MIT Reports to the President 1998-99
The MIT Sea Grant College Program provides funds for research, education, and technology transfer directed toward wise utilization of marine resources. MIT has been a leading participant in the national program since 1969. In 1976 the Institute was designated a Sea Grant College Program. Sea Grant College status offers the potential for greater funding and confers a responsibility to work with marine researchers throughout the Commonwealth.
Funds are distributed among the 29 Sea Grant Programs in a competing grant process by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration through its National Office of Sea Grant. Each program is required to match every two dollars of its federal grant with one from non-federal sources. Congress established this matching provision to ensure that Sea Grant universities would be responsive to public and industry needs. Sea Grant provides funds explicitly for technology transfer through its mandate for advisory services and education in addition to its research mandate.
In FY 1999 the National Office of Sea Grant awarded MIT $1.934 million. MIT, industry partners, the Commonwealth, and other federal (most notably ONR) and non-federal agencies provided more than $4.5 million. In all, these funds provided partial support for 15 faculty members, 10 post-doctoral and research fellows and 33 students from MIT's departments of Chemical, Civil and Environmental, Ocean, Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, and Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences; as well as partial support for faculty and students at UMASS/Amherst, UMASS/Boston, UMASS/Lowell, Wellesley College, Boston University, Harvard University, Northeastern University, Massachusetts Maritime Academy, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), the New England Aquarium, and the Universities of Rhode Island and Maryland.
A substantial portion of the $4.5 million is represented by the fourth year portion of a five year $11.6 million award from the Office of Naval Research (ONR). This award is intended to further the development of the Autonomous Oceanographic Sampling Network (AOSN) and will involve our Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Laboratory in collaboration with WHOI, the University of Washington and the University of California at San Diego (Scripps Institute of Oceanography). The first year of a two year $2.75 million award from ONR for a new autonomous research vessel to be used in the Atlantic Layer Tracking Experiment (ALTEX) also contributed to this additional funding. The ALTEX project has a number of collaborators including WHOI, Florida Atlantic University and a few commercial firms.
Research at MIT Sea Grant is guided by the unique intellectual resources of colleges and universities in the Commonwealth and by the needs of the marine community. Our research is divided into two categories. The first category is our core research program, which reflects the ongoing MIT Sea Grant management process and the guidance provided by our two advisory bodies: the State Advisory Council and the Faculty Committee. Within the core research area, we have four theme areas, with quite specific concentrations: Marine Biotechnology; Coastal Management and Utilization; Coupled Ocean Observation and Modeling; and Technology Development and Management for Ocean Uses. The second research category is our focused research, intended to address major regional and/or national issues or needs. Projects under focused research are also called Marine Center projects. In addition, Automation in the Manufacture of Marine Systems, now supported entirely from sources outside Sea Grant, continues to be one of Sea Grant's strongest activities. We continue to build upon advances made in these areas. In addition, MIT Sea Grant has successfully competed for and been awarded additional grants in several areas.
Sea Grant's research objective in Marine Biotechnology is the advancement of technology that can contribute to better use of the biological resources of ocean and coastal ecosystems. Recent and ongoing research has included studies of novel delivery systems for the vaccination of farmed fish, Development of New Methods for Efficient Vaccination of Farmed Fish: Controlled and Sustained Delivery of Vaccines, led by Professor Robert Langer with Dr. Yonathan Zohar, Visiting Scientist, both with the Department of Chemical Engineering. Professor Don Cheney, Northeastern University, Marine Science Center, continued his research into novel and potentially important research in seaweed as a source of compounds having commercial potential in food processing and pharmaceuticals, Novel Polysaccharide Production Through Seaweed Genetic Manipulation and Cell Culture Technology. These two research projects were completed on July 31, 1998.
Three new research projects began activities in March of last year. Professor Ralph Mitchell, Gordon McKay Professor of Applied Biology at Harvard University, is researching environmentally-acceptable methods of antifouling based on the activity of metabolites from marine microorganisms, Development of Novel Environmentally-Acceptable Marine Antifouling Coatings Based on Microbial Metabolites.
Professor Don Cheney, Northeastern University, continues his research activities in nori aquaculture, Effect of Nori Aquaculture on the Marine Flora of Cobscook Bay and Selected Sites within the Gulf of Maine, which is being done as a component of a Non-indigenous Species grant with investigators from the Universities of New Hampshire and Maine. Thirdly, Professor Herb Hultin of the University of Massachusetts at Amherst continues his research into uses of traditionally little used fish species with his project, Overcoming Problems in Producing High Quality Functional Proteins from Small Pelagic Fish.
Research projects within the Coastal Management and Utilization theme area seek to advance the science and engineering needed to more effectively utilize our coastal and ocean resources and, either as an integral component or separately, increase our understanding of the marine ecosystem and our ability to influence its sustainability.
Professor Ole Madsen, MIT Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, continued his research into the effects of seawalls on coastal sediment transporthis current project, Effect of Seawalls on Longshore Currents, is now in the final year of a two-year study. Professor Ivan Valiela of Boston University along with Professor Harry Hemond, MIT Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, is also in the final year of a two-year study, Denitrification and Nitrogen Attenuation in the Aquifer of an Estuarine Watershed. Professor Joseph Montoya, Harvard University, had been awarded a one-year grant, A Preliminary Stable Isotope Tracer Study of Sewage Nitrogen Inputs to Massachusetts Bay, that investigated the use of stable isotopes as tracers of sewage nitrogen as distinct from marine nitrogen within the Massachusetts Bay ecosystem. Montoya followed this work with a successful proposal to continue his research with a two-year grant beginning in March 1997. Professor Montoya has since left Harvard to accept a faculty position with Georgia Technical Institute effective for the fall semester of 1998. Professor James McCarthy of Harvard has assumed responsibility as PI of the project.
Autonomous Robotic Fish-like Underwater Vehicle, under the direction of Professor Michael Triantafyllou, MIT Ocean Engineering Department, reached completion in July of last year. The major focus of the project was dedicated to the design, construction and testing of a 32-inch autonomous fish-like vehicle employing vorticity control, which demonstrated the fast-maneuvering capabilities of flexible hull vehicles. It is used to test and transition technology for substantially improving the maneuvering performance of marine vehicles. A recent patent was obtained by MIT for using flexible hull vehicles for propulsion and maneuvering (Triantafyllou & Barrett, April 1998, US Patent 5,740,750). The technology described in the patent was in part developed as a result of this project opening the way for technological applications of the results of the study.
Current efforts continue to focus on developing the key technologies for Autonomous Ocean Sampling Networks. The MIT Sea Grant AUV Lab, sponsored by ONR and, in part, by NOAA through the Sea Grant College Program, leads this multi-university research effort. The goal is to further our ability to carry out real-time oceanography over the long term, through the synergistic combination of AUVs, moorings, gliders, and satellites. Collaborators have included the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, the Institute of Ocean Sciences (Sidney, BC), Harvard University, the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, the University of Washington Applied Physics Lab, the Smithsonian Institution, and National Geographic Society. Professor Henrik Schmidt, MIT Department of Ocean Engineering, oversees this research area as Associate Director for Research and Dr. James G. Bellingham (Principal Research Engineer) directs the AUV Lab with support from a number of Research Engineers,Visiting Engineers and Scientists, several Post-Doctoral Associates, Research Fellows, Research Specialists, and graduate students, as well as undergraduate students.
Our annual call (issued in February of each year) for new research and outreach proposals to begin in March of 1999, included a new theme area, Coupled Ocean Observation and Modeling, as the newest theme area in our core program. This came as a result of a series of symposia begun in November of 1997 to provide a more focused concentration in an area of particular importance to the Northeast. This particular solicitation did yield a proposal as a core research project) in this new theme area that reviewed very well and was included in the Omnibus Proposal submitted to the National office in November of last year. The title, Integrated Mapping and Navigation for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles, submitted by John Leonard, Assistant Professor of Ocean Engineering, MIT reveals the tight coupling of this new theme area with the on-going activities of the existing Program at MIT. The objective of the proposed research is to develop an algorithm for integrated mapping and navigation (IMAN) for AUVs and to verify its performance with real data. The ultimate aim of integrated mapping and navigation is to enable AUVs to build and maintain feature-based maps of the ocean environment from sonar data and to use these maps to navigate for long duration missions over large areas of the ocean. A second proposal in this new theme area but outside of our core program is discussed below under the Focused Research section.
In addition to the aforementioned proposal we received new proposals in all three of the other theme areas - Marine Biotechnology, Coastal Management and Utilization, and Technology Development in addition to two new proposals in Education. The proposals finally included in the Omnibus are Tissue Engineered Fish Skin (Professor Robert Langer, MIT), in Marine Biotechnology; two in Coastal Management and Utilization, Sediment Quality Criteria (SQCs) for Policyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): Accounting for Pyrogenic Sources (Professor Philip Gschwend, MIT) and Nitrogen Loads to Estuaries: Applications and Assessments of Management Options (Professor Ivan Valiela, Boston University); and in the Technology Development theme area, Biomimetic Hull and Actuators for Fast-maneuvering Vehicles (Professor Michael Triantafyllou, MIT).
Lastly is a theme area we have traditionally included in our proposal solicitation that is deliberately broad in focus and titleTechnology Development and Management for Ocean Uses. This theme area is meant to serve as an avenue for new and exciting ideas, and has, on occasion, yielded successful proposals that have evolved into continuing research theme areas. Our solicitation for new research to begin on March 1, 1997 did indeed result in a successful proposal in this theme area. This research, Development of Particle Tracking Equipment for Flow Visualization Around Live, Unrestrained Fish, led by Professor Michael Triantafyllou as Principal Investigator with Dr. Thomas Consi as Associate Investigatorboth of the Department of Ocean Engineering, was completed in February of this year. This work followed a previous Sea Grant project that provided valuable insight as to how fish are able to display accelerations and sustained velocities that seem impossible from the viewpoints of available energy and conventional understanding of locomotion processes. The latest research focused on better visualization and analysis of the flow of fluid through which live, unrestrained fish swim. This required development of sophisticated instrumentation and software to allow individual water particles to be illuminated and their motions precisely measured in space and time. The objective of this research is twofold: to better understand the mechanisms fish employ in their natural habitat is important to our appreciation of them as a species; secondly is the benefit to be gained in applying this knowledge to man-made vehicles to make better use of energy.
Our solicitation for new research to begin on March 1, 1998 resulted in two successful proposals (both now in their second and final year) in this theme area: Computational Analysis of In-Situ Holograms of Marine Micro-organisms, led by Professor Jerome Milgram, Department of Ocean Engineering, and Submerged Coastal Offshore Mussel Aquaculture System: A Multi-Disciplinary Approach, led by Dr. Walter Paul, Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The Milgram research represents a unique use of hologram technology and signal processing to allow observations of marine microorganisms influenced by the effects of flow turbulence.
The proposal from Dr. Paul deserves particular note in that it satisfies the definitions of a "regional proposal"a concept encouraged and specifically supported by the National Office. The intent of the regional concept is to provide an incentive for more than one program to collaborate on an issue or problem of regional importance (often with significance to other regions around the nation). Dr. Paul's proposal involves both marine biology and policy to compliment his emphasis on the physical oceanography and engineering aspects of offshore mussel aquaculture. We are funding Dr. Paul's portion, WHOI is funding the Marine Policy portion and the Commonwealth is funding the biology portion.
The objective of the Focused Research/Marine Center concept is to plan and conduct research programs in collaboration with, and jointly sponsored by, industry and government agencies in order to attack major problems of broad interest to the marine community, and to foster industrial competitiveness by transferring the resulting technology to users.
Autonomous Underwater Vehicles: Basic Technologies, our second Focused Research project concluded in 1996. It served to develop robotic multi-use platforms, the Odyssey class of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) for coastal as well as deep-ocean applications. Lessons learned from these vehicles are being incorporated in Odyssey II, which is being built under the third Focused Research Program project, Autonomous Underwater Vehicles: Scientific and Industrial Applications. This Focused Research Project is also supported as a Tactical Research Project of the National Sea Grant Office, entitled Rapid Response to Seismic Activity on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. A recent Focused Research project, Development of Autonomous Surface Craft, resulted in a prototype and field studies conducted in local waters. We have decided that this research effort more appropriately belongs within the broader research focus of the AUV program where the field infrastructure better exploits its anticipated capabilities.
The Autonomous Surface Craft (ASC) has concentrated on establishing a useful function in coastal survey and exploration activities. These efforts have mostly been confined to hydrographic surveys. Laboratory developments and fieldwork have produced a prototype system adequate for actual survey trials. These have produced both hardware and software components that provide a solid basis for the next stage of activity. A new mission for the ASC has been added. This involves using our prototype as a mobile communications station for our AOSN project. Tests are expected to begin this fall.
As a consequence of the success of the Focused Research Programs that addressed AUV technologies and applications we have been able to capture additional funding. Today the AUV Laboratory is supported by ONR and others at an annual rate of more than $2.5 million. This illustrates the intent of our Focused Research theme area and further demonstrates how early funding of well thought out research areas can establish the soundness of more specific research and development objectives.
On August 1, 1996 the initial, first year work began on the fourth Focused Research/Marine Center, Behavior of Capped Contaminated Sediments, under the leadership of Senior Research Engineer and Lecturer, Dr. E. Eric Adams of MIT. This research will address theoretical analysis and field studies to determine the processes occurring in a capped contaminated sediment site. It follows a recently completed Focused Research Marine Center, Contaminated Sediments in Boston Harbor, led by former MIT Professor Keith Stolzenbach. A full history, results, and recommendations are now available in an MIT Sea Grant publication by the same title. This work will allow a fuller understanding of the site selection criteria, transport processes of contaminated material through the capping material and further aid in predicting benthic impacts. The University of Massachusetts/Boston and the School of Public Health, Harvard University are collaborators on this project.
A more recent Focused Research/Marine Center, Poseidon: A Coastal Zone Management System via the World Wide Web, initiated work in March of last year. This project is a consequence of the high availability of raw ocean data, the various modeling approaches one can apply to large, multi-parameter data sets, and extensive uses such data derived knowledge make possible (weather forecasting, fisheries management, environmental impacts, etc.). We have presented the vision supporting this research and the results as they evolve at the Collegium symposia and workshops recently. There is a growing interest in this area as evidenced by the requests for more detailed information from our colleagues outside of MIT.
In our most recent core program solicitation for research and educational proposals we also asked for new Focused Research proposals. We received one such proposal, Distributed Observatories for the Coastal Environment (Jim Bellingham, MIT AUV Lab Manager). This project received favorable peer reviews and was included in our recent Omnibus Proposal to the National Office. It too reflects the latest addition to our core research theme areas in that it is specifically oriented to the coastal regime and embodies an integrated approach to a real-time multi-disciplinary network for advanced study of a complex marine environment, in this case the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary. This represents a unique opportunity to involve a network of advanced research tools such as the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, in-situ observation platforms and remote sensing methods in a two-way telemetry system for use by many, possibly unrelated, researchers. This project is now funded and activity began in March of this year.
Sea Grant is committed to providing learning opportunities for students, professionals, and the public. Support for graduate students is included in almost every research project. In addition, the program continues to provide major support for marine-related Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP) projects. Sea Grant UROP directly provided $25,000. A substantial contribution from the Department of Ocean Engineering and the MIT UROP itself raised this to a total of $50,000. Sixteen UROPs were supported this year representing five MIT departments.
Two proposals were submitted in response to our latest solicitation for educational ideas. A pilot program of the Aquaculture Courses for Massachusetts High School Students, proposed by Cliff Goudey of our own Advisory Program, was funded and included in our Omnibus.
The Sea Grant College Program co-sponsored with the Department of Ocean Engineering as series of three day courses for technical professionals, "Entrepreneurship & Intrepreneurship: Developing a Technology-Based Business or Product," who are, or want to be the driving force behind a new product or business opportunity.
Two other jointly sponsored conferences deserve mention here. In June of this year the 10th International Conference on Computer Applications in Shipbuilding was organized by the Department of Ocean Engineering to present advances in information technology revolutionizing shipbuilding from design to assembly and shipyard management. In August of last year (1998) the Sea Grant Program, the Ocean Systems Management Program in the Department of Ocean Engineering, and Marsoft Inc., an international maritime consulting firm and a leading provider of investment, risk management, and market analysis to the maritime and financial communities, sponsored a two day course, "Investment & Risk Management in Shipping."
The MIT Sea Grant Marine Industry Collegium promotes the active transfer of marine research and technology through the sponsorship of workshops, the distribution of publications and research reports, and direct interaction with members. Since 1975, the Collegium has provided member organizations with the opportunity to attend several technical workshops and symposia per year. The Collegium program collaborates with Draper Laboratories and other campus organizations in sponsoring symposia and workshops. Of particular note is the involvement of the Industrial Liaison Program (ILP) membership in Collegium activities. ILP members are invited but their attendance is determined by the relevance of the subject matter.
In the fall of 1997 the Marine Industry Collegium held a symposium, Coupled Ocean Observation/Modeling Systems. A second symposium in this theme area was held in May of 1998, Ocean Modeling & Data Assimilation: Satellite Oceanography, intended to focus on a particular methodology for coastal studies.
The third event in this series was held on November 4th and 5th of last year (1998). The emphasis was again on coastal processes with a specific focus on data needs, and the efficient processing and use of information resulting from that data. The title Coastal Oceanography: System Integration & Observation Platforms, reflects the intent to view this area as one of complex interdependencies with emphasis on system design, understanding of the methodologies available, and recognition of the benefits of an integrated approach to coastal observation.
In developing this thematic track we have established the foundation for new research directions for our program having relevance to the Northeast Regional Sea Grant Program.
The Center for Fisheries Engineering Research (CFER) has strengthened its role in regional fisheries and aquaculture through several important initiatives and capacity building. Since its establishment in 1982, CFER project director Cliff Goudey has varied the emphasis depending on the needs of the fishing industry. Early topics included vessel safety, fuel efficiency and fishing gear selectivity. More recently bycatch reduction, ecosystem effects of fishing, stock enhancement and aquaculture have become more important.
CFER has established a marine finfish hatchery on Boston Harbor aimed at species and recirculating technology research and outreach. Aquaculture specialist Brandy Moran has been hired to manage the facility and develop educational programs. CFER's collaborations with the fishing industry include: developing a low-impact scallop dredge; demonstrating sea scallop enhancement techniques in a nine-square-mile EEZ site; and evaluating acoustic techniques for detecting the presence of right whales. As our part of a National Oceanographic Partnership Program (NOPP) funded project we are involved in the development of a system for fisheries data telemetry from commercial fishing vessels. Ken Ekstrom, an electronics/software specialist, has been hired to assist in this NOPP-funded project.
Collaborative work with the Massachusetts Aquaculture Coordinator, Scott Soares, has successfully identified the regulatory environment for aquaculture permitting in the Commonwealth. Draft permitting guidelines have been developed and are under review. Their production is scheduled to occur in 1999 together with an interactive web site. Test-case identification awaits the finalization of the guidelines.
The Center for Marine Social Sciences (CMSS) is actively pursuing its goal of applying advances in social sciences to help resolve marine-related issues and to contribute to policy development. CMSS continues to work with state and federal agencies and the public to identify and address local and regional needs in fisheries and coastal zone management. Marine advisory agent, Madeleine Hall-Arber continues to track the social impact of new fisheries regulations and has planned focus groups for Gloucester and New Bedford to assess their effects. Hall-Arber is President-elect of the American Fisheries Society's Subcommittee on Socio-economics and a member of the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission's Committee on Economics and Social Sciences. In addition to these posts, Hall-Arber serves on the advisory board of the Massachusetts Coastal Zone Management Program, is a member of the New England Marine Advisory Council, and is president of the Women's Fisheries Network. Public education efforts continue through exhibits, participation in conferences and festivals, and articles in Commercial Fisheries News.
A new web page for Women's Fisheries Network is being developed with the participation of several of the members and the governing board. Traditional outreach continues as well with representation on the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC) Economics and Social Sciences Committee, and on both the Winter Flounder and Herring Technical Committees. In addition, CMSS helped write the Social Impact Assessment of the new Herring Fishery Management Plan for the New England Fisheries Management Council.
The Center for Coastal Resources under the leadership of Judy Pederson, brings science and technology research to state and federal agencies' staff, local government officials and other entities. The Center helps improve decision making in management of coastal resources and strengthens policy development. The Center for Coastal Resources has continued to provide outreach activities that bring scientists, coastal resource managers and users together. This past year has seen the continued collaboration in convening several conferences and workshops, and continuing efforts for coordinating regional research and management of the Gulf of Maine. A Mass Bay web page has been developed to provide linkage to data and research, and other information for the Massachusetts and Cape Cod Bays and Boston Harbor regions. Follow-up activities include communicating workshop and conference outcomes to coastal managers and have resulted in guidance and policy documents relating to appropriate use of introduced species in aquaculture.
Effects of Fishing Gear on the Sea Floor of New England was published by the Conservation Law Foundation. Eleanor Dorsey of the Foundation and Judy Pederson of the Center for Coastal Resources were coeditors of this publication which resulted from a conference held in 1997 chaired by Dorsey and Pederson.
The First National Conference on Marine Bioinvasions, held January 2427, 1999 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, brought together 250 scientists, managers and industry representatives. The presentations and poster sessions focused on ballast water and technologies to minimize introductions from ballast water; patterns of invasions; ecological and evolutionary consequences; management strategies and control options; and outreach and educational activities. Important information resides within all participants and presenters, and the interaction and exchange of information among conferees exceeded the expectations of the conference organizers. Of special note were the well-polished presentations by students the next generation of researchers and managers who will continue to focus on solutions to the problem of marine bioinvasions.
One of the highlights of the Conference was the address by the U.S. Secretary of the Interior, Bruce Babbitt. He opened his remarks by noting that the effects from marine invaders may be more severe and longer lasting than impacts from oil spills.
The Sea Grant Communications/Information Service under the leadership of Andrea Cohen produces outreach materials for a wide variety of consumers. This includes the continued production of the new joint publication produced by the MIT and WHOI Sea Grant Programs. Two if By Sea highlights the research, advisory and outreach activities of Sea Grant programs in the Commonwealth and provides the public with information about coastal and marine issues in the region. We recently published A Quick Guide to Marine Bioinvasions, which was mailed to over 3,000 citizens. Thus far, we've received requests for an additional 700 copies and are considering a second printing.
The Marine Communications/Information Services has published a new, comprehensive Publications Directory and a new Citizen's Guide to Coastal and Marine Resources in Massachusetts. Communications continued to write for the Nor'easter magazine (circ. 12,000), along with other Sea Grant programs in the Northeast region. A decision by the Northeast regional communicators was made to end the Nor'easter with the final issue scheduled for later this year.
The Communications office continues to fill requests for publications and information relating to our Program as well as on a national scale. This interest group includes schools, businesses, government, citizens, media, the MIT community and others. In the past year, Communications also collaborated with the Metropolitan District Commission and Friends of Magazine Beach, a community group, in sponsoring the fourth Annual Clean-Up of Magazine Beach and the Banks of the Charles. We also maintain a reference center available to the community for informational purposes.
Media relations have resulted in print, web and television coverage in many venues, including: NBC/National Geographic Television, The New York Times, The Boston Globe, Discovery On-Line, Commercial Fisheries News, Technology Review, Mass High Tech, and New England Cable News.
In November Elisabeth Sylvan was hired as a Communication Specialist to further develop communications via the World Wide Web.
The joint educational program established with the Massachusetts Maritime Academy (MMA) twenty years ago has grown in terms of the educational/training needs it addresses. MMA continues to sponsor a series of seminars oriented towards their traditional constituency of recreational and commercial users of coastal waters. Recent offerings have begun to address aquaculture and fisheries issues.
The program director is Professor Chryssostomos Chryssostomidis, Department of Ocean Engineering. Associate directors for research are Professor Henrik Schmidt and Dr. E. Eric Adams. Richard Morris continues to serve as Executive Officer for the program.
MIT Sea Grant administers the Doherty Professorship endowed by the Henry L. and Grace Doherty Foundation. John J. Leonard, an Assistant Professor of Ocean Engineering, is the current incumbent. Professor Leonard's research concerns the unique ability of certain animalsdolphins in particularto combine controlled movement of the animal with their sonar capability to determine size and shape of the object of interest.
More information about the Sea Grant College Program can be found on the World Wide Web at http://web.mit.edu/seagrant/www/.
MIT Reports to the President 1998-99