996 included 129 S.M., 70 Ph.D., 1 EAA, 10 MEng degree candidates for a total of 209. Total minority students: 12 (5 Ph.D., 6 S.M., 1 MEng). Total women students: 27 (6 Ph.D., 19 S.M., 2 MEng.). In the Spring, 1997 term we received 28 applications. We admitted 12 and 6 enrolled. Three women applied, 1 was admitted, 1 enrolled. Four minority applications were received zero enrolled. Enrollment for Spring, 1997 included 117 S.M., 63 Ph.D., 10 MEng for a total of 190. Total women: 24 (5 Ph.D., 17 S.M., 2 MEng.). Total minority: 8 (4 Ph.D., 3 S.M., 1 Meng.).
Assistants & Fellows
Types of Support
Dr. Richard H. Battin received the Dirk Brouwer Award for 1996 given by the American Astronautical Society for innovative, fundamental contributions to the science and technology of Space Flight, and for inspired teaching of the astrodynamic arts to two generations of students.
Prof. Edward Crawley received the ASME Smart Structures Award at the 38th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference in Kissimmee, FL, April 7-10, 1997.
Prof. Alan Epstein was appointed to the MacLaurin Chair in the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics.
Prof. Edward Greitzer received the Air Force Exceptional Civilian Service Award.
Prof. Nesbitt Hagood received the following awards:
Prof. Jack Kerrebrock was presented with a Distinguished Alumnus Award by Caltech on May 17, 1997.
Prof. Paul Lagace received the Class of 1960 Fellowship.
Prof. Earll Murman was honored by his professional colleagues from around the world at a symposium "Thirty Years of Computational Fluid Dynamics and Transonic Flow" in Everett, WA on June 24-26, 1997.
Professor Amedeo Odoni was appointed to the T. Wilson Chair in the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics. He also became Co-Director (along with Professor Adib Kanafani of the University of California, Berkeley) of the National Center of Excellence in Aviation Operations Research (NEXTOR) which was established by the FAA in October 1996 to conduct advanced research on Air Traffic Management and on airport operations. The new Center consists of 4 core universities (MIT, Berkeley, U. of Maryland and VPI), 11 affiliated universities and 21 industry partners.
Prof. Thomas Sheridan received the 1997 National Engineering Award of the American Association of Engineering Societies.
Prof. Mark Spearing won the department's teaching award. A paper he co-authored: "Micro-Gas Turbine Engine Materials and Structures" won 2nd prize in the oral presentation category at the 21st Annual Cocoa Beach Conference and Exposition of the American Ceramic Society, at Cocoa Beach in Florida (January 12-16, 1997). My co-author was Kuo-Shen Chen, a graduate student in Mechanical Engineering. Since there were nearly 300 papers at the conference, it represents a significant achievement.
Prof. Larry Young was selected as First Director, National Space Biomedical Research Institute. He was also elected to International Academy of Astronautics.
MASSACHUSETTS SPACE GRANT CONSORTIUM
The Massachusetts Space Grant Consortium whose director is Laurence R. Young now includes MIT (Lead), Tufts University, Wellesley College, Harvard University, Boston University, University of Massachusetts, Worcester Polytechnic Institute and the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory. The Wright Center at Tufts is responsible for education of pre-college teachers in space science and engineering, through summer workshops. The Program continues to support undergraduate research through the MIT Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program. It increased the number of companies involved in placing students for summer employment in the aerospace industry, supported students for the summer at the NASA Space Academy , and offered graduate fellowships. It sponsored a popular undergraduate seminar subject on "Modern Space Science and Engineering" with emphasis this year on humans in space with guest speakers from our industrial affiliates, academic affiliates and astronauts. The annual public lecture this year was given by Dr. Christopher P. McKay, Scientist, NASA Ames Research Center.
The third meeting of the Massachusetts Space Forum was held in December 1996. The goal of the Massachusetts Space Forum is to favorably influence national planning and to stimulate regional cooperative activity in space education and business opportunities. Over 50 leaders from academia, industry and government attended the workshops and the luncheon presentation by Mr. David W. Thompson, President, Orbital Sciences Corporation.
The next Space Forum is tentatively scheduled for early Fall 1997.
The Active Materials and Structures Laboratory (AMSL) focuses on the development of innovative technologies for active control of aerospace systems. Research has covered a broad range of disciplines including materials science, structural mechanics, structural dynamics, control, and solid state actuation systems. The laboratory has coordinated multidisciplinary research programs ranging from fundamental materials microstructure investigations to helicopter control systems feasibility studies. Major research thrusts in 1997 were: development of new compositions and synthesis techniques for active ceramic materials suitable for actuation and sensing functions; development and characterization of active fiber composite material systems suitable for structural shape and vibration control, as well as the institution of a new DARPA funded consortium, the Active Fiber Consortium, established to help commercialize the technology; development of solid state actuation devices; and the establishment of new control algorithms and microelectronics hardware for distributed control architectures. Fundamental research was motivated by a variety of ongoing applications programs. AMSL, a member of the SmartStructures Rotorcraft Consortium with Boeing and McDonnell Douglas, has continued to work on developing actively controlled helicopter rotor blades for vibration and noise reduction. In a cooperative program with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, AMSL developed ultrasonic motors suitable for space robotics applications. The laboratory also continued to advance applications projects in the active control of structural acoustics: both far field radiated sound from panels and cylinders as well as control of interior noise in aircraft. The laboratory facilities available were in active material and device characterization, static and dynamic structural testing, and real time control.
The International Center for Air Transportation was formed this year by merging the Aeronautical Systems Laboratory (ASL) and the Flight Transportation Laboratory (FTL) which continue to operate as sub elements of ICAT. The objective of ICAT is to improve the safety, efficiency and capacity of domestic and international air transportation and its infrastructure, utilizing information technology and systems analysis. ICAT builds on the existing strengths of FTL in operations research and airline management, and ASL in flight operations and "human in the loop systems". The principle new thrust of ICAT over the past year has been in advanced Air Traffic Management. The activities have ranged from evaluations of future operational concepts; development of alerting systems such as conflict alerts; evaluation of analytical models of ATM systems and conducting fundamental human performance studies. The ASL element of ICAT continued to work in the areas of cognitive systems and decision aids for flight critical systems. This work includes advanced alerting systems, human understanding of advanced flight automation systems and other flight safety topics. The FTL element of ICAT continued it's work in support of airline and airport operations.
Over the past year, ICAT was recognized as part of 2 separate "Centers of Excellence" by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The Joint University Program in Air Transportation where MIT has participated with Princeton and Ohio University was selected to receive the first FAA Excellence in Aviation Award. In conjunction with the MIT Operations Research Center and the University of California at Berkeley, the center was selected as the principle elements of FAA National Center of Excellence in Operations Research.
FLUID DYNAMICS RESEARCH LABORATORY
The FDRL is active in research concerning computational, analytical and experimental issues in fluid dynamics and aerodynamics. Current research projects include: the development of a "distributed flow simulation environment"
capability; the development of tools for aerodynamic design; distributed visulization; computational and experimental approaches to active flow control; large-scale numerical simulations of unsteady transitional and turbulent shear flows; an experimental investigation into roughness-induced boundary layer transition; the development of micron-sized shear-stress, pressure and velocity sensors for measurement and control of high Reynolds number, sub- and supersonic aerodynamic flows; analysis and simulation of the mechanics of fluids in micron-sized geometries, including fluid mechanics of a micro-gas-turbine engine; the development of theoretical models for the dynamics of near-wall turbulent flows.
GAS TURBINE LABORATORY
LEAN AIRCRAFT INITIATIVE
The LAI project began a three year Phase II on September 1, 1996 with Prof. Wesley Harris serving as Director during Prof. Earll Murman's sabbatical. The LAI goals are to define the major change agents in acquisition,
development, manufacture and related government and supplier regimes which can dramatically improve cost, schedule and quality in the U.S. aircraft industry. During Phase I, research findings were captured in a Lean
Aircraft Model (LEM) and delivered to the project sponsors which include all major government and industrial organizations involved in producing and procuring military aircraft systems. Phase II research involves faculty, staff and students from the School of Enginneering, Sloan School, and Center for Technology, Policy and Industrial Development. Further information can be found at http://web.mit.edu/lean/.
MAN VEHICLE LABORATORY
MVL continued its active involvement in human space flight research. The Advanced Dyamic Load Sensors experiment was conducted aboard the MIR Station. Development continued of a virtual reality based experiment on human visual orientation in weightlessness for the Neurolab Shuttle mission in the Spring of 1998. A follow on experiment was approved for flight on the International Space Station, working in collaboration with French, Italian, and Canadian colleagues. In March, NASA announced the formation of a National Space Biomedical Institute (NSBRI) by a consortium of 7 universities, including MIT. Professor Laurence Young will be the first Director. Dr. Charles Oman leads the Institute's Neurovestibular research program. Several related NSBRI research projects are expected to begin in the fall of 1997. Related academic activities by MVL faculty include a seminar on the case for human exploration of the solar system. Meanwhile, MVL ground based research on human spatial orientation in real and virtual environments, tactile cueing systems continues, EVA biomechanics, artifical gravity physiology and human factors. FAA sponsored flight simulator research on cockpit displays for GPS instrument approaches also continues, in collaboration with the DOT Volpe Center in Cambridge.
SPACE ENGINEERING RESEARCH CENTER
Autonomous Mission Scheduling for Satellite Operations
When satellite mission operations are examined with an eye towards reducing costs, scheduling and planning is a prime area for consideration. Scheduling daily instrument activity tends to be tedious and repetitive. In addition, the problem is not trivial. Larger missions can have many instruments with thousands of constraints, making it difficult to generate a feasible schedule, much less an optimal one.
Since the cost of an automated scheduler is in the development, not the operation, a generic scheduler that can easily be adapted to many different satellite missions would be very useful. Satellite missions vary widely,so "classes" of missions that share some basic characteristics are defined.Schedulers are developed and demostrated for several of these clases.
Analysis Tools and Architecture Issues for Distributed Satellite
The recent development of several new technologies has made the concept of a distributed satellite system feasible. The term "distributed satellite system" is used to refer to a system of many satellites designed to operate in a coordinated way in order to perform some specific function. This definition encompasses a wide range of possible applications in commercial, civilian and military sectors. The advantages offered by such systems can mean improvements in performance, cost and survivability compared to the traditional single-satellite deployments. This makes their implementation attractive and inevitable. The emphasis of this work is to highlight the important concepts and issues associated with distributed satellite systems through the development of metrics for quantifying the cost, capability and adaptability of distributed satellite systems compared to single-satellite deployments. This analysis methodology also assists in the identification of the key technology drivers associated with the development of such systems.
There are many different ways to design satellite systems to perform essentially the same task. In order to compare alternate designs, a metric is required which fairly judges the performance of the different systems in carrying out the required task. In today's economic climate, there is also a requirement to consider the monetary cost associated with different levels of performance. Due to the extremely large capital investment required for any space venture, it is especially true for satellite designers that the objective is to provide the customer with the best value. The case in point here is that for a distributed system to make sense compared to another way of achieving the function, it must offer reduced cost for similar levels of performance. This hints to the possible benefits of a definable of a cost per performance metric. Performance and cost metrics can be used as design tools by addressing the sensitivity in performance and cost to changes in the system components, or by identifying the key technology drivers. This leads to the definition of the adaptability metric that quantifiably measures the sensitivity to changes in the design or role. The last metric used for generalized analysis is the capability metric that assesses the potential capabilities of the system.
Linear Ion Microthruster
Future spacecraft may employ microthrusters for missions requiring precise, low thrust firings. These missions may include precision station -keeping of seperated spacecraft forming a large sparse aperture, control of large flexible structures such as deployable antennas or solar arrays, or as the main propulsion system for microsatellites. The goal of this work is to evaluate whether a JPL-proposed linear ion microthruster can address these needs. An analytical model is being developed to predict thrust, specific impluse, ion energy cost per beam ion, and efficiency for the linear chamber scale and geometery. The analytic code is based on models currently used to predict performance in traditional ring cusped engines.
SPACE POWER AND PROPULSION LABORATORY
The Space Power and Propulsion Laboratory (SPPL) is a part of Space Systems Laboratory (SSL) which focusses on interactive problems related to the propulsive and power generating systems of spacecraft. The Propulsion
activity has continued to focus on various aspects of Electric Propulsion and space mission planning. A very small (50W) Hall thruster which was designed and built last year, has satisfactorily undergone preliminary tests; although a new trust balance will only become available this Fall, voltage-current-flow characteristics obtained with Argon gas show operation in the intended regime and with apparently good efficiency. Theoretical work has continued on alkali-seeded hydrogen arcjets, which offer high efficiency potential at moderate specific impulses; An electrothermal-ionization stability analysis has been completed, showing that snap-over to classical arc operation with large hydrogen frozen losses is not expected throughout the intended regime of seeded arc operation. Two-dimensional model development continues. Hall thruster PIC models have been extended and refined, and are being applied to guide design efforts at BUSEK, Inc. A program of experimental probing of internal plasma properties in Hall thrusters is being pursued in cooperation with the Air Force Phillips Laboratory at Edwards AFB, CA. The Gamma Ray Burst mission being prepared in cooperation with the Center for Space Research has evolved to an all-chemical propulsion architecture, involving an Ariane 5 ASAP launch; this will yield lower mission costs than the earlier Electric Propulsion version, and was made possible through trajectory studies performed by one
of SPPL's graduate students (Chris McLain). The Laboratory is participating in the design of a bare tether demostration mission that will fly in 1999 as a secondary Delta payload. The mission, sponsored by NASA Marshall SFC, grew out of theoretical studies by Prof. Martinez-Sanchez and visiting professors J. Sanmartin and E. Ahedo, which showed that a very efficient electron-capturing contactor for an electrodynamic tether missioncan be implemented by leaving a section of the tether exposed to the ambient plasma. Finally, a systems study is being completed of a future gaseous core nuclear rocket in which the strong vortex flow required for containment is provided by MHD forces using electricity generated on-board from the reactor's waste heat.
SPACE SYSTEMS LABORATORY
Submicron Dynamics and Thermal Snap Response of Deployable Truss
The hunt for Earth-like planets orbiting other is one of the primary objectives of NASAs Origins Program, which will launch a number of space-based observatories, starting early in the next decade. Due to the size constraints imposed by the payload bay of carrier spacecraft, these telescopes will undoubtedly require some form of on-orbit deployment mechanism, including joints or hinges which will introduce non linearity to the structure. The success of the Origins missions will hinge on whether positioning of the optical elements can be maintained to within fractions of the viewing wavelength. Consequently, any minute disturbance will pose a serious threat to the stability of the precision optical systems. Acquiring a better understanding of the effects of damping and structural nonlinearities on the submicron-level dynamics is therefore essential to the telescope design.
The overall objective of the ongoing research is to perform an experimental and analytical investigation of the microdynamics of deployable truss structures. Specifically, the main goal is to characterize the dynamic response of such nonlinear structures at sub-microstrain levels of mechanical and thermal excitation. In the case of mechanical excitation, the response will be characterized in terms of modal parameters (the natural frequency and damping ratio). The response to thermal excitation will be characterized in the time and frequency domains.
Distributed Satellite Systems
The goal of the program in Distributed Satellite Systems (DSS) is to identify the functions within spacecraft and between spacecraft that can benefit from distribution. Over the past several decades, the computer industry has evolved from using large, expensive mainframes for solving computationally intensive problems to using smaller, cheaper, more adaptable distributed sets of workstations collaborating to solve equivalent sized problems. Likewise, DSS will demonstrate how distributed arrays of smaller, cheaper spacecraft can achieve the same missions as current larger, more expensive, monolithic spacecraft with improved performance at lower cost.
To achieve this goal, the DSS program employs systems analysis concurrently with experimental work. Presently, U.S. Air Force space missions are being classified according to how much they might benefit from distribution, and metrics for evaluating DSS designs are being developed. All experimental work is done with the DSS Testbed. Phase I of the Testbed, which demonstrated the capability to perform acoustic interferometry, has been completed. Phase II of the Testbed, which will demonstrate achieving function with a distributed system of "satellites," is currently being designed with construction to begin later in the summer. Future milestones include developing software for controlling distributed satellite systems, designs of actual DSS missions, and a possible space flight experiment.
NASA: Advanced Spacecraft Architectural Concepts
The goal of the ACRP is to develop Advanced Spacecraft Architectural Concepts (ASAC) using Modular & Multifunctional units (MMSC). Functions conventionally provided by various specifically designed single function components are integrated into standardized modules. Given spacecraft functionality requirements and technical specifications, the spacecraft can then be built by assembling these basic modules together. Interfaces among these modules can also be standardized to allow easy assembly as well as flexibility for the spacecraft design.
To achieve this goal, the ASAC project moves forward in three phases. Phase I, which has already been completed, included a review of current NASA spacecraft architectures, identification of spacecraft missions and subsystems that could benefit from the MMSC concept, and requirements definition. Phase II, currently underway, consists of designing the MMSC modules and developing the interfaces and protocols between modules. Phase III will culminate with a full end-to-end design of a NASA science mission using MMSC concepts developed in Phases I and II.
Active Acoustic Load Launch Alleviation
The MIT Space Systems Lab (SSL) is teamed with Air Force Phillips Lab and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace on the Active Acoustic Launch Load Alleviation (AALLA) project. The goal of the project is to reduce the acoustic loads on spacecraft during launch by controlling the transmission and reflection of sound through the payload fairing. If successful, this research could significantly reduce the loads that account for more than 40% of first-day spacecraft failures.
An impedance matching control method is being developed for this project. This method is unique in that it only requires knowledge of the fairing structure and local acoustic coupling. In addition, sensors are only required on the fairing, not on the payload where they may interfere with deployment or performance. Currently, research at MIT is focused on proving the impedance matching concept through experiments in an acoustic test chamber.
Alternate Hall Thruster Geometries
The primary advantage of electric propulsion is a reduction in propulsion system wet mass, which can be used to improve payload effectiveness, extend satellite lifetime, and/or reduce launch costs. Hall thrusters are at the forefront of current electric propulsion research and development programs. The goal of our research is to numerically model Hall thrusters and their interactions with the host satellite. We are currently refining and extending two dimensional code developed to model the Russian SPT-100 thruster such that it accurately predicts the behavior of alternate Hall thruster geometries.
Dynamic Modeling of Hall Thrusters
Early efforts to develop Hall thrusters in the United States were abandoned, partly due to plasma instabilities which prohibited steady reliable operation. Russian designs eventually proved reliable, but oscillations were still present in the discharge. We are undertaking a program of Hall thrusters modeling which will help understand the physical nature of Hall thruster discharge oscillations and their effect on operational characteristics. In addition, our model is helping to understand other phenomenon such as "anomalous" electron conductivity in the Hall thruster plasma.
Precision Space Telescope Testbed
The MIT Space Systems Laboratory has designed and constructed a testbed whose structural dynamic response is similar to that of proposed next generation space telescopes: the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) and the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). The research goal is to address challenges faced by NASA's Origins Program telescopes in areas related to dynamics and control, and to ensure that the results are applicable to these missions.
The testbed is designed to be as satellite-like as possible, and is neutrally stable at its axis of rotation to enable a one-axis slew maneuver. A reaction wheel assembly mounted at the bottom of the spacecraft bus section is used to slew the testbed. Disturbances traceable to those anticipated for the next generation space telescopes are engendered by the reaction wheels. The testbed's performance is measured with an optical system, which simulated the optical train of the space telescopes.
TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY FOR ADVANCED COMPOSITES
Over 30 students were involved with TELAC during AY 96/97 including 16 graduate students, a similar number of UROPers, and a number of students in 16.621/2 who performed their projects in TELAC. Five students finished their master's theses in the laboratory during this period and one doctorate was completed. In addition, the laboratory was host to a visiting faculty member, Earl Thornton of the University of Virginia, in the fall and to a visiting student from the International Space University in the spring. This student completed a project during this period under the guidance of Hugh McManus. The laboratory issued a total of 18 reports during this period including a number accepted for publication in journals and proceedings. Laboratory personnel participated in conferences at the national and international level giving a total of 7 presentations. Included in these was a paper given by Paul Lagace at the biennial DoD/NASA/FAA Conference on Fibrous Composites in Structural Design held in Ft. Worth in August. The new approach to the design of composite structures which has been developed by the laboratory faculty over the past several years was further described and was well-received by an audience mainly of industry practitioners. This approach continues to be presented and discussed around the country and the world and is continuing to receive widespread acceptance and support. The faculty hope to build on this to soon begin a new sponsored program in this area. Major progress was made in a coordinated effort aimed at understanding the effects of severe environments on the durability of composite structures. Thermal, chemical and mechanical effects on the material are all considered, using a material modeling approach. The understanding is being used to develop design methodologies to insure performance over long lifetimes in such challenging environments, and to design scaled or accelerated test methods for such applications as the HSCT and X-33 vehicles, engine components, and satellite structures. The same design methods are being used in-house to build and test a microsatellite structure for Draper Laboratories. Other major research accomplishments during the year include the identification of fundamental failure mechanisms in hybrid composite laminates; application of an approach, using design diagrams, for the design of metal-composite joints; continued extension of the understanding of impact behavior in composite structures, particularly in regard to shell configurations; an ability to predict the geometric nonlinear behavior of pressurized composite cylinders, simulating fuselage structures, and a furthering of the understanding of the effect such behavior has on these structures; and the development of an ability to numerically model the snap-through behavior of transversely-loaded composite shells using the STAGS code. A significant event this year was the hosting of the "Second Student Symposium on Composite Materials" between the students working on composites at Virginia Tech and those in TELAC at M.I.T. The first very successful such exchange occurred at Virginia Tech in 1996 and TELAC hosted this event for the first time during March, 1997. A final note is that the laboratory technician of nearly twenty years, Albert Supple, retired. A gathering of laboratory members and alumni/ae in September congratulated him on his accomplishments. The laboratory also welcomed a new technician, John Kane, in September.
WRIGHT BROTHERS WIND TUNNEL
The primary test activites fell into two classes. The first is the use of the wind tunnel for educational purposes. In the past year there were no 16.621-16.622 projects:
The second were commercial use of the wind tunnel to determine wind loads and pedestrian level winds for proposed construction in Boston.
The Wright Brothers Wind Tunnel is part of a round robin anemometer testing program conducted under the sponsorship of the Institute for Meterological Standards. We were pleased by the outcome of the tested conducted at the Wright Brothers Tunnel. In spite of its age, the tunnel exceeds world standards for calibrating this class of anemometer.
The other use was for calibration of Second Wind Anemometer.
The commercial testing used 41.85 wind on hours this year.
The David J. Shapiro Memorial Award is given to Aero & Astro undergraduate students to "pursue special aeronautical projects that are student-initiated, and/or to support foreign travel for the enhancement of scientific/technical studies and research opportunities." This year's recipients of the Shapiro award are--
Sabrina D. Almeida
Sabrina D. Almeida
"For support and enhancement of scientific/technical studies" at the École Nationale Supérieure de L'Aéronautique et de L'Espace (Sup'Aero), Toulouse, France, during AY 97-98.
Phillip E. Reich
"For support and enhancement of scientific/technical studies" at the Imperial College, London, England, during AY 97-98.
The Apollo Program Prize given to an Aero & Astro student who "conducts the best research project on the topic of humans in space" is presented to--
Esther S. Dutton
"In recognition of her contributions to human space flight through exemplary educational curriculum development efforts and analysis of the spacecraft development process."
The Yngve K. Raustein Award was established in memory of Yngve K. Raustein, a member of the MIT class of 1994, whose untimely and tragic death in September 1992 saddened the entire MIT and Cambridge community. In the fall of 1991, Yngve transferred from the University of Bergen in his native Norway to major in our department. His interest in space technology, initially kindled by the Challenger accident in 1986, continued to grow while he was at MIT. Yngve was active in the Students for the Exploration and Development of Space program, and traveled to the Kennedy Space Center to watch the Space Shuttle Discover launch in January 1992. He lived in Baker House, where he made many friends.
The Raustein award is given to a Unified Engineering student who "best exemplifies the spirit of Yngve Raustein and to recognize significant achievement in Unified Engineering". This year the Raustein award is presented to:
"By his willingness to take on the challenge of pursuing Unified Engineering during his freshman year, and by his outstanding performance, Keith exemplifies the spirit that Yngve brought to Unified".
The Unified Engineering Award was established to recognize the hard work of the Unified head graduate teaching assistant. This year we recognize--
Raymond J. Sedwick
"For outstanding devotion to and leadership of the team of student assistants in Unified Engineering, as well as skillful organization and planning to achieve smooth operation of the complex Unified Engineering enterprise."
The Andrew G. Morsa Award is given to undergraduate students "for demonstration of ingenuity and initiative in the application of computers to the field of aeronautics and astronautics." This year's Morsa award goes to--
"For demonstrated ingenuity, initiative, creativity, and skill in developing a World Wide Web version of the Lean Aircraft Initiative Program Lean Enterprise Model to aid aerospace companies to implement practices to improve quality and reduce costs."
The Leaders for Manufacturing Award was established in 1991 by our own Prof. Eugene Covert and is given to 16.62x students "for some activity related to skills in one of several activities associated with manufacturing". This year's recipients of the LFM prize are--
of Prussia, PA
"For their mature and entirely independent analysis of manufacturing variance in graphite-epoxy specimens; for their design and implementation of quality-control checks and the determination that the specimens could be used without compromosing the validity of the data; and for the design of test matrices to minimize the effects of manufacturing variations on the test results.
The Admiral Luis De Florez Prize was established to encourage undergraduates to be imaginative and creative. This year's recipients are--
Christian L. Anderson
"For pursuing an original project to analyze energy loss mechanisms of in-line skates, and for ingenuity in developing appropriate instrumentation and in performing measurements."
The James Means Memorial Award was established by Dr. Means, a former physician at MIT for many years, in honor of his father who was an aeronautical enthusiast. The award recognizes excellence in both flight vehicle engineering--16.82, and in space systems engineering--16.83. This year's winners are--
Staci N. Jenkins
"For significant leadership in helping the undergraduate space systems engineering class to converge on a design for a mission to search for evidence of life on Mars."
Rodgerick L. Newhouse
Rodgerick L. Newhouse
"For excellence in the architecture and design of the payload and guidance avionics systems for a ship-borne unmanned surveillance vehicle."
The Henry Webb Salisbury Award was established in memory of Henry Webb Salisbury to recognize academic achievement by a graduating senior or seniors. This year's recipient of the Salisbury award is--
Gregory G. Richardson
"For achieving academic excellence in the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics."
Taylor Teaching Fellow
Bisplinghoff Teaching Fellow
Stark Draper Teaching Fellow
Resnik Teaching Fellow
Bisplinghoff Teaching Fellow
In the past year, the Department established its future strategic direction. The next year will be marked by the detailed planning to implement that strategic direction. Six working groups will set out to shape the future: System Architecture and Engineering; Aerospace Information Engineering; the Engineering Context of our Education; Academic Program Planning; Research Planning; and International Programs.
In parallel we will work to establish major strategic relations with industry, and search intensively and comprehensively to rebuild the faculty which will implement our collective future vision.
Edward F. Crawley
MIT Reports to the President 1996-97