ANS Seminar Details

Challenges and Capabilities of the Monte Carlo Method in Reactor Physics Applications

H. McFarlane

The Generation-IV International Forum (GIF) was created 10 years ago to foster cooperation on advanced nuclear power systems, with the intent of accelerating development, sharing expensive test facilities, and ensuring that adequate safety and security measures were embraced by the member countries. In the wake of devastating cuts to the national nuclear R&D budget, the US took the leading role in the creation and initial operation of GIF, with strong support by France and Japan. A decade later, a relatively robust R&D program supports US nuclear energy. However, the urgency of deploying fourth-generation advanced reactors in the US has waned relative to our Asian and European allies, as evidenced by the recently updated MIT report, the push to construct Gen-III power plants, and the recent political infatuation with small reactors. This seminar will update the status of GIF R&D and provide some perspective on how that is changing relative to the direction of DOE-sponsored research.

Challenges and Capabilities of the Monte Carlo Method in Reactor Physics Applications

J. Leppänen

The use of the continuous-energy Monte Carlo method for solving complex radiation transport problems has been steadily increasing along with the development of computer capacity. In the field of reactor physics, however, there is still a clear distinction between tasks assigned to deterministic lattice transport codes and general-purpose Monte Carlo codes. Lattice physics applications cover reactor calculations at the fuel assembly level, typically aiming at the production of homogenized multi-group constants, used as input data for full-core reactor simulator calculations. Monte Carlo codes, on the other hand, are typically used for more specialized tasks, separate from the main calculation chain. This presentation is an insight into the possibilities of using the continuous-energy Monte Carlo method for routine problems in the field of reactor physics, beyond its traditional use in criticality safety analyses and detector modeling. The advantages of extending the field of applications to lattice physics and group constant generation is discussed, along with the challenges and practical difficulties encountered on the way. The main focus is in the six-year experience gathered from the development of Serpent, a continuous-energy Monte Carlo code specialized in reactor physics calculations.

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Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program

S. Mladineo

TThe National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program is a highly specialized program that provides unique hands-on experience to prepare exceptional graduate students for a career in nuclear nonproliferation or national security. The 12-month, full-time, salary-plus-benefits fellowships focus on NNSA programs designed to detect, prevent, and reverse the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Working alongside NNSA experts in the Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation, fellows make direct contributions to reducing threats to U.S. and global security, while gaining excellent training and experience with extensive opportunities for networking, career mentorship, and international travel.

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Recent Advancements in Multiscale Computational Modeling of Multiphase Flows in Nuclear Reactors

M. Podowski

The objective of this seminar is to present an overview of multiscale multiphysic modeling concepts of two- and multiphase flows, for application in safety analysis of advanced reactors in general, and Gen. IV Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) in particular. The proposed methodology, under the development by a University Consortium (RPI, Columbia, University and SUNY at Stony Brook) allows for combining computational models of various scales, from molecular dynamics, through DNS to RANS, each using a different numerical solver, to simulate multiphysics phenomena governing the progression of reactor accidents. The component codes of the overall computational platform include: FronTier and PHASTA (both DNS codes), and NPHASE-CMFD (a multifield RANS code). The resultant multiple-code computational platform has been uploaded on several computers, including the Blue Gene supercomputers, and used to perform simulations of fuel element heatup and failure, and fission gas injection into SFR coolant channels during a hypothetical loss of flow accident. The three codes model different overlapping parts of the overall physical problem, and use the boundary conditions which ensure proper interaction between the individual parts. Typical results of the simulations will be shown in the presentation.

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Challenges and Opportunities in Resurgence of Nuclear Power

S. Anghaie

Electricity is one of the most essential necessities of life and a key requirement for economic development and human prosperity. Nuclear energy plays a critical role in providing abundant and clean electric power fostering sustainable development while providing for the preservation of environment. The U.N. World Commission on Environment and Development In its report entitled, "Our Common Future" provided a classic definition of sustainable development as "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." The direct and indisputable relationship between power generation capacity and the gross domestic product (GDP) is well established. In many rapidly expanding economies around the world like China, India and Vietnam, a relatively large increase in the power generating capacity of 10% or more per year is needed to maintain the robust growth of industrial production and economy. The World business Council for Sustainable Development has identified nuclear power as a key technology required to provide for adequately abundant growth of electricity production rate while reducing greenhouse gas. In 2009 nuclear power has generated more than 70 percent of emission free electricity in USA. According to a recent US poll by Bloomberg and the Los Angeles Times, twice as many Americans support nuclear power as oppose it. All these factors have culminated to the resurgence of nuclear power and plans for large scale deployment of new plants in the US and across the globe. However, the implementation of such plans has come to a conflicting path with the economical realities of electric power market and construction of new nuclear plants. Main challenges are the lack of adequate US industry preparedness to deal with major challenges in engineering design, manufacturing, safety and licensing of new plants that collectively manifest themselves in excessively high cost of construction and unacceptable economical risk at a time that the demand for new baseload electricity is flat, the price of gas and coal is relatively low, and no urgency for utilities to build. The question is what shall be done and where do we go from here? An overview of the status of nuclear power with emphasis on challenges and research opportunities will be presented.

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1. Seismic Design and Research of Japanese Nuclear Power Plants
2. Development of Next-Generation LWR in Japan

H. Yonemura, H. Ishigaki, and N. Tanikawa

The Kashiwazaki site in Japan had a huge earthquake and it required an enormous effort to restart (still on-going for several units). Unit 6/7 has successfully restarted commercial operation. With a general technology explanation, Mr. Ishigaki will introduce the facts of the story on how the restart was realized.

Japan has launched the Next-Generation LWR development program as a national project in April 2008. The Next-Generation BWR will have 1800MWe output, higher safety and economic advantages by adopting new technology. HGNE has been playing an important role in that project and Mr. Tanikawa will introduce the outline of the project.

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Potential Solutions to the Bank End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

A. Macfarlane

Though nuclear waste has been produced by the nuclear industry for over fifty years, no final solution has been developed for high-level nuclear waste. At the same time, there is strong international consensus that mined geologic repositories offer the best solution and will be required no matter the selection of fuel cycle. The current state of affairs in the US has brought a halt to the planned Yucca Mountain repository and encouraged a rethinking of the issue. After a brief review of the history of nuclear waste disposal in the US, I will focus on waste management strategies and their expected impacts in terms of waste streams, cost, repository implications, and nonproliferation. I will end with some suggestions for a path forward in the US.

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Non-Nuclear Applications of Reactor Engineering

V. Manno

Nuclear engineering in general and reactor engineering in particular require a working knowledge of applied mathematics and science as well as of engineering disciplines such as thermo-mechanical and electric power engineering. As such, a background in reactor engineering provides a fertile basis for framing technical questions and solutions in a variety of non-nuclear applications. Attention to system engineering and interactions, which is essential to the nuclear power field, enhances the nuclear engineer's ability to work across disciplines. Experience with nuclear safety regulation also provides a useful background for developing communication and leadership skills. The seminar will explore these points using the speaker's work in semiconductor manufacturing processes, electronics thermal management and data center energy analysis, as well as academic administration, as illustrations.

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Reactor Physics: What's Left to be Done?

K. Smith

Dr. Kord Smith has spent 30+ years working on reactor physics analysis methods for LWRs. Given the advanced state of development of this area, it is often surprising to many that research is still ongoing. Dr. Smith will outline some of the outstanding problems in rector physics analysis, and even demonstrate that the oft-utilized Monte Carlo methods may not be the high quality tools that they are thought to be. Dr. Smith will also present his view of the future trends in reactor physics and coupled nonlinear reactor analysis methods.

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The Political Economy of Financing of Large Energy and Water Projects in the Developing World

J. Bricoe

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Depleted Uranium: A Scientific Approach to the Question of its Environmental Impact

M. Zucchetti

Depleted Uranium (DU) is mostly composed by U-238 and it is a by-product of the enrichment process. DU characteristics are: low specific radioactivity, high specific weight, low cost, wide availability. Military use of DU for penetrator (i.e., bullets with high capability of penetrating shields) has widely spread during the nineties. When DU bombs detonate, uranium oxide is formed in particulates, which can be windborne or suspended in the atmosphere.

Concerning DU radiotoxicity, U-238 is a long-lived alpha-emitter, with a weak emission of beta and gamma rays. The most important pathways for DU exposure are therefore in case of ingestion or inhalation. Personnel in or near an armored vehicle at the time these vehicles are struck by depleted uranium munitions can receive significant internal DU exposures. On the other hand, army officials believe that DU-related health risks are greatly outweighed by the risks of combat. This is not the case, however, for the exposure of public due to DU contamination, or for peace-keeping actions after war.

The talk includes a discussion of the last findings concerning DU radiotoxicity and of the recent epidemiological studies in military men and public.

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Leadership and the Evolution of Nuclear Safety

ADM James O. Ellis, USN (ret.)

Jim Ellis, President and Chief Executive Officer of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), will speak about the evolution of safety in the nuclear power industry and the role of strong, effective leadership. He will also share his perspective on the future of the nuclear power industry and INPO.

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Investigation of Genetic Consequences of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident: Are There Any?

E. Gostjeva

Dr. Elena Gostjeva of the MIT Biological Engineering Department, will talk about her personal scientific and life experience of working in the USSR ,then Ukrainian, Chernobyl Radioecological Expedition, in 30 km radius ‘zone’, 1986 – 1996. Twenty three years has passed since the explosion at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, Ukraine. For twenty years scientists round the world have been collecting and analyzing the data of Chernobyl radioactive fallout, impact on biological systems. There were morphological, physiological and genetic changes detected in different organisms, at different levels of their organization, at various modes from high, short- to low, long-term exposure. A herbarium of plants with morphological changes was collected in 1986-1987 by Dr. Alexej Gostjev, who volunteered to work in Chernobyl as a scientist and died from suspected radiation-induced acute leukemia in 1993. This collection will be for the first time presented at MIT with interpretation of high – low radiation doses effects on plants followed by discussion. Could we extrapolate the observations from plants, or animals, into what really might happen in humans living in radioactively contaminated environments. Were there any significant impacts on environment, human health in Chernobyl? What are the lessons of Chernobyl?

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IRIS - An Advanced Medium-Size PWR with Integral Primary System

B. Petrovic

IRIS is an advanced, integral, light-water-cooled, pressurized reactor of medium generating capacity (1000 MWt or 335 MWe). It is being developed by an international team led by Westinghouse that includes over 20 organizations from 10 countries. Basic IRIS design features will be presented, together with its main safety characteristics. Its unique "safety-by-design"T approach allows significant simplification of the passive safety systems, improving safety while simultaneously reducing the overall cost. IRIS allows sequential introduction of single or twin-modules to match the energy demand growth. Its moderate size and short construction time significantly reduce the financial burden and present a competitive solution both for mature markets and for smaller/emerging markets with limited grid capacity or smaller utilities with limited financial resources. Selected research topics related to IRIS development will be highlighted.

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Coupled Neutronics / Thermal-Hydraulics Codes for Nuclear Reactor Safety Analysis

T. Downar

One of the more challenging multi-physics problems in engineering is the solution of the coupled temperature/fluid and neutron/nuclide fields for the analysis of nuclear reactors. In an effort to improve the efficiency and economics of nuclear power, there has been growing interest within the U.S. nuclear community to expand the role of full physics, high fidelity computer simulations in nuclear reactor analysis. During the past twelve years, Professor Downar and students have been part of the team developing the advanced light water reactor analysis code TRACE at the U.S. NRC. One of their principal contributions has been the development of the nodal neutronics code PARCS which calculates the time dependent flux/power distribution in the reactor core. PARCS has been coupled to both TRACE and RELAP5 thermal-hydraulics codes which are currently used to certify the safety performance of all U.S. reactors and many of the other reactors around the world. During the past 10 years, Professor Downar and his students have also been sponsored by the U.S. DOE and EPRI to develop an advanced neutronics/thermal-hydraulics coupled code based on the integral neutron transport code DeCART which they have coupled to the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, STAR-CD. Professor Downar will discuss the development and application of these coupled codes to steady-state and transient analysis of several different reactor types, to include both light water and gas cooled reactors.

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The Current Crises in Medical Isotope Supply to the Medical Community and Possible Paths to Resolution.

R. Coats

Currently all 99Mo, the precursor to 99mTc, is from foreign sources using aging reactors. The uncertain reliability of this supply is further exacerbated by emerging requirements relating to non-proliferation and Homeland security. The current shortage of 99Mo and its impact on nuclear medicine in the U.S will be discussed, as will be the constraints in resolving the issue. The sequence of events leading to the current shortage and the current global planning to resolve the dilemma and will be discussed briefly. The emphasis of the discussion will be on the technical requirements for 99Mo production and delivery to the patient and on the various concepts, accelerators, and/or reactor systems, proposed. Further emphasis will be on a passively safe ?pin? reactor concept which offers the least risk and minimum time in achieving a domestic supply to satisfy the U. S. demand.

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Doing Science in a Policy World

S. Vance

Everyone knows that there are "hard sciences" and "soft sciences." Individuals who pursue careers in Physics and Engineering have little use for classes in human psychology and international relations -- and vice-versa. But, what happens when a particular career requires BOTH an understanding of a technical field and human interaction and relationships? In his talk, Scott Vance, a Senior Advisor at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, will discuss the interesting and compelling field of nuclear non-proliferation. He will describe the reasons that an appreciation for both "hard" and "soft" sciences is essential to be effective in this field and describe the array of professional career choices available. In addition, he will describe the Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program, a rewarding opportunity for technical graduate students with career interests in nonproliferation and international security.

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Benefits of Space-time Long Characteristics: Accuracy and Parallel Efficiency

M. Adams

The method of long characteristics has a long history and has for several years been the standard workhorse for two-dimensional assembly-level transport calculations. More recently its use in three-dimensional reactor analysis, including high-fidelity full-core transport calculations, has been explored. We discuss our recent theoretical and numerical results for a family of long-characteristic methods applied in space and time for time-dependent transport problems. We find that some members of this family of method promise spatial and temporal discretization errors that are exceptionally small. As we will discuss, the methods appear especially well suited to implementation on massively parallel architectures.

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NuScale Power: Reducing Financial Risk for Nuclear Power Generation

J. Reyes

NuScale Power Incorporated is a privately funded spin-off company from Oregon State University. NuScale is seeking NRC design certification for a modular, scalable nuclear plant that can be sized to meet any load requirement. Rather than relying on the economy of scale, NuScale is taking advantage of simplicity and the economy of small to reduce costs and construction schedule while offering a new level of safety. Although innovative in terms of its deployment approach, the NuScale reactor technology is extremely well understood. It builds on hundreds of combined years of commercial light water reactor operating experience and extensive research and laboratory testing of advanced safety systems. Each power module can be factory built by US manufacturers and suppliers and can be shipped to a site by rail, barge or truck. The end result is a nuclear plant sized to meet demand and a significant increase in the reliability of cost estimates.

Full Presentation (PDF, 2.1 MB)

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Risk-Informed Revision of the NRC's Rules Regulating Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS)

M. Kirk

In the early 1980s, attention focused on the possibility that PTS events could challenge the integrity of the RPV because operational experience suggested that overcooling events, while not common, did occur, and because the results of in-reactor materials surveillance programs showed that US RPV steels and welds, particularly those having high copper content, experience a loss of toughness with time due to neutron irradiation embrittlement. These recognitions motivated analysis of PTS and the development of toughness limits for safe operation. It is now widely recognized that state of knowledge and data limitations from this time necessitated conservative treatment of several key parameters and models used in the probabilistic calculations that provided the technical basis [SECY-82-465] of the current PTS Rule [10 CFR 50.61]. To remove the unnecessary burden imposed by these conservatisms, and to improve the staff's efficiency in processing exemption and license exemption requests, the NRC undertook the PTS re-evaluation project.

The PTS re-evaluation project was conducted between 1998 and 2009 by the USNRC and by the commercial nuclear power industry operating under the auspices of the Electric Power Research Institute. Toward the end of this time the project findings were reviewed by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), the public, and a panel of external experts. These reviews provided the basis for numerous model corrections and improvements. Based on the findings of this project, the NRC initiated rulemaking on a voluntary alternative to 10 CFR 50.61 in 2006.

This seminar will focus on the following topics:
- Process for integrating models across a breadth of technical disciplines
- Techniques to address uncertainties
- Fleet generic /vs/. plant specific results and criteria

Full Presentation (PDF, 1.6 MB)

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Financial Challenges Facing the U.S. Electric Sector and Future Prospects for Nuclear Plant Development

R. Myers

This presentation will cover the status and outlook for nuclear energy in the United States &mdash including performance of the 104 operating plants in 2008, financial stress facing the U.S. electric sector, and the prospects for nuclear plant development.

Full Presentation (PDF, 1.3 MB)

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Perspectives on the Challenges in Engineering and Construction of the Latest Nuclear Plants

H. Yonemura, J. Kawahata, and K. Moriya

Japan now has 55 nuclear power stations and is constructing two more units. In the past 40 years, Japan has continued to construct new nuclear power stations domestically. Hitachi Ltd. Nuclear Div. (now Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy (HGNE)) has constructed 20 boiling water reactor (BWR) plants since 1970.

Most notably, advanced BWR (ABWR) has been selected for new nuclear power plant construction in Japan. In the U.S., many utilities have expressed strong interest in ABWR technology also. HGNE has completed the construction of four ABWRs and another two are currently under construction now. We, HGNE, hereby introduce the essence of ABWR technology from engineering to construction that could be applied to give great benefit to the U.S. nuclear renaissance.


1. Overview of HGNE
2. Nuclear engineering (nuclear core engineering, system & start-up test)
3. Plant Spatial engineering, Construction planning (applying advanced 3D CAD technology)
4. Construction (Shimane-3 ABWR Construction)

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AP1000 - The Nuclear Renaissance Starts Here

R. Matzie and T. Schulz

This presentation will start by providing some background on how and why AP1000 became the Westinghouse flagship offering for the current nuclear renaissance worldwide. An overview of the AP1000 design will be given, stressing the innovative approach to safety using passive safety systems. Westinghouse's defense-in-depth approach will be discussed so that the audience can understand how AP1000 provides a plant that is two orders of magnitude safer than plants currently operating. Dr. Matzie will briefly discuss why AP1000 is a more cost effective approach than the competitive designs being considered and some of the techniques that Westinghouse is using to make this a reality. To summarize, the existing AP1000 contracts and the status of the lead construction project in China will be discussed. Finally, the status of deployment of AP1000 plants in the US and the prospects for future projects will be presented.

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Future Directions in Integration of Desalination, Energy, and the Environment

L. Awerbuch

Water supply issues in the new millennium demand new solutions to economically create and store desalinated water. The future requires effective integration of energy resources to produce power and desalinated water economically with proper consideration for the environment. Desalination is the only realistic hope for a large water resource in view of the expected continuous deterioration of water supplies due to ever increasing demand and pollution of existing resources. It is particularly important in the context of the Middle East, where pioneering technology is being introduced in the large scale power-desalination industry. The integration of energy, power and water becomes even more important today in view of growing limitation of low cost fossil energy resources. The presentation will address the current use of desalination worldwide, review thermal and membrane process technologies and discuss recent innovation in the desalination processes. The example of Integrated Upgrading Technology, demonstrated in Sharjah on full size 5 million gallons per day Multi Stage Flashing (MSF) plant, showed that capacity of existing MSF plants could be increased to 7.5 MIGD. This spectacular 50% increase was achieved by a combination of MSF modification and nanofiltration system. The nanofiltration system and integrated upgrading offers the potential for increased output and efficiency for MSF technology. The application of hybrid Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis (RO) combined with MED can reduce cost and environmental impact.

Full Presentation (PDF, 9.5 MB)

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Harmonizing the French and American Policies for Nuclear Reactor Development

F. Carre

Growing concerns about energy security and climate change have triggered a renewed interest in nuclear power worldwide. This materializes through current initiatives to prompt the deployment of GenIII light water reactors and shared costs of research on GenIV nuclear systems within the Generation IV International Forum.

Even though this context arouses global expectations from nuclear power and calls for a global vision for it, future nuclear systems are viewed slightly differently in the United States and in Europe. Why are key issues such as safety, the use of fuel resource for sustainability, and considerations of total life cycle somewhat country-dependent? Why is there more emphasis on passive systems in the United States and strong containment buildings in Europe? Why are investigations of future nuclear fuel cycles in the United States focused on resolving LWR spent fuel back-end issues, whereas the same issues in Europe are closely associated with those of durable access to fissile nuclear fuel? Why does the Energy Policy Act of 2005 in the United States plan for a high temperature Next Generation Nuclear Plant and demonstrations of hydrogen production around 2020 whereas the Act of 2006 in France for sustainable management of radioactive materials calls for a prototype of new generation fast spectrum reactor and demonstrations of advanced recycling modes by the same time?

This talk will explore aspects of national nuclear history and policy that may explain today's differences in visions of needed reactor types. It will also stress the potential benefits of different national approaches to sustainable nuclear energy as they may prompt the advent of a range of GenIV nuclear systems best suited to satisfy mankind's diverse energy needs. However, diversity in reactor goals and technologies calls as well for internationally harmonized codes and standards for marketing new reactor types worldwide with confidence. The Multinational Design Evaluation Program that contributes to harmonizing safety requirements for GenIII reactors today and GenIV systems later will be given as an example of initiatives that will ultimately regulate and integrate the currently varied visions of future nuclear systems across the world.

Full Presentation (PDF, 8.3 MB)

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Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Global Nuclear Security Technology Division:

Providing Science, Technology, and Policy Solutions to Nuclear Nonproliferation and Safeguards Challenges

A. Icenhour

The Global Nuclear Security Technology Division (GNSTD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performs research and development in the areas of nuclear nonproliferation, safeguards, threat reduction, transportation security, and advanced radiation detection methods. ORNL has unique facilities for tackling these challenging problems, including a safeguards laboratory for the demonstration of advance safeguards techniques and technologies, laboratories for the development and testing of advanced radiation detectors, and portable glove box laboratories. The division has highly-skilled, experienced, and internationally-recognized experts in nonproliferation and safeguards technology and policy. GNSTD deploys personnel worldwide in addressing important national and international challenges.

This presentation provides an overview of ORNL, GNSTD, and gives insight into internship programs at ORNL.

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Nuclear-Fossil, Nuclear-Bio, and Nuclear Renewable Futures

C. Forsberg

Historically, nuclear power has been used for base-load electricity. That may change. The worldwide cost of oil is three to four trillion dollars per year—in addition to the risks associated with dependence on foreign oil and concerns about climate change. In addition to crude oil, liquid transport fuels can be produced from many other feedstocks such as biomass, heavy oil, shale oil, and coal. However, the processes for converting these feedstocks into liquid fuels require massive quantities of energy. Low-carbon nuclear power can provide that energy and thus maximize the liquid fuels production per unit of biomass or fossil fuel while minimizing greenhouse gas releases. In most cases, high-temperature heat is required; thus, the incentives for development of high-temperature reactors (HTRs). The use of heat from nuclear reactors may enable underground refining where heat is used insitu to convert heavy oil, oil sands, shale oil, and soft coal into a high-grade light crude oil and a carbon residue. This would dramatically increase worldwide resources of “recoverable” oil. The process is similar to the thermal cracking of heavy oils in refineries. However, in refineries the carbon residue is petrocoke that is burnt as fuel. Underground refining results in in-situ carbon sequestration of this residue in the form of carbon and significantly lower greenhouse impacts from liquid-fuels production—provided low-carbon heat sources are used. The potential for nuclear-biomass fuels is equally large. The U.S. could produce ~1.3 billion tons of renewable biomass per year. The energy value of that biomass is equivalent to burning ~10 million barrels of diesel fuel per day. If that biomass is converted into ethanol with traditional processes (with biomass used to provide the energy for the conversion process), the energy value of the fuel ethanol is equal to ~5 million barrels of oil per day. However, if low-carbon nuclear energy is used to provide energy to biomass conversion plants, all the biomass can be converted into hydrocarbon liquid fuels and the equivalent of ~12 million barrels of diesel fuel could be produced per day. In effect, nuclear energy is a biomass liquid-fuel multiplier. The use of renewables for electricity production faces a fundamental challenge: how to produce electricity when the wind does not blow or the sun does not shine. Today natural-gas turbines are used to provide backup power—an option that is not viable in a greenhouse constrained world. However, there are multiple nuclear energy options to provide backup power such as the Hydrogen Intermediate and Peak Energy System and the Combined Cycle Combustion System. These and other options produce peak electricity using nuclear energy systems where the reactor operates at steady state; but, the electricity from the power station can be adjusted to meet power demands. Nuclear-fossil, nuclear-bio, and nuclear-renewable energy systems imply a fundamental paradigm shift in how we look at energy. Energy sources are coupled to meet human needs and combined to offset the individual limitations of each energy source. Nuclear-fossil systems convert fossil carbon atoms to liquid fuels—avoiding the burning of carbon for energy in fuel production processes. Nuclear-bio systems enable every carbon atom to be converted to liquid fuel and thus maximizing fuel production per ton of biomass. Nuclear-renewable systems address the central limitation of renewable electric systems—electricity when the sun does not shine and the wind does not blow. Such changes also imply large changes in technology, economics, and institutions. Historically nuclear energy has been used to produce base-load electricity—a low cost commodity. The production of higher-value liquid fuels or peak electricity implies higher revenue streams and the potential for fundamentally different nuclear energy economics. The change in markets implies large institutional changes—both domestically and internationally with different countries potentially deploying nuclear reactors.

Full Presentation (PDF, 1.6 MB)

Progress in Nuclear Energy paper (PDF, 0.7 MB)

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On the numerical simulation of general multi-field two-phase flow models

A. Kumbaro

Advances in two-phase flow modeling have led to multifield models. These models can address key issues such as the dynamic transition between flow regimes that two-fluid models fail to do.

In order to use a multifield model we need numerical schemes which are accurate enough to respect the fine degree of physical modeling and of low CPU cost to deal with a higher degree of complexity in term of system size and physical models.

The Roe-type approximate Riemann solvers are very accurate. But, they rely on the spectral decomposition in order to compute the upwind matrices and this is an issue. Computing the absolute value of a matrix using a general digitalization algorithm is a bad choice because of the high computational cost (around 10 n^3 if the system matrix A is of size n. Moreover, the eigenvectors computation is quite unstable, especially when 2 eigenvalues are very close, which can often be the case in two-phase flow modeling. A fast and robust numerical algorithm can be provided allowing the computation of |A| without computing the eigenvectors of A.

Another approach is also possible. A Simplified Eigenstructure DEcomposition Solver (SEDES) aims to have an accuracy close to the one observed by the Roe-type scheme while using an eigenstructure information which is very restricted.

After presenting these two numerical techniques we will apply and compare them while modeling the interfacial dynamics in gas/liquid two-phase flows. We want to investigate the effect of bubble size and bubble/bubble interactions on volumetric fraction distribution in flows along vertical pipes or channels. Our model allows for bubble repartition with respect to three or more groups of bubble sizes. Two major modeling issues, one concerned with bubble/bubble interactions, the other with the interfacial drag forces, are discussed.

Full Presentation:

Part I (PDF, 3,2 MB)
Part II (PDF, 328 KB)
Part III (PDF, 120 KB)

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EPRI Perspectives on the Back-end of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Present and Future

J. Kessler

EPRI has been involved in spent fuel storage, transportation, and disposal issues for nearly 20 years. John will provide a discussion of the US nuclear industry's needs in these areas and what has and has not been accomplished to-date to meet those needs. John will discuss recent and current EPRI R&D on the technical issues in this area, many of which address licensing, legislative, and public issues, as well. Finally, John will speculate a bit on future trends and needs in the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle over the next few decades along with some options for addressing the necessary R&D and other, less technical issues to pave the way for an expansion and major technical changes in the US nuclear power industry.

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Energy Security and Climate Change: A New Approach for Global Sustainability in the 21st Century

T. Diaz de la Rubia

Projections by the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration and most other international studies show that worldwide electric power demand will increase from the current level of about 2 Terawatts (TW) to 5 TW by 2050 and likely to as much as 10 TW by 2100. A recent IEA 2008 Energy Technologies Perspectives report shows that for the next 30 to 50 years burning fossil fuels will continue to provide most of the world's electricity. In fact, in these baseline scenarios CO2 emissions will be almost two and a half times the current level by 2050. In addition, the most recent report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has placed a 90% likelihood that human sources of carbon dioxide emissions are significantly affecting the global climate. Clearly, this increasing demand is placing enormous pressure on natural resources, the global ecosystem, and international political stability. Alternative sources of energy are required in order to meet increased energy demand, stabilize the increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide, and mitigate the concomitant climate change. In response, governments are urgently trying to develop new economical, sustainable, and environmentally friendly energy technologies. In this talk, I will discuss an approach to generating carbon-free, economically competitive power from nuclear energy that greatly mitigates proliferation concerns, and minimizes nuclear waste safety concerns. The approach, Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE), combines a modest, neutron-rich fusion source with a subcritical fission blanket into an engine capable of generating several thousand MegaWatts. A LIFE engine can utilize a variety of fertile and fissile fuels, eliminates the need for uranium enrichment and for Spent Nuclear Fuel reprocessing, and minimizes the production of long-lived actinides in nuclear waste to below DOE attractiveness level E (the lowest in the safeguards tables). LIFE thus represents a once-through, closed fuel cycle that can extend the capacity of current underground nuclear waste repository designs by factors of 20 to 100. Moreover, LIFE engines can burn the existing inventories of SNF and excess plutonium thereby drastically shrinking the nation's — and the world's — stockpiles of these special nuclear materials. Because LIFE is safe and minimizes proliferation concerns associated with the nuclear fuel cycle, we envision this technology as capable of providing a global solution to carbon-free energy generation in the 21st century. I will describe progress at LLNL's National Ignition Facility towards achieving fusion ignition and burn — the sine qua non condition for LIFE — and will discuss the specifics of the LIFE engine design and the basic and applied research challenges associated with making this vision a reality. I will close by discussing how success with LIFE could help meet the carbon-free energy demand gap for the planet and help mitigate potential climate change in the second half of the 21st century.

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NRC's Advanced Reactor Program

E. Baker

The presentation will include an overview of the designs of advanced reactors for which vendors have requested review by the NRC, a status of NRC's review activities, industry and Congressional interest in advanced reactors, a more in depth discussion of the review of the Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (VHTRs) being conducted as part of DOE's Next Generation Nuclear Plant program, the NRC's focus areas, and other advanced reactor designs NRC is aware are being considered.

Full Presentation (PDF, 1 MB)
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Combining Experiments with Atomistic Modeling to Design Radiation Damage Resistant Nanocomposites

M. Demkowicz

Due to their high volume fraction of interfaces, metallic multilayered composites with layer thicknesses on the order of nanometers can possess remarkable tolerance to irradiation. I will describe how experiments and atomistic modeling can be coupled to understand the structure of these interfaces and the role they play as sinks for radiation-induced point defects. Based on insights gained from this synergistic approach, I construct a general model of the effect of interfaces on radiation damage reduction and propose strategies for the informed design of radiation tolerant nanocomposite materials.

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Contribution to the Energy Debate

A. Bucaille

Alain Bucaille has been special advisor to the CEO of AREVA since the group was created. Today in charge of its Research & Innovation Department, he will give some comments on the revolutions we are currently witnessing in the energy business, and the challenges that lie ahead. He presents the foundations of a modern and effective communication campaign on the issue of nuclear waste, as well as examples of how this all plays a part in driving AREVA's R&D policy.

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Recycling Nuclear Reactors

E. Loewen

This will be a three-part presentation providing an overview of GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy's (GEH) current commercial efforts, GEH's sodium fast reactor, and the implications of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership. Commercially, GEH is involved with nuclear power plant construction, servicing the existing fleet and producing nuclear fuel. GEH has a history with sodium fast reactors and our most current design is called PRISM.

PRISM was developed from the U.S. sodium cooled fast reactor investigations from 1984 through 1994. The PRISM features of fuel type, basis design, safety and economics will be discussed. The presentation will also discuss the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership goals in closing the fuel cycle and reducing proliferation resistance and how PRISM, coupled with electro-refining, can provide an integrated technical solution for this new policy.

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Radiation Detection for National Security Applications

R. Mayo

The Office of Nonproliferation Research and Development funds applied research and development, testing, and demonstration of advanced technologies that improve the national capability to both detect illicit nuclear weapons programs and nuclear detonations world-wide. The capabilities provided by this office strengthen the U.S. response to current and projected threats to national security posed by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and the diversion of special nuclear material (SNM), and is the only organization within the U.S. government that is investing in long-term, strategic, and often high-risk technical solutions to detect the proliferation of WMD.

As an integral component of the office's mission, the SNM Movement Detection program focuses on the detection, localization, identification, and characterization of SNM in many forms and scenarios. It is the purpose of this program to develop improved capabilities that assist the operational USG organizations to perform their nonproliferation, counter-proliferation, and counter-terrorism missions. The preponderance of technical solution in this area involves higher performing radiation detection equipment including the development of new radiation detection materials. In this seminar, I will discuss current development efforts and areas of programmatic interest in radiation sensing and advanced materials research for radiation detection.

NNSA/PNL Nonproliferation Graduate Program (PPT, 1 MB)
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Tales from the Sausage Factory: How the Federal Government Gets a Budget

N. Miller

The stakes are high, the players are numerous, the schedule is ridiculous, and the whole effort has produced next to nothing for the past few years. Federal budgeting, the domain of the White House, the executive branch agencies, the Congress, the lobbyists, and the taxpayers, is often compared to sausage making.

Why do some things that have a tiny constituency get funded year after year, while "presidential initiatives" frequently die in infancy? If the Federal research dollars at your university aren't what they need to be, does it help to talk to OMB? What is the difference between appropriators and authorizers anyway? This talk explores how the whole enterprise is supposed to work, how come it's not working, and why knowing about all of it matters.

Full Presentation (PPT, 1 MB)
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The Future of Nuclear Power: Renewal or Re-run?

D. Lochbaum

For the first time in decades, companies have applied for permits to build and operate nuclear power reactors in the United States. Whether this portends a revival of nuclear power in America or a re-run depends on how well lessons from the past are handled. For example, many design errors were not identified until many years, sometimes decades, of reactor operation and features in reactor designs make them unnecessarily vulnerable to sabotage. Solutions accompanied these lessons, but are largely being ignored as the nuclear industry and its regulator seem destined to repeat another lesson — focusing on schedules at the expense of quality. Santayana said "Those who do not learn from history are doomed to repeat it." He can say that again.

Full Presentation (PPT, 2 MB)
UCS report "Nuclear Power in a Warming World" (External Link)
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INL — the Nation's National Nuclear Laboratory

D. Hill

In 2005, the Department of Energy established the Idaho National Laboratory in southeastern Idaho as a center for nuclear energy research, development, and demonstration and selected Battelle Energy Alliance to manage the transformation of the lab to national nuclear laboratory. Dr. David Hill, INL Deputy Laboratory Director for Science and Technology will provide an overview of the laboratory's nuclear energy programs, including its technical leadership of DOE's flagship programs, the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership and the Next Generation Nuclear Plant.

Dr. Hill will provide his perspective on how investment in research capabilities and collaboration with universities, industry, and other research institutions are delivering nuclear science and technology for the nation. He will also discuss INL's nuclear engineering education initiatives, including opportunities for collaborative R&D and opportunities for internships, graduate fellowships, and joint appointments.

Full Presentation (PPT, 36 MB)
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Challenges of Engineering and Constructing the Next Generation of Nuclear Plants

J. Tuohy
H. Yonemura

The nuclear industry is experiencing the initial waves of activity suggesting the execution of contracts to provide additional electric generation from nuclear energy. The challenges of making this potential rebirth a reality are the cause of growing concern about our ability in the US to provide the technology in a timely, cost competitive and competent manner. This seminar provides a glimpse of the engineering and construction challenges and how they have been overcome in the Japan market.

To begin, the seminar will provide some perspective by describing the environment in which the current US fleet was engineered and constructed. Then the experiences and state of engineering and construction in Japan will be relayed by presenting the approach used for Shika 2, an ABWR that went on line in 2006. The evolution of the design and construction practices in Japan is instructive in understanding where we need to be in the US.

Full Presentation (PPT, 14 MB)
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Engineering Challenges in U.S. Nuclear Reactor Safety

J.A. Grobe

Mr. Grobe will discuss recent trends and technical issues related to nuclear power plants in the U.S., including fleet performance, safety culture, case studies of materials and equipment degradation, and the introduction of digital instrumentation and controls. He will also give an overview of NRC educational initiatives.

Full Presentation (PPT, 18 MB)
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New Reactor Applications at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

P.B. Lyons

Full Presentation (PPT, 9 MB)
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The Resurgence of Nuclear Power

F.L. Bowman

The presentation will focus on nuclear power in the United States today and the opportunities and challenges for nuclear power tomorrow. Electricity generation using nuclear power is currently the only proven, non-emitting technology deployed or deployable on a large scale to provide baseload electricity, 24 hours a day and seven days a week. If the United States is to be environmentally responsible and produce the baseload electricity required to drive modern economic growth, nuclear power is an indispensable part of the future energy portfolio of the country and the world.

Full Presentation (PPT, 2 MB)
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Forecasting the Future Growth of Nuclear Energy Demand

V. Bhatt

Full Presentation (PDF, 2 MB)
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The Nuclear Renaissance Is Here!

A. Candris

Hear from the company that started commercial nuclear power.

Take a peek at the next generation of reactors.

Explore current technologies in core design and fuel.

Full Presentation (PPT, 18 MB)
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The U.S. Energy Crisis and the Role of New Nuclear Plants

T. Christopher

An analysis of the U.S. electricity generation industry and the issues associated with the substantial electricity price increases anticipated in the next five years.

An analysis of new generation alternatives (coal, gas, renewable, and nuclear) and their impact on the environment and future electricity prices.

A review of the industry demand for new employees and career development opportunities.

Full Presentation (PPT, 7 MB)
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Neutron Imaging Methods as Advanced Tools in Material Research and Non-Destructive Testing

E. Lehmann

Neutron radiography methods have been in use similarly to X-ray techniques since the availability of suitable neutron sources. First such tests were done with film methods about half a century ago. Neutron radiography found applications in material testing, inspection of explosives, nuclear fuel and several other industrial related requests. Since the introduction of modern digital methods into neutron imaging a new era has opened up. The new systems are much more sensitive than film can be, have broader dynamic range and enable time sequences. Due to the digital format of the results, new methods like tomography or phase enhancement can be exploited. A quantification of the samples content becomes possible due to the linearity of most of the detector systems.

Similarly to the detector improvement, specifically designed neutron imaging beam lines are required to obtain optimal results. This holds for spatial resolution, where the beam collimation plays an important role and for the spectral distribution of the neutrons, defining the sensitivity for detection. Most of the imaging beam lines are operating with thermal neutrons, but there is the trend towards cold neutrons which deliver some advantages, in particular for energy-selective neutron imaging.

The neutron source in use for neutron research in Switzerland is based on the spallation process, where 590 MeV protons are send to a lead target, yielding in about 10 fast neutrons per spallation act. Indeed, this source called SINQ is presently the world strongest spallation source with about 1 MW power. Two of the beam ports are in use for neutron imaging purposes, NEUTRA with thermal neutrons and ICON with cold neutrons. It depends on the particular problem and setup, which one is most suitable for the investigations.

The Neutron Imaging & Activation Group operates these facilities for a research community consisting of e.g. soil physicists, geoscientists, experts in electro-chemistry, nuclear engineers, paleontologists and archaeologists. This user service takes about 1/3 of the beam time available. Further users are from industry. Some part of the beam time is spend for methodical improvements, based on PhD works (quantification, phase-contrast imaging, wood science, neutron optics).

The talk will give an overview about running activities at PSI in respect to the neutron imaging methods and their improvements. Some examples from recent studies will demonstrate the importance of the method and its potential for further dedicated investigations, both in nuclear and conventional applications.

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Reactor Physics at MIT: A Personal Story

J. Lewins

Full Presentation (PPT, 3 MB)
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Recent Developments in the NRC Office of New Reactors

R.W. Borchardt

Full Presentation (PPT, 10 MB)
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Lecture on Applications of the Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding Methodology

R. Rydin

Full Presentation (PPT, 3 MB)
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Materials Engineering Issues Associated
with the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)

R. Wright

The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) is a helium gas cooled reactor designed to deliver process heat with an outlet temperature of 900°C or higher. A commercial scale demonstration plant is currently envisioned to operate by 2020. While there are a number of materials science issues arising from conditions imposed by the reactor design, the majority of the NGNP materials program is dictated by engineering issues.

This seminar will highlight specific materials engineering questions that must be addressed for the pressure vessel, heat exchanger and reactor internals. For each of these critical components of the reactor system the compromises that must be made between material properties, adequacy of inclusion in applicable design codes, fabricability, cost, and schedule constraints will be discussed. The critical role of cooperation between design and materials engineers will be highlighted by examples of recent experience with similar reactor systems.

Full Presentation (PPT, 17 MB)
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Recent Developments in Electricity Markets
that Affect New Build Decisions for Nuclear

M. van der Helm

As the industry enters in to another business cycle of power plant building the context and methods for decision making have changed. This talk will discuss these changes and their implications for power plant new builds in the coming years.

Full Presentation (PPS, 3 MB)
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An Update on Yucca Mountain

E. Sproat

A discussion of the Yucca Mountain repository as well as the state of the nuclear industry.

Full Presentation (PPT, 14 MB)
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Engineering National Security

K. Donald

Pre-eminence in Science & Technology is a national security advantage, both for military and economic power, it drives innovation and competition in a globalized world, and is the building block of our economic leadership. Recent statistics reflect a steady erosion of America’s scientific and technical base. We lack the number of students in science and engineering disciplines to replenish our retiring and diminishing workforce. In 2004, China graduated over 600,000 engineers; India; 350,000; and America; about 70,000. In 2003 only three American companies ranked in the top 10 recipients of patents granted by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Due to global and domestic energy demands and threats to foreign provided resources there is a resurgence of the commercial nuclear industry. Roughly 20% of the nation’s electricity is nuclear-based and the demand for electricity is expected to grow by over 40 percent over the next years. Nine generating companies are preparing license applications for construction of new plants. Job projections are that 40,000 construction jobs and 10,000 high end plant operation jobs will be created. There will always be a demand for high technical standards and engineering competence, a grounding in the fundamentals of mathematics and science is critical, and the Nation and the Navy needs the best engineers and scientists.

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The Challenges of Plasma-Surface Interactions in Magnetic Fusion

D. Whyte

Plasma-Surface Interactions (PSI) pose numerous problems for magnetic confinement fusion power reactors. One example is the requirement for the materials to be sufficiently robust to plasma-induced erosion; the material surface must last longer than one year of reactor operations, but with local heat loading similar to those experienced at the surface of the sun, all while being constantly damaged by high energy neutrons. PSI science is both a challenging and exciting research topic, since the solutions require knowledge of nearly every aspect of plasma and materials sciences, and the complex coupling between the two in a fusion device. I will present some of the challenges and possible solutions to PSI problems, with a particular emphasis on the upcoming international ITER tokamak research project.

Full Presentation (PPT, 6.5 MB)
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The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP)

P. Finck

The United States "will build the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership to work with other nations to develop and deploy advanced nuclear recycling and reactor technologies. This initiative will help provide reliable, emission-free energy with less of the waste burden of older technologies and without making available separated plutonium that could be used by rogue states or terrorists for nuclear weapons. These new technologies will make possible a dramatic expansion of safe, clean nuclear energy to help meet the growing global energy demand."

Full Presentation (PPT, 3 MB)
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Use of Bayesian Techniques for Safety Analysis of the Mars Science Laboratory

B. Middleton

The NASA “Outer Space Program” is the portion of NASA’s program that deals with exploring space beyond the moon. Obviously, at this time, these are all unmanned missions. The Mars Rovers all fit into this program. Both of the rovers currently on Mars – Spirit and Opportunity – are solar-powered.

This poses two problems. First, the rovers can’t move far beyond the equator due to the lack of sunlight available at the more extreme latitudes. Secondly, it is currently impossible to power the tools needed to adequately explore the surface without making the rover prohibitively large. Therefore, NASA chose to power the next mission – the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) – with a Multi-mission Radio-isotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG). Due to the fact that the power source is nuclear, DOE requires that a full safety analysis be performed which will assess the risk associated with the launch. Sandia National Laboratories has obtained the contract to produce the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the project. Our approach is to apply Bayesian techniques coupled with Quasi-Monte Carlo sampling in order to characterize the risks associated with the launch.

Approximately 20 minutes will be budgeted for an overview of the MSL project and 20 minutes will be budgeted for an explanation of the approach to characterizing uncertainty. The rest of the time will be reserved to answer questions either during the presentation or after.

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A Strategic Analysis of the Investment Opportunity for Advanced Nuclear Generation

J. Turnage

Description of Constellation Energy's path to successful deployment of new nuclear power plants using a risk-managed approach.

Full Presentation (PDF, 1 MB)
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Used Nuclear Fuel-- What Will We Do With It?

A.S. Hanson

A sustainable long term solution to managing used nuclear fuel is needed in the face of a worldwide expansion of CO2-free nuclear power.

Full Presentation (PPT, 2.3 MB)
BCG Report on the Economics of Fuel Recycling (External Link)
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The Probability Table Method for Treating Unresolved Resonances
in Monte Carlo Transport

T.M. Sutton

In the unresolved resonance energy range (URR), cross section resonances are so narrow and closely spaced that they cannot be experimentally resolved. Statistical properties of the resonances, such as the distributions of their widths and spacings, can however be estimated from theory and experiment. The use of smeared average cross sections in the URR can lead to substantial errors for some problems since resonance self-shielding is not accounted for. The probability table method employs the same statistical properties used to compute the average cross section to compute a distribution of cross section values - the probability table. These are then used in Monte Carlo calculations to randomly sample URR cross section values for each neutron history. The method has been shown to capture the desired resonance self-shielding effects. In the talk, Dr. Sutton will discuss how the tables are generated and how they are used in Monte Carlo calculations. Results will also be shown demonstrating the effect of the use of the method.

Introductory Presentation (PPT, 25 MB)
Main Presentation (PPT, 2.1 MB)
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Nuclear Applications in the Oil Industry

B. Roscoe

Oil-Field Service companies, like Schlumberger, provide services to oil companies to help them identify and efficiently produce oil from their wells. As a service company, we provide many things to our clients, the most important being information. A large part of our business is supplying petrophysical information for an oil-well including many parameters such as: porosity of the rock, type or rock, permeability of rock, type of fluids present, characteristic of fluids, etc. To accomplish this, we utilize any physical measurement that may give us information concerning these parameters of interest; for example, electromagnetic, sonic, ultrasonic, nuclear magnetic resonance, and nuclear measurements. This talk will give a background of the nuclear technology that has been developed for the oil industry and how it is applied.

There is quite an impressive list of nuclear technology that has been developed for the oil industry including neutron generators, linear accelerators, scintillators (LSO was invented by Schlumberger), and signal processing. The fact that these technologies need to operate at 150 to 175ºC and at 20 to 30 kpsi while being no larger than 1-3 inches in diameter adds extra challenges to the technology. In addition, the borehole geometry in which the measurements must be performed complicates getting reliable information as does the fact that we have to provide useful information with only several seconds of data accumulation.

Full Presentation (PPT, 37 MB)
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Proliferation Apsects of Plutonium Production in Nuclear Reactors

D.L. Williams

Recently heightened interest in security matters has engendered public anxiety about the threat posed by nuclear proliferation, the global spread of knowledge and materials for building nuclear weapons. Owing to the presence of counter-proliferation measures in today’s reactors, civilian nuclear power in the U.S. has never been successfully exploited for the illicit development of weapons. If this successful track record is to continue, the forthcoming generation of nuclear scientists and engineers will need a sound understanding of proliferation issues. This knowledge will enable them to manage future risks and establish proliferation-resistant paradigms to support the growing prevalence of nuclear technologies.

One major nuclear industry proliferation concern is the production of plutonium, a desirable energy source for nuclear devices, as a byproduct of the consumption of nuclear fuel in commercial reactors. This talk compares and contrasts the plutonium produced through “normal” reactor operation with the plutonium preferred for use in weapons.

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Materials Issues in High Power Accelerators and
Comparisons to Fission and Fusion Reactors

L.K. Mansur

High power accelerators present a challenging array of issues for materials scientists and nuclear engineers. Some materials considerations are unique to accelerators per se, or even to a particular accelerator. Others depend on the materials response to the irradiation environment and can be similar to those for fission or fusion reactors. In particular, spallation neutron sources impinge a proton beam with energy of order GeV onto a high atomic number target to produce nuclear spallation reactions. For example, the high displacement doses in the target structures of spallation neutron sources, produced by the impinging proton beam and by the spallation neutrons, are of similar magnitude to those in high flux reactor cores and the first walls of future fusion reactors. Advanced materials are required to have superior performance under high levels of displacement damage and (for spallation targets and fusion reactors) high levels of transmutation gas production, while maintaining satisfactory mechanical and physical properties.

Full Presentation (PPT, 25 MB)
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Neutron Interferometry and Quantum Information Processing

D.G. Cory

Quantum information processing promises that if we learn how to coherently manipulate complex quantum systems then we can efficiently accomplish certain computational tasks that are inaccessible in the classical world. Fortunately there are available physical systems where high fidelity coherent control is routine. We will discuss two of these: nuclear magnetic resonance and neutron interferometry. We will show how quantum information processing provides new and valuable insight into the physics and applications of these familiar methods.

Full Presentation (PPT, 5 MB)
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Going Beyond UO2 Fuel

D.F. Williams

Despite decades of innovative research and development, UO2 remains the dominant fuel matrix, and UO2 (and MOX) pellets comprise the vast majority of fuel for power reactors. It is instructive to examine factors that have restricted the deployment of more "advanced" fuel forms. Key drivers for considering advanced fuels include the desire for higher burnup, better thermal performance/safety margins, and actinide burning/transmutation. Fuels that help achieve a more proliferation-resistant fuel cycle are also being sought. Key constraints that tend to limit the deployment of new fuels include entry-point economics, mature manufacturing metrics, regulatory inertia and additional market factors. In some instances "recyclability" is also a key factor. All of these factors act to force the proponent of a new fuel to marshal a compelling case for the investments leading to industrial deployment. The speaker will draw from experience in various fuel R&D programs to highlight these issues and to suggest ways in which the drivers for new fuels can overcome the constraints that hinder industrial deployment.

Full Presentation (PDF, 2 MB)
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U.S. New Nuclear Plant Build Initiative: AREVA, UniStar Nuclear, and the U.S. EPR

M.V. McMahon

This talk will provide a brief overview of the factors contributing to the current positive environment for new nuclear plant construction in the U.S. and renewed enthusiasm shown by the U.S. nuclear industry. The main focus of the lecture will be on the features of the U.S. EPR, the advanced reactor design being offered by AREVA in the U.S and the only Gen. III+ reactor design currently under construction (Finland's Olkiluoto-3). The lecture will also cover UniStar Nuclear, the joint venture between AREVA and Constellation Energy created to license, construct, own and operate a standardized fleet of U.S. EPR nuclear plants in North America.

Full Presentation (PDF, 3 MB)
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U.S. New Nuclear Plant Initiative: Westinghouse, and the AP 1000

S. Ray

Full Presentation (PPT, 9 MB)
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An Update on the DOE Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program

D. A. Petti

The Department of Energy has selected the Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor System (VHTR), for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, a project to demonstrate emissions-free nuclear-assisted electricity and hydrogen production. The NGNP reference concept will be a helium-cooled, graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor with a design goal outlet temperature of 900-1000°C and a thermal power of about 600 MW. The reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. The fuel cycle will be a once-through very high burnup low-enriched uranium fuel cycle.

The DOE has established the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program to address fuel concerns associated with this design. This program will undertake fuel manufacture as well as safety and performance modeling. An overview of the program and recent progress will be presented.

Full Presentation (PPT, 15 MB)
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The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership and the Future of Nuclear Power

V. H. Reis

The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) was announced this February by the United States government. In the words of President Bush: " Administration has announced a bold new proposal called the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership. Under this partnership, America will work with nations that have advanced civilian nuclear energy programs, such as France, Japan and Russia. Together, we will develop and deploy innovative, advanced reactors and new methods to recycle spent nuclear fuel. This will allow us to produce more energy, while dramatically reducing the amount of nuclear waste and eliminating the nuclear byproducts that unstab innovative, advanced reactors and new methods to recycle spent nuclear fuel. This will allow us to produce more energy, while dramatically reducing the amount of nuclear waste and eliminating the nuclear byproducts that unstable regimes or terrorists could use to make weapons."

Dr. Reis will describe the goals and proposed strategy and implementation plans for GNEP, and compare it to the MIT report The Future of Nuclear Power.

Full Presentation (PPT, 6 MB)
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Development of Innovative Technology for the Separation of Waste Constitutes Using Plasma Based Techniques

J.R. Gilleland

From the time of its founding in 1998 Archimedes' primary corporate mission has been the development of a breakthrough separations technology for treatment of high level waste from nuclear weapons production.

A new invention, called the "Archimedes Filter," promises to reduce the required number of HLW canisters at Hanford by up to 85%.

Full Presentation (PPT, 20 MB)
Plasma Animation (MPG, 500 KB)
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The Future of GE Nuclear

A.C. White

The "New GE" and the future of GE's nuclear energy operations.

Full Presentation (PPT, 24 MB)
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