MIT Reports to the President 1998-99


This past year has been a very productive one for the Department of Materials Science and Engineering. We have hired four new assistant professors and we have completed a strategic plan, which has been in development for the past eighteen months.

We were pleased to once again be ranked first in both undergraduate and graduate education among the Departments of Materials Science and Engineering by U.S. News and World Report. We have maintained this ranking ever since this began ten years ago.

In spite of the more difficult research funding climate, the research volume of the department has been relatively constant during the past year, while the number of graduate students has decreased somewhat. The undergraduate student population has decreased to 106. In June 1999 we awarded 37 bachelors degrees, 26 masters and 21 doctorates. Our program of offering fellowships to a large percentage of domestic applicants continues to provide us with an outstanding graduate student body; 63 percent of our entering graduate student class in September 1998 were domestic.

As noted above, we are pleased to report that we have hired four new faculty–three of whom will be joining us in September and one other upon his completion of a post-doctoral position. The three new faculty are Dr. Adam C. Powell IV, a former student of Professor Julian Szekely, who has just completed a two-year post-doctoral position at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Professor Powell's interests are in mathematical modelling and materials processing operations. He joins the department as the Thomas B. King Assistant Professor. Dr. Christine Ortiz graduated from Cornell University in polymer physics and will be joining us this September after having completed a two-year post-doctoral position at the University of Groningen. Her primary interests are in mechanical behavior of polymers, although some of her work on atomic force microscopy may apply to biomaterials, as well. Dr. Richard Smith is completing a one-year post-doctoral position at Carnegie-Mellon University, where he graduated in ceramic science. His interests are the mesoscopic structure of ceramics, particularly with regard to catalytic surface activity. He joins the faculty as the Amax Career Development Assistant Professor. In addition to these three faculty, we have offered a position to Dr. Darrell Irvine, a student of Professor Anne Mayes, who has worked in biomaterials. Darrell will be going to Stanford University to complete a post-doctoral position in biology before returning to MIT as an assistant professor in one or two years.

We regret to report that Professor Sandra Burkett, a promising young faculty member, resigned her position as of the end of this academic year in order to take a new position at Amherst College in Amherst, MA. While we wish her well in her career, her departure is a significant loss to the department.

It is with sadness that we report the death in August 1998 of Professor Robert A. Laudise, class of '56, who has been an Adjunct Professor in the Department and, for more than 30 years Research Director at AT&T's Bell Labs. As Research Director, he was responsible for the development and production of optical fibers; his groups produced the first lithium niobate and yttrium aluminum garnet crystals, the basis for most advanced communications systems. He was a frequent guest lecturer in courses offered by our department and was most recently co-lecturer of a graduate course on industrial ecology.

Through the generosity of Dr. Vasilios S. Salapatas, class of ‘66 and the managing director of Helliniki Halyvourgia, S.A., and his wife of Athens, Greece, the establishment of the Danae and Vasilios Salapatas Professorship of Ferrous Metallurgy was announced. Dr. Claude Lupis has been honored as the first holder of this professorship. Professor Lupis graduated from the University of Paris, the Institut d'Administration des Entreprises and the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris. He received the doctorate at MIT and was professor of metallurgy and materials science at Carnegie-Mellon University before entering industry in 1980. He returned to academia and MIT in 1997. Dr. Lupis' technical expertise is in the area of thermodynamics and kinetics and their application to the processing of metals and materials. Dr. Salapatas also endowed the Thomas B. King Career Development Chair in Metallurgy. We are most grateful for his continued support of the Department.

The administrative clustering, which was begun several years ago, has strengthened the administrative environment and provided greater ability to interact with the faculty in both the departments and the center. Robin Elices now serves as the Administrative Officer for the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, the Department of Chemical Engineering, and the Center for Bioengineering having recently replaced Dr. Elizabeth Cooper, who has left the Institute.

Our faculty members continue to occupy a number of important leadership positions at MIT. Professor Kimerling serves as Director of the Materials Processing Center (MPC), Professor Rose continues as Director of the Concourse Program, Professor Roylance serves as Executive Officer, Professor Rubner serves as Director of the Program in Polymer Science and Technology (PPST), Professor Clark is the Director of the Center for Technology, Policy and Industrial Development, Professor Allen serves as Secretary of the MIT Faculty, Professor Latanision continues as Chairman of the MIT Council on Primary and Secondary Education, Professor Lechtman is Director of the Center for Materials Research in Archaeology and Ethnology (CMRAE), and Professor McGarry is the Director of the Summer Session.

Following our departmental Visiting Committee in October of 1997, the department became extremely active in developing a future strategic plan. In December 1997 we held a full day retreat to define the areas of greatest need over the next several decades. During weekly faculty meetings over the spring semester we identified a number of strategic directions culminating in another full day retreat in May of 1998. At this meeting we agreed that it is necessary to develop a strong thrust in Biomaterials Engineering, to create a new Center for Computation Materials Science and Engineering, and to develop a Master's Engineering Program with emphasis on industrial practice. We will continue to further develop and refine these and other elements of our departmental strategy over the next six months, and beyond. This exercise has strengthened the department in many ways, especially in bringing the faculty together for thoughtful discussion about many topics. The process also significantly improved the morale of the department. The faculty appreciate the clear direction and the participative process through which it was achieved. Our challenge during the next few years will be successful implementation of these goals.


Our undergraduate enrollment remains at historically high levels. Essential to maintaining our undergraduate body are extensive recruiting efforts including participating in Academic Expo during Freshman Orientation, an Open House, our annual John Wulff Lecture, direct mailings to the freshman class, Freshman Advisor Seminars, and IAP Activities. Our III—B Internship Program continues to attract the majority of the undergraduate students in our department. Through this program we have strengthened our interactions with 43 companies and government laboratories in the US, Europe, and Asia while providing summer experiences relevant to the educational development of our undergraduates. Our undergraduate body currently comprises 64 percent women, 7.5 percent underrepresented minorities, and 2 percent international students.

Professor Lorna Gibson continues to chair the Undergraduate Study Abroad Committee and coordinate the activities of the Materials Undergraduate Study Exchange Program (MUSE). In 1995 the department signed agreements to establish an undergraduate exchange program with KTH Stockholm, ETH Zurich, the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris, and Oxford University. During academic year 1998—1999 the department hosted three exchange students from Oxford University, while four of our students attended a semester at Oxford.

The Student Undergraduate Materials Society (SUMS) continued to be a source of strength for the undergraduate program. SUMS assisted in the organization of the Open House, organized the Spring Reg Day Feast, designed a t-shirt to help recruit new majors, organized seminars by departmental faculty members, planned socials, and assisted in tutoring of fellow students. In 1998 SUMS held the first Curriculum Colloquium in approximately five years in order to solicit feedback from undergraduates on the DMSE curriculum. Officers of the society during the spring and fall semesters of 1998 were: Ryan Cush (President), June Cheng (Vice President), Kathleen O'Brien (Treasurer), and Sandy Jen (Secretary). New officers elected in the spring of 1999 are: Cheng-Han Chen (President), Annie Chan (Vice President), Marc Sadler (Treasurer), and Josh Robinson (Secretary).


Approximately 25 percent of our graduate students are women and 2.0 percent are underrepresented minorities. The distribution of students among our six graduate degree programs and their affiliates is somewhat changed from last year. As of February 1999 it was:


Percent of Total

Degree Program

Graduate Students



Electronic Materials


Materials Engineering


Materials Science






Three of our students were enrolled in the Technology and Policy Program (TPP) and seven were enrolled in the Leaders for Manufacturing Program (LFM). Seventeen of our Polymer students were enrolled in the Program for Polymer Science and Technology (PPST). We anticipate for the fall of 1999 a total graduate class of about 165. The program we adopted five years ago of offering one-term and two-term fellowships to a large percent of domestic applicants has been successful. We estimate we will register an incoming class of 29 for the coming fall, over 69 percent of which will be domestic.

Nearly all undesignated gifts to the department are currently being used to fund endowed fellowships (including the Nicholas J. Grant Fellowship, the John F. Elliott Fellowship, the Ronald A. Kurtz Fellowship, the Gilbert Y. Chin Fellowship, the R. L. Coble Fellowship, the Carl M. Loeb Fellowship, the David V. Ragone Fellowship, the H. H. Uhlig Graduate Fellowship, the Stuart Z. Uram Fellowship, the Class of ‘39 Fellowship, the Julian Szekely Fellowship, the Anthony D. Kurtz Fellowship, and the Department Endowed Fellowship).

Our endowed fellowships now provide sufficient annual income for one-term fellowships for approximately fifteen students. In addition to the above, we are the grateful recipients of a number of grants from corporations and foundations to aid our first year students. We have received two fellowships from the Lord Foundation of Massachusetts. These have been instrumental in assisting us in maintaining the size and quality of our incoming domestic student class. We have fellowship support from a number of corporations including TECHINT and 3M. Of course, many students have other outside fellowship support as indicated elsewhere in this report. Of the 20 domestic students expected to enter in the fall of 1999, 11 will be entering on fellowships from the department and from a variety of sources including; MIT, NSF, DOD, NDSEG, and the Air Force.

The Graduate Materials Society Core Committee (GMC) continued its role in organizing the Graduate Student Orientation/Luncheon for incoming students. Chris Henry, Wendy Katstra, Jim Yurko and Ben Hellweg participated in two well-received informational Q&A format sessions with prospective students. The GMC helped plan the Fall Reg Day Feast, which was a smashing success. Under the direction of social chars Jim Yurko and Ben Hellweg, the GMC held several monthly socials. The group continued to undertake the supervision of the arduous but important task of course evaluations. Officers of GMC Core Committee during academic year 1998—1999 were: Christopher Henry (President), Wendy Katstra (Vice President), Richard Holman (MESS Seminars), Tom Langdo (Treasurer), Eric Wu and Todd Stefanik (Athletic Chairs), Jim Yurko and Ben Hellweg (Social Chairs), Surekha Vajjhala and Mike Groenert (DCGS Representatives), and Tim Rittenhouse (GSC Representative). Newly elected Officers of the GMC Core Committee for academic year 1999—2000 are: Ben Hellweg (President), Chris Marianetti (Vice President), Robert Bernstein (Treasurer), Doug Twisselmann and Mindy Tupper (DCGS Representatives), Ryan Kershner and Hartmut Rudmann (Social Chairs), Todd Stefanik and Eric Wu (Athletic Chairs).

The chairman of the MIT Student Chapter of the Materials Research Society during the academic year 1998—1999 was Kevin Chen. New officers for the 1999—2000 academic year will be elected in the fall. Professors Linn W. Hobbs and Mildred Dresselhaus will continue as the MRS Student Chapter faculty advisors for 1998—1999. The chapter arranged information sessions, seminars and special lectures dealing with issues of topical interest in materials science and provided partial financial support for graduate students attending MRS meetings in San Francisco and Boston. The charter of The Association of Materials Science Students (AMaSS) is as a facilitator and resource for contacting graduate and undergraduate students either for recruitment or sharing of information. AMaSS will continue to hold seminars and plant tours, in order to more actively give students a chance to experience the "outside world" of materials. Members of the Executive Committee of AMaSS during academic year 1997-1998 were: Andrew Gouldstone, Michael Shin, and Melody Kuroda. Elections for the 1998—1999 executive committee positions of AMaSS will be held in the fall. Professor Samuel M. Allen continues as the faculty advisor for AMaSS during academic year 1998—1999.


Faculty members of this department now occupy 15 endowed chairs. The chairholders are: Yet-Ming Chiang, Kyocera Professor of Ceramics; Michael J. Cima, Sumitomo Electric Industries Professor of Engineering; Thomas W. Eagar, POSCO Professor of Materials Engineering; Merton C. Flemings, Toyota Professor of Materials Processing; Lorna Gibson, Matoula S. Salapatas Professor of Materials Science and Engineering; Linn W. Hobbs, John F. Elliott Professor of Materials; Lionel C. Kimerling, Thomas Lord Professor of Materials Science and Engineering; Michael F. Rubner, TDK Professor of Materials Science and Engineering; Subra Suresh, Richard P. Simmons Professor of Metallurgy; Edwin L. Thomas, Morris Cohen Professor of Materials Science and Engineering; Carl V. Thompson, Stavros Salapatas Professor of Materials Science and Engineering; John B. Vander Sande, Cecil and Ida Green Distinguished Professor; and August F. Witt, Ford Professor of Engineering.

Gerbrand Ceder is the first holder of the Union Miniere Professorship, a term chair funded by Union Miniere.

Term chairs, especially those held by junior faculty members, are of immense value to the holders in building careers. Faculty from this department currently occupy four such chairs: W. Craig Carter, Thomas Lord Associate Professor of Materials Science, and Caroline A. Ross, Thomas Lord Assistant Professor of Materials Science; Adam C. Powell IV, Thomas B. King Assistant Professor; Richard L. Smith, Amax Career Development Assistant Professor.

Two new textbooks, authored by our faculty, have been published by Wiley as part of their MIT Series in Materials Science and Engineering for core undergraduate courses. The new books are Electronic Properties of Engineering Materials by James D. Livingston, published in December 1998 and The Structure of Materials by Professors Samuel M. Allen and Edwin L. Thomas, published in January 1999. In the text, universal structural descriptors for the states of condensed matter that comprise materials: liquids, glasses, crystals, liquid crystals, and quasicrystals are illustrated. Both of these texts have been used in draft form for the past several years. Professor Subra Suresh has written two books in the general area of materials and their properties. Fundamentals of Functionally Graded Materials, published in summer 1998, is co-authored with Andreas Mortensen, a former MIT professor now at the Ecole Polytechnique de Federale de Lausane in Switzerland. The second edition of Fatigue of Materials, was published in September 1998. This book, originally published in 1991, has since been adopted as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate subjects, as well as short courses by hundreds of universities around the world.

Professors W. Craig Carter and Linn Hobbs, were both inducted as Fellows of the American Ceramic Society at the ACerS 101st Annual Meeting held in Indianapolis in April 1999. In April 1999, Professor Carter was also the recipient of the Federal Laboratory Consortium's 1999 Award for Excellence in Technology Transfer. The specific project was "Software for Microelectronics Packaging Optimization."

Professor Thomas W. Eagar, received the Honorary Membership Award from the American Welding Society at the 1999 AWS International Welding and Fabrication Exposition and 80th annual convention held in St. Louis. This award is presented to "a person of acknowledged eminence in the welding profession or who is credited with exceptional accomplishments in the industry." He also gave the conference keynote presentation at the International Conference on Materials Processing held in Honolulu in July 1998.

Professor Claude Lupis, the Danae and Vasilis Salapatas Professor of Ferrous Metallurgy, was honored in March 1999 at the annual meeting of The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society (TMS) held in San Diego, California. Professor Lupis received the 1999 Extraction and Processing Distinguished Lecturer Award "in recognition of his outstanding scientific leadership in the extraction and processing of nonferrous metals and for delivering his lecture entitled Greenhouse Gases and the Metallurgical Process Industry."

The research work of Subra Suresh, R. P. Simmons Professor of Materials Science and Engineering, and his group in the area of graded materials has been chosen by the organization, Science Coalition, as one of the Great Advances of 1998 in High Technology. The Science Coalition is an alliance of 416 organizations, whose mission is to sustain the federal government's historic commitment to university-based science research. Professor Suresh's research on new theories and applications of graded materials has led to eight patent applications over the last two years. A major international corporation has licensed several of these patents for immediate commercial application. Professor Suresh was also the featured invitee to deliver the Opening Plenary Lecture at the Fifth International Conference on Functionally Graded Materials, which was held in Dresden, Germany in October 1998, under the sponsorship of the German National Science Foundation. Applications of Professor Suresh's work in graded materials potentially include areas as diverse as ion implantation in microelectronics, human teeth, orthopedic implants, transmission gears for cars and trucks, composite structures, and armor plates for military vehicles.

Professor Merton C. Flemings, Toyota Professor of Materials Processing and former DMSE department head, was the recipient of the Educator Award from TMS in February 1999. The award recognizes an individual who has made outstanding contributions to education in metallurgical engineering and materials science and engineering. The citation is presented "for outstanding contributions to the unification of the field of materials science and engineering and education of leaders in materials processing and solidification." The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society's Educator Award was established in 1985 to recognize outstanding contributions to education in metallurgical engineering and materials science and engineering, but is not limited to the classroom but also includes recognition of innovative ways of educating the general populace. In January 1999, Professor Flemings was appointed Director of the MIT Singapore Alliance. The National University of Singapore and the Nanyang Technological University have partnered with MIT to create a new model for global engineering education and research. The graduate level degree programs are being created and delivered by staff members from the three institutions, using a combination of staff and student exchanges and state-of-the-art communications technology. This unique collaboration with distant partners allows MIT to strengthen its research, education and global outlook of faculty and students, as well as place MIT in a leadership role in accelerating globalization of science, technology and commerce.

Professor Anne Mayes received the 1999 John H. Dillon Medal, awarded by the American Physical Society Division of High Polymer Physics in Atlanta, Georgia in February 1999. This medal is awarded annually to recognize outstanding research accomplishments by a polymer physicist who has demonstrated exceptional research promise . Professor Mayes was cited for "her unique combination of theoretical and experimental insight into polymer self-organization." The Dillon Medal was presented following a symposium held in her honor at the APS centennial conference. Professor Mayes spoke on "Comb Surface Segregation: New Routes to Hydrophilic Polymer Surfaces."

Professor Samuel M. Allen served his fourth and final year as Secretary of the Faculty. Two senior faculty members were recently named to endowed professorships. Samuel M. Allen, internationally recognized for his work in physical metallurgy and materials science, has been named the POSCO Professor of Physical Metallurgy. The chair was endowed in 1987 by a gift from Pohang Iron and Steel Corporation in Korea, the world's largest steel maker. His work includes the physical metallurgy of high-strength steels and high temperature alloys, including intermetallic compounds. Professor Donald R. Sadoway recently named the John F. Elliott Professor in Metallurgy, conducts research aimed at exploiting electrochemical phenomena in settings ranging from the extraction of aluminum to rechargeable lithium polymer batteries. The Elliott chair, named for a former MIT faculty member who was a renowned leader in process metallurgy, was endowed with resources resulting from MIT's founding of American Superconductor Corporation.


During the past year Professor Samuel Allen has worked to apply the Three-Dimensional PrintingTM version of the rapid prototyping process to the manufacture of hardenable metal tools for injection molding of plastic parts, directly from computer-aided design (CAD) models. The approach involves three-dimensional printing of binder into metal powders and subsequent infiltration with a lower melting-temperature alloy. Recent developments include new heat treatable powder/infiltrant alloy systems with improved as-infiltrated machinability, development of a materials system with the potential for high-temperature applications such as metal die casting, and exploration of reactive binder materials systems for use with metal powders, as well as continuing development of an extensive thermochemical database for materials selection and process design for production of hard tooling by three-dimensional printing. Professor Allen is actively developing alloys based on the Fe-Ni-Co system that show promise for improved processability at reasonable cost.

A new class of alloys for actuator applications is under development at MIT in collaboration with Dr. Robert C. O'Handley. These alloys undergo large axial strains (in excess of one percent) through their interaction with a magnetic field. The mechanism of the shape change is being investigated experimentally and such materials' capacity for performing mechanical work is being characterized. The strain mechanism involves reorientation of different crystallographic variants in martensites, due to magnetostatic interaction. This new class of materials is becoming known as magnetic shape-memory alloys.

Professor W. Craig Carter developed a new mathematical model for handling crystallographic parameters in a variational diffuse interface method. These developments allow for a consistent simulational approach to microstructural evaluation involving solidification, impingement of grains, and subsequent grain growth. In addition, his research developed methods for calculating damage accumulation in microstructures using an image-based technique coupled to a finite element scheme and developed parametric bootstrap techniques to calculate reliability and lifetime predictions in composite microstructures.

Professor Gerbrand Ceder's research (in collaboration with Professors Sadoway, Chiang and Mayes) focused on lithium-intercalation oxides, developing the first-ever material designed on the basis of first-principles calculations. Together publishing the first ab-initio calculation of the vibrational entropy difference between an ordered and disordered phase, resolving a long-standing fundamental issue in the theory of metallic alloys.

During 1998, Professor Yet-Ming Chiang and his students discovered new high-strain piezoelectric compositions in nontoxic bismuth perovskites, that are potential replacements for currently used lead-based piezoelectric ceramics. Single-crystal piezoelectric fibers of these materials were grown, demonstrating the feasibility of continuous growth of optimally-oriented fibers for active composites. In research on advanced lithium battery materials, the cycling-induced phase transformation mechanism responsible for increased charge capacity of new lithium manganese oxide cathodes has been identified. A new family of low-cost high-performance anode materials was discovered. In research on the chemistry and structure of ceramic interfaces, selection criteria for stabilizing nanometer-thick surface dielectric films, and potential technological applications of such films, were developed.

Professor Thomas Eagar, working with Dr. Patricio Mendez has developed a new method of integrating dimensional analysis with the applicable differential equations to develop scaling parameters which provide order of magnitude estimates of a given materials processing operation. The method is very general and should be applicable to a wide range of engineering problems.

This year has seen advancement in critical areas in Professor Eugene A. Fitzgerald's research, through the work of graduate student Steve Ting on defect control at the GaAs/Ge interface and the work of Matt Currie, Tom Langdo, Gianni Taraschi and Chris Leitz on defect control in relaxed SiGe buffers leading to the world's longest minority carrier lifetime in GaAs on Si ever. This result is significant since the magnitude of the lifetime suggests that previously unattainable devices, like extremely high efficiency solar cells and LEDs can now be fabricated on a Si platform. Using the dislocation mechanics models developed for SiGe work, Andy Kim has shown that InGaP layers deform ideally in some growth regimes, but in others the dislocation flow is inhibited by branch defects. These newly discovered branch defects have limited the utility of InGaP graded buffers since the threading dislocation density has been too high for reliable, efficient LED operation. By avoiding the formation of these branch defects, the lowest defect density in relaxed InGaP on GaP substrates has been created. Using this advantage, the first all-epitaxial visible yellow and red transparent substrate LEDs of reasonable efficiency has been fabricated. Further improvement in defect density is expected, which will lead to the brightest and most cost-effective LEDs.

Professor Lorna J. Gibson's project on ultralight metal structures (metal forms) is progressing from characterization of foam properties to modelling and testing of structural components (sandwich beams) incorporating metal foams. She has been testing sandwich beams both at room temperature, to determine failure modes, as well as at high temperature, to determine creep response. Also being studied are two additional types of lightweight porous metal: aggregates of hollow spheres and a three-dimensional truss-like material. Work on progressive damage in trabecular bone continues. There has been progress in experimental techniques on several fronts. The test setup for high temperature fatigue testing of trabecular bone is now functioning and some preliminary tests have been completed. The image analysis system for crack detection is now up and running. The rig for creep testing of trabecular bone has been setup for use by a thesis student. A cell force monitor has been built for measuring the mechanical forces that cells impose on the porous matrix material that they are attached to. The experimental setup is one of the few available for measuring mechanical interactions between cells and the matrix they are attached to. Two main studies are being prepared: the first is a baseline study of cell attachment under standard conditions and the second is a study of the effect of various additives (eg., extracellular matrix proteins, growth factors) to the cell culture medium on cell attachment and mechanical interaction between cells and the matrix). This study should lead to an improved understanding of the process and mechanisms of contraction in wound healing.

Professor Linn W. Hobbs' biomaterials research program has focused on two areas relevant to joint prostheses: the formation of new bone apposing hydroxyapatite-coated cementless implants in hip prosthesis, and the structure of oxidation scales on Zr-2.5wt%Nb alloy providing hard, durable coatings for knee implants articulating against UHMW polyethylene. The first study has shown that the kinetics of mineralization of new bone, but not the ultimate ultrastructure, depend on the crystallinity and solubility of the hydroxyapatite coatings, which were deposited by both plasma spraying the ion-beam assisted deposition. The second study has shown the oxide microstructure inherits features from the two phase alloy in directionally-forged components and produce a second Nb-rich oxide phase whose distribution depends on the oxidation and alloy processing history and whose composition and nanostructure depends on local pO2 and thus on position in the scale. Another major program has studied the potential effects of radiation on inertial control navigational devices involving silicon, glasses and quartz. This study combines experimental measurements with theoretical and computer modeling of probable effects on elasti behavior and dimensional stability. Precision x-ray diffraction measurements, acoustic spectroscopy and STEM-based electron energy-loss spectroscopy of fast and thermal neutron- and gamma-irradiated materials are being supplemented by computer simulation of collision cascade damage. A major feature involves providing reliable extrapolations from higher-dose measurements to low-dose exposure characteristic of service conditions. A program on radiation effects in ceramics has shifted to studies of reordering and decomposition of borosilicate and phospate glass wasteforms for potential use in high-level nuclear waste disposal and excess actinide disposition.

Because of economic constraints on new product development in many industries, Professor Ronald Latanision's research is focused on the increasing importance being placed on safely extending the service life for existing components and systems. An equipment gerontology study has been initiated to examine the state of aging in a US Air Force accelerometer and to develop methods for predicting residual life. A latent aging mechanism that appears on the critical path to system failure appears to be the strain induced transformation of retained austenite. The life prediction methodology that is evolving is expected to have value in a broad range of engineering systems.

Professor Heather N. Lechtman continues a long-term research program on the development of bronze alloys in the Andean culture area during prehistory. She spent the summer of 1998 in Bolivia on an ore geological survey in an attempt to locate the source of nickel she has found in Middle Horizon, ternary Cu-As-Ni bronzes produced in the altiplano region. She also began lead isotope analyses of the ancient bronze artifacts and of selected copper ores from Bolivia and Chile to establish a database that may indicate connections between ore minerals and bronze metal.

In Professor Anne M. Mayes' work, a novel scheme for fabricating bioresorbable tissue engineering scaffolds that exhibit controlled cell adhesion has been developed. The new approach exploits surface segregation of amphiphilic comb polymers from a biodegradable polymer matrix during implant fabrication to create surfaces with resistance to non-specific protein adsorption and a well-controlled spatial distribution of peptide ligands that promote cell-specific interactions. In collaboration with Professors Sadoway, Ceder and Chiang, prototype thin film solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries have been fabricated that incorporate the novel block copolymer electrolyte and aluminum-doped manganese intercalation oxide materials developed at MIT.

Professor Frederick J. McGarry developed and patented several ways to toughen rigid silicone resins, and in other research is working toward an understanding of the causes of brittleness in silicon metal and polyester resin toughening.

Dr. Robert C. O'Handley's group has been actively involved in research surrounding magnetoelastic properties of thin films. The magnetoelastic coupling coefficient of a materials couples the strain in a material to its magnetic properties. A uniaxial strain can lead to a strain-induced magnetic anisotropy anisotropy, i.e., a preference for the magnetization to lie in a particular direction. We have now confirmed experimentally that the magnetoelastic coupling coefficients in polycrystalline permalloy and epitaxial nickel firms are very different from their bulk values. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements of strain and precise measurements of magnetoelastic coupling coefficients in a series of epitaxial Ni films over a thickness range of 20 to 2200 Angstoms shows that the coefficient is a strong function of the state of strain in the film. In other words, the magnetoelastic interactions are highly nonlinear. We have developed a non-linear, anisotropic spin-pair interaction model that clarifies the critical role of misfit strain, important to at least second order, in changing the magnetic, elastic and magnetoelastic properties of thin films. Our data indicate that a biaxial tensile strain of about 0.1% in a Ni film causes a perpendicular strain-induced anisotropy of order ten thousand J/m^3 while a 1% strain in the same film causes an in-plane anisotropy 20 times greater. These results are very important for developments in magnetic thin film devices used in disk drive read heads and in future storage systems. His research based on ferromagnetic shape memory alloys shows a martensitic transformation characterized by significant dimensional changes, compete with piezoelectric and magnetostrictive materials in many smart-material and actuator applications. Shape memory materials can exhibit large strains but are typically activated by a temperature change, which is inefficient and has strict frequency limitations. We have demonstrated that certain shape memory materials, which are also ferromagnetic can show very large dimensional changes under the application of a magnetic field. These strains occur fully within the low-temperature (martensitic) phase and are due to the rearrangement of the twin structure under the driving force of the Zeeman energy, MH, across the twin boundaries. We have not isolated a lone twin boundary in a 2.5 cm long single-crystal of Ni-Mn-Ga. An applied field of about 4 kOe can move the twin boundary and cause the material to show a field-induced shear strain of 5% at room temperature. The impact of this discovery can be appreciated by the fact that the power output we have already achieved far exceeds that of electric motors and internal combustion engines.

The determination of the magnetization distribution throughout the thickness of a thin film is of importance both from a fundamental point of view and in industrial applications including magnetic recording. In Dr. David I. Paul's previous work he centered on single surface semi-infinite media. In his current work he studies the magnetization orientation in a thin film with two surfaces, thus containing the film thickness as a parameter. Graphs are given of nucleation fields as a function of the surface anisotropy for various film thickness for various orientations of the applied field. Remanent state magnetization distributions throughout the film thickness are given. It is shown that when the film thickness is small compared with the exchange length, the magnetization remains approximately constant throughout the film thickness, its value depending on the magnitude of the surface anisotropy. As the film thickness increases, the region of rotation becomes more localized to the film surface, reducing for thick films to about the size of the exchange length.

In work on Humanitarian Demining Research begun in 1998, Professor Robert M. Rose designed a system for differentiating dielectric materials in high explosives, casings and detonator materials by complex susceptibility signatures. In other research on Microtechnology, he worked on molecular dynamic modelling of the behavior of liquid water in high electric fields.

Continuing her collaboration with Professor H. I. Smith of the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Professor Caroline A. Ross has manufactured templates for electrodeposition for arrays of magnetic particles with a 200 nm period. She has also deposited chromium and cobalt alloy films on silicon and hard disk substrates while determining conditions necessary to obtain the proper texture in the chromium film. These advances have the potential to continue the growth in magnetic recording storage data density for a number of years to come. Professor David K. Roylance's research has centered on process-structure-property investigations of polymers and composite materials, dealing especially with mechanical properties. Among these topics have been the durability of filled elastomers subjected to large cyclic loads, the role of chain extension versus crosslinking in high-temperature polymer matrix resins, the role of processing variables on the morphology and properties of toughened polyamide resins, the modeling of flow and heat transfer during infiltration processing of composites, and the response of ultraoriented fiber to high-speed impact.

Over the past year, Professor Michael F. Rubner has successfully fabricated new red-light emitting electroluminescent devices that exhibit external quantum efficiencies as high as 3% and luminance levels as high as 500 cd/m2 (five time the brightness of a computer screen). In addition, he has continued development of techniques suitable for modifying the wettability of surfaces including contact lenses. Professor K. Russell further developed his theory for the unusual nucleation processes, which occur in such non-equilibrium materials as thin films undergoing ion mixing and light water reactor pressure vessels undergoing irradiation. Promising agreement has been found between the theory and existing experimental data. A joint program with Northrop-Grumman under the Office of Naval Research sponsorship is in progress. Earlier theoretical and experimental work on controlled porosity in cast metals by the Naval Research Laboratory, the Dnepropetrovsk Metallurgical Institute in Ukraine, will be reduced to practice. The Civilian Research and Development Foundation is supporting a joint program with Professor Russell and the University of Kiev, Ukraine, on self-organizing systems.

Professor Donald R. Sadoway's work in collaboration with Professors Ceder, Chiang, and Mayes has resulted in several major discoveries related to solid-state rechargeable lithium polymer batteries. Electrochemical testing has demonstrated that the group has identified (Ceder) and synthesized (Chiang) new cathode active materials that are far cheaper than those used in today's commercial product. Equally significant, we have designed and synthesized (Mayes) block copolymers that have been shown to function as battery electrolytes in test cells at temperatures as low as -40° C. Unrelated to the battery work is the discovery that metallothermic reduction reactions conducted in liquid ammonia can be used to synthesize intermetallic compounds, such as Nb3A1.

In Professor C. Scott's research the understanding of the phase inversion mechanism during compounding of immiscible polymer blends has advanced rapidly. He has explored and identified the intermediate morphologies which exist during this process. In simple shear flow, the morphological changes are controlled by the applied strain and are qualitatively similar for a variety of different polymer blend systems. Investigations have also included development of scale-up criteria specifically for compounding processes, which exhibit the phase inversion mechanism. Results suggest that in order to maintain a constant time to phase inversion, three key equipment parameters must be held constant: the specific surface area, the nominal shear rate in the nip region, and the specific relative stagger of mixing elements. The first lattice-Boltzmann model which is capable of simulating multiphase viscoelastic flows was developed and implemented. The method of Giraud and d'Humiere for generating viscoelasticity was combined with a free energy functional for the interaction of two components and a single relaxation time lattice Boltzmann equation for the density difference between the two components. This model has proven useful for the simulation of a rising bubble in a viscoelastic liquid and have successfully reproduced the trailing cusp which is experimentally observed in such systems. Studies of the elongational viscosity of ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) have provided the foundation for an understanding of the effects of materials rheology on behavior during thermoforming, especially excessive sheet thinning or rupture. A commercial ABS melt exhibited microscopic ductile failure prior to cohesive fracture even at temperatures close to Tg. The Considere criterion was used for prediction of the ductile failure point, and the onset of strain softening was found to be the true ductile failure point of the ABS melt. Hencky strain-to-failure was found to be largely independent of temperature and strain rate.

Professor Subra Suresh has developed a new method for measuring residual stresses by instrumented indentation, which led to a US patent, and a commercial application. He developed a new theory for indentation and property characterization of piezoelectric materials. In addition, Professor Suresh developed a new analysis method for studying deformation of patterned metal conductor lines on silicon substrates, for microelectronic applications, in collaboration with colleagues in Sweden.

Professor Carl V. Thompson developed a methodology for carrying hierarchical circuit-level reliability analyses for interconnects. This methodology makes use of new algorithms developed for computationally compact assessments of the reliability of individual interconnect ‘trees'. This methodology will enable layout-specific circuit-level reliability assessments, which will allow prefabrication co-optimization of circuit reliability and performance. An important role for diffusional creep in stress relaxation was demonstrated in very think polycrystalline films, and it was also demonstrated that this mechanism can limit the strengthening associated with decreasing film thicknesses. Other research demonstrated the use of microelectromechanical devices in making very accurate think film stress measurements. These devices can be used for in-situ studies in a wide variety of deposition systems, employing a wide variety of techniques.

Dr. Gerardo Trapaga continued work on data analysis for measurements carried out during space shuttle missions STS-83 and STS-94. Other interesting observations are being studied (cavitation-induced nucleation, transition from lamina to turbulent regimes, etc.). One student focused his PhD thesis on this subject and several publications are under preparation. Model developments and calculations performed in collaboration and support of Auburn University experimental activities. A comprehensive mathematical model is under development to represent and study mathematical modeling of DC-electric arc furnace operations. Mathematical modeling of continuous casting process of steel with magnetic fields involves the development of models to represent electromagnetic breaking and stirring during continuous casting of steel. Comprehensive models are being developed to represent industrial deposition operations used for structural materials. The main focus involves plasma spraying and PVD processing operations. On-going research for industrial ecology in steel processing involved the analysis of green production techniques and, in general, environmental issues associated with current steel-making technologies. The project involved the collaboration with an industrial partner and the focus was the study and characterization of the various waste streams (by-products) generated during steel processing and the analysis of synergies with other materials industries, which can make use of these by-products.

Professor Tuller's work has been exploring lead perovskite systems as potential candidates for high strain actuators with large thermal stability and low hysteresis. Field-induced antiferroelectric-ferroelectric transitions show high strain levels in polycrystalline materials. Compositions have been identified which show a morphotropic phase boundary and consequently temperature insensitive strain-field characteristics. Efforts are presently focused on the growth of single crystal high strain relaxor ferroelectrics. Dr. Holger Fritze, on an Alexander von Humboldt Foundation Fellowship in our lab, is studying the electrochemical insertion of oxygen into pulsed laser deposited films of LnMO4+ (Ln=La, Pr, Nd; M=Ni,Cu) with the aid of a quartz microbalance (QCM). This allows, in principle, for great flexibility in the control of properties and room temperature processing. The change in oxygen stoichiometry was determined by in-situ QCM measurements during potential step experiments. The time dependence of the mass change was described by a transport model, which yielded room temperature oxygen diffusion coefficients in the range from 2· 10-12 to 10-11 cm2/s depending on and the redox direction. Studies are now being directed on the role of morphology on kinetics. Compatible materials are being investigated by Professor Tuller for use as electrodes and electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells. In particular, oxides with the pyrochlore and layered perovskite structures are being investigated which exhibit high levels of mixed ionic-electronic conductivity. It has been shown that solid solultions of the pyrochlores Gd2Ti2O7 (GT:Mo) exhibit high levels of mixed conduction under reducing atmospheres. An important development has been finding that the addition of Mn [Gd2{MnyMo1-y)xTi1-x}207 or GMMT] extends the stability of GT:Mo to cathodic conditions while maintaining its high level of mixed conduction. This will enable the construction of a single-phase oxide fuel cell with improved stability and extended life.

Professor John B. Vander Sande continues his research work on high temperature superconducting oxides concentrated on producing superconducting films (25-125 µm thick) by melt-growth under an elevated magnetic field (0-10T). The degree of texture and transport critical current (Jc) of these films were enhanced by the application of the magnetic field. This method provides for relatively rapid processing of highly textured Bi-2212/Ag thick films or tapes. During this past year, a comprehensive model of the way in which a high magnetic field can influence the nucleation and growth processes during a phase transformation was completed in an attempt to place this field on a more scientifically sound base. As a result, considerable insight into promising processing avenues to obtain the properties in these materials was gained. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) coupled with energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) has been used to characterize the elemental composition of six diesel soot samples. The elemental peaks in these x-ray spectra were analyzed to provide a characteristic reference (signature) for the sample. This information can then be used to pinpoint the fuels and details of the combustion process that generates the soot. This research showed that soot impurities were found throughout the particle aggregates; some of these elements can be traced to the fuel and lubricant. Other elements were components of the engine itself. From this analysis, the concept of using a "Truth Table" for the purpose of source attribution was introduced.

In Professor Bernhardt J. Wuensch's research establishment of a connection between a structure determined at ambient temperature and a property measured at elevated temperature can lead to spurious conclusions if the structure at elevated temperature is not preserved upon cooling. In studies of pyrochlore oxides, A2B2O7, in fuel cells, Professor Wuensch showed that the increase in anion disorder induced by substitution of a larger ZR4+ ion for Ti4+ in Y2(ZryTi1-y)2O7 could account for an increase in oxygen conductivity by three orders of magnitude to levels attractive for application in fuel cells. Mixing between occupation of the cation sites proceeded at a very different rate with increasing y than did disordering of the anion arrangement. Three order parameters rather than one proved necessary to specify the state of disorder. He subsequently determined the structures of Y2Sn2O7 and Y2 (Zr0.6Ti0.4)2O7 as a function of temperature (20 to 1500ūC) and oxygen partial pressure. Yttrium stannate is a fully-ordered pyrochlore whereas the zirconium-titanium solid solution has approximately 50% disorder in the anion array but only slight mixing of the occupancies of the cation sites. The objective of these recent analyses was to determine whether the state of disorder in situ at temperature–especially that of the highly-mobile oxygen ions–is preserved as the sample is quenched and also to observe the progress of anion and cation disorder as a function of temperature. Scattering data obtained in the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source at Argonne National Laboratory showed that the structure of Y2Sn2O7 remained fully ordered at temperatures up to 1500ūC. An unexpected result, however, was that the oxygen ion array became progressively more distorted at elevated temperatures. This result could be successfully interpreted in terms of different rates of thermal expansion of the Y3+ -O2- bonds. The partially-disordered yttrium titanium zirconate displayed the onset of additional thermally-induced disorder at 1200ūC. The structure and fast-ion conducting properties of this solid electrolyte should thus be expected to be a function of thermal history and/or processing conditions.


The initiates during the 1998—1999 academic year into the MA Beta Chapter of Tau Beta Pi Engineering Honor Society were: Paulina S. Kuo, Matthew I. Lozow, Aaron M. Raphel, Jessica G. Sandland, Jocelyn L. Wiese, and Juwell W. Wu.

In May 1999, six seniors were accepted as associate members in the Society of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society of North America: Maisha Gray, Carla Heitzman, Shannon Mitchell, Christine Kornylak and Matthew Lozow.

In June 1999, three seniors won the award for Best DMSE Senior Thesis. Maisha K. Gray, whose thesis titled, "Technological Characteristics of Ancient Colombian Metallurgy," was written under the supervision of Professor H.L. Lechtman; Matthew I. Lozow, whose thesis titled, "Incorporation of Gold Nanoclcusters into Diblock Copolymers for Novel Anode Applications," was written under the supervision of Professor A.M. Mayes and Andrew W. Sparks, whose thesis titled, "Sol-gel Synthesis of One-Dimensional Photonic Bandgap Structures," was written under the supervision of Professor L.C. Kimerling and K. Wada. Andrew R. Takahashi received the award for Best 3B Internship Report. His report was titled, "Placement: Intel, Hillsboro, Oregon." Certificates of Honor for a Perfect 5.0 Cum were given to Jessica S. Lai and Andrew R. Takahashi. The department was pleased to present awards for Outstanding Service to the MIT Community to Maisha K. Gray and Solar C. Olugebefola. Maisha K. Gray received her award for leadership as Residence President, Basketball Player and Volunteer Tutor. Solar C. Olugebefola for her participation as an artist. Cheng-Han Chen received the award for Outstanding Service to the DMSE Community for his active and innovative support as the President of SUMS. Lisa Kinder received the Association of MIT Alumnae Award. The Tau Beta Pi Scholarship was awarded to Paulina S. Kuo. Ayr Muir-Harmony received the Foundry Education Foundation Scholarship for outstanding student with an interest in metals casting. Matthew I. Lozow received an Honorable Mention Certificate from the International Precious Metals Institute. Paulina S. Kuo received an award as Outstanding Junior in the DMSE Class of 2000. Andrew R. Takahashi received the award for Outstanding Student in the DMSE Class of 1999. Arthur J. Pitera was awarded the John Wulff Award for Excellence in Teaching.

Of the 28 students who graduated in June 1999 with the SB degree, eight are staying on for graduate school here. Of those eight students, one received an NSF Graduate Fellowship: Andrew Sparks and three enrolled in the III-B Internship Master's program: Ryan Balter, June Cheng and Sandy Jen.

Kevin Lee, a graduate student in Professor Lionel Kimerling's group, was awarded a prestigious Intel University Fellowship for the 1999—00 academic year. Graduate student, Anton Van der Ven of Professor Gerbrand Ceder's lab, won a Gold Medal Graduate Student Award at the MRS conference.

Anne Chan '00, has been selected by ASM International to attend a summer session of The Leadership Institute in Champaign, Illinois.

In May 1999, twenty graduate students were accepted as associate members of the Society of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society of North America: Ytshak Avrahami, Catherine Bishop, Sarah Buta, Micolas Cantini, Emiliano Cecchetti, Joy Cheng, Brett Conner, Ramiro Garcia, Jeri'Ann King, Jiang-Ti Kong, Jessica Lai, Zhangtao Li, Jian Luo, Miguel Marioni, Thomas Nugent, Jin-Woo Park, Wynn Sanders, Andrey Soukhojak, Gianni Taraschi and CheongWing Yuen. Five graduate students were accepted as full members of the Society of Sigma Xi: Catherine Bambenek, Young-il Jang, Benon Janos, Clifford Tanaka and James Yurko. Three post-doctorate students were accepted as full members: Lauren Crews, Mani Gopal and T. A. Venkatesh.

Fellowship awards for one or more semesters were held during academic year 1998—1999 by 58 students.

Institute fellowships were held by three students: Catherine M. Bishop and Randall Urbance, Rosenblith Fellowships (Office of the Provost); Jonathan F. Hester, Hugh Hampton Young Fellowship (Office of the Dean of Graduate Education). Department Fellowships were held by 17 students: Sarah H. Buta, Jeri'Ann King, Justin I. Kung, Melody M.H. Kuroda, Benjamin P. Nunes, James A. Yurko, Nicholas J. Grant Fellowship Fund; Brian J. Gally and Rajan Vaidyanathan, MPMI Fellowship; Jorge A. Giampaoli, Roberto Rocca Fellowship; Jonathan F. Hester, 3M Company Fellowship; Andrew Y. Kim, Loeb Fellowship; Minjoo Lawrence Lee, Anthony Kurtz Fellowship; Jeffrey D. Nystrom, R. Kurtz Graduate Fellowship in MS&E; Christopher A. Marianetti, Class of 1939 Fellowship; Rafel A. Mickiewicz, MS&E Fellowship Fund; Steven J. Murray, Lord Foundation Fellowship; Krystyn J. Van Vliet, Gil Chin Fellowship Fund. National Science Foundation Fellowships were held by 10 students: Sarah H. Buta, Christine S. Hau, Jiang-Ti Kong, Melody M.H. Kuroda, Thomas A. Langdo, Debra J. Lightly, Benjamin P. Nunes, Amy C. Richards, Eric J. Wu and James A. Yurko. National Defense Student Education Grants (DOD Fellowships) were held by 11 students: Kevin M. Chen, Matthew J. Farinelli, Michael E. Groenert, Jason R. Heine, Benjamin Hellweg, Neil T. Jenkins, Christopher W. Leitz, Lisa M. McGill, Thomas J. Nugent, Wynn S. Sanders and Patrick Trapa. Other Government Fellowships were held by 7 students: Michael F. Durstock, Air Force; Esther M. Ku, Aimee L. Smith, Anton F. Van der Ven, DOE; Sajan Saini and Gianni Taraschi, Quebec, Canada. A variety of other Fellowships were held by 8 students: Clark L. Allred, Draper Fellowship; Nicolas J. Cantini, Jean Gaillard Foundation Scholarship; Vanessa Z.-H. Chan, IBM/Almaden Cooperative Fellowship; Brett P. Connor, Aerospace Education Foundation Scholarship; Nicole D. Gerrish, Draper Fellowship; Peter Y. Hsieh, Draper Fellowship; Jeri'Ann King, Lucent Fellowship; Surekha Vajjhala, Beinecke Brothers Memorial Scholarship. Two students were supported by a National Institutes of Health Training Grant: Toby M. Freyman and Erin B. Lavik.


As noted above, this has been a very productive year for the Department. The morale of the Department is as high as it has been for over thirty years. The faculty are all fully engaged in the academic programs of the Department. There is a greater sense of unity and democracy than at any time in recent memory. The financial condition of the Department is stable, due to the generosity of the Lord Foundation of Massachusetts and Dr. Vasilios Salapatas. A departmental strategic plan has been developed with three primary areas of thrust, namely, biomaterials, development of a twelve month master's of engineering program and creation of a Center for Computational Materials Science. These three thrusts, as well as renovation of Building 8 are our primary challenges for the next five to ten years.

Perhaps the most serious concern of the past several years has been our inability to fill the open faculty positions. We have not only achieved that goal, but we have additional, outstanding candidates ready to appoint as soon as new positions become available. Accordingly, the Department is in a better state than at any time in the past ten to fifteen years. Due to this upbeat time and the fact that there are half a dozen faculty who have the enthusiasm to become department head, I announced in May of 1999 that I would be stepping down as department head on January 15, 2000. The past five years have been very eventful and I am pleased to report that I have accomplished the task assigned to me by the Search Committee, namely, improvement of collegiality within the Department. I look forward to returning to full-time teaching and research and providing the opportunity for others to contribute their particular leadership strengths to the Department.

More information about this department can be found on the World Wide Web at

Thomas W. Eagar

MIT Reports to the President 1998-99