Background: #fff
Foreground: #000
PrimaryPale: #8cf
PrimaryLight: #18f
PrimaryMid: #04b
PrimaryDark: #014
SecondaryPale: #ffc
SecondaryLight: #fe8
SecondaryMid: #db4
SecondaryDark: #841
TertiaryPale: #eee
TertiaryLight: #ccc
TertiaryMid: #999
TertiaryDark: #666
Error: #f88
<!--{{{-->
<div class='toolbar' macro='toolbar [[ToolbarCommands::EditToolbar]]'></div>
<div class='title' macro='view title'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit title'></div>
<div macro='annotations'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit text'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit tags'></div><div class='editorFooter'><span macro='message views.editor.tagPrompt'></span><span macro='tagChooser excludeLists'></span></div>
<!--}}}-->
To get started with this blank [[TiddlyWiki]], you'll need to modify the following tiddlers:
* [[SiteTitle]] & [[SiteSubtitle]]: The title and subtitle of the site, as shown above (after saving, they will also appear in the browser title bar)
* [[MainMenu]]: The menu (usually on the left)
* [[DefaultTiddlers]]: Contains the names of the tiddlers that you want to appear when the TiddlyWiki is opened
You'll also need to enter your username for signing your edits: <<option txtUserName>>
<<importTiddlers>>
<!--{{{-->
<link rel='alternate' type='application/rss+xml' title='RSS' href='index.xml' />
<!--}}}-->
These [[InterfaceOptions]] for customising [[TiddlyWiki]] are saved in your browser

Your username for signing your edits. Write it as a [[WikiWord]] (eg [[JoeBloggs]])

<<option txtUserName>>
<<option chkSaveBackups>> [[SaveBackups]]
<<option chkAutoSave>> [[AutoSave]]
<<option chkRegExpSearch>> [[RegExpSearch]]
<<option chkCaseSensitiveSearch>> [[CaseSensitiveSearch]]
<<option chkAnimate>> [[EnableAnimations]]

----
Also see [[AdvancedOptions]]
<!--{{{-->
<div class='header' role='banner' macro='gradient vert [[ColorPalette::PrimaryLight]] [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]'>
<div class='headerShadow'>
<span class='siteTitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteTitle'></span>&nbsp;
<span class='siteSubtitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteSubtitle'></span>
</div>
<div class='headerForeground'>
<span class='siteTitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteTitle'></span>&nbsp;
<span class='siteSubtitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteSubtitle'></span>
</div>
</div>
<div id='mainMenu' role='navigation' refresh='content' tiddler='MainMenu'></div>
<div id='sidebar'>
<div id='sidebarOptions' role='navigation' refresh='content' tiddler='SideBarOptions'></div>
<div id='sidebarTabs' role='complementary' refresh='content' force='true' tiddler='SideBarTabs'></div>
</div>
<div id='displayArea' role='main'>
<div id='messageArea'></div>
<div id='tiddlerDisplay'></div>
</div>
<!--}}}-->
/*{{{*/
body {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}

a {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
a:hover {background-color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
a img {border:0;}

h1,h2,h3,h4,h5,h6 {color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]]; background:transparent;}
h1 {border-bottom:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
h2,h3 {border-bottom:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}

.button {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.button:hover {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; border-color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];}
.button:active {color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]];}

.header {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
.headerShadow {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
.headerShadow a {font-weight:normal; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
.headerForeground {color:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.headerForeground a {font-weight:normal; color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];}

.tabSelected {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];
	background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]];
	border-left:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];
	border-top:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];
	border-right:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];
}
.tabUnselected {color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
.tabContents {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
.tabContents .button {border:0;}

#sidebar {}
#sidebarOptions input {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a {border:none;color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a:hover {color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a:active {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]; background:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}

.wizard {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
.wizard h1 {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; border:none;}
.wizard h2 {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border:none;}
.wizardStep {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];
	border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
.wizardStep.wizardStepDone {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
.wizardFooter {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];}
.wizardFooter .status {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.wizard .button {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; border: 1px solid;
	border-color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]] [[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]] [[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]] [[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]];}
.wizard .button:hover {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; background:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.wizard .button:active {color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border: 1px solid;
	border-color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]] [[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]] [[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]] [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];}

.wizard .notChanged {background:transparent;}
.wizard .changedLocally {background:#80ff80;}
.wizard .changedServer {background:#8080ff;}
.wizard .changedBoth {background:#ff8080;}
.wizard .notFound {background:#ffff80;}
.wizard .putToServer {background:#ff80ff;}
.wizard .gotFromServer {background:#80ffff;}

#messageArea {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
#messageArea .button {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]]; border:none;}

.popupTiddler {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]]; border:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}

.popup {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]]; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]]; border-left:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]]; border-top:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]]; border-right:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]]; border-bottom:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}
.popup hr {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; border-bottom:1px;}
.popup li.disabled {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
.popup li a, .popup li a:visited {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border: none;}
.popup li a:hover {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border: none;}
.popup li a:active {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border: none;}
.popupHighlight {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
.listBreak div {border-bottom:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.tiddler .defaultCommand {font-weight:bold;}

.shadow .title {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.title {color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]];}
.subtitle {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.toolbar {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
.toolbar a {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
.selected .toolbar a {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
.selected .toolbar a:hover {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}

.tagging, .tagged {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]]; background-color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]];}
.selected .tagging, .selected .tagged {background-color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
.tagging .listTitle, .tagged .listTitle {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];}
.tagging .button, .tagged .button {border:none;}

.footer {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
.selected .footer {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}

.error, .errorButton {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; background:[[ColorPalette::Error]];}
.warning {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]];}
.lowlight {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}

.zoomer {background:none; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]]; border:3px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}

.imageLink, #displayArea .imageLink {background:transparent;}

.annotation {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border:2px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];}

.viewer .listTitle {list-style-type:none; margin-left:-2em;}
.viewer .button {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];}
.viewer blockquote {border-left:3px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.viewer table, table.twtable {border:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}
.viewer th, .viewer thead td, .twtable th, .twtable thead td {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.viewer td, .viewer tr, .twtable td, .twtable tr {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.viewer pre {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]];}
.viewer code {color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]];}
.viewer hr {border:0; border-top:dashed 1px [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]]; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.highlight, .marked {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]];}

.editor input {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
.editor textarea {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]; width:100%;}
.editorFooter {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
.readOnly {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]];}

#backstageArea {background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
#backstageArea a {background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; border:none;}
#backstageArea a:hover {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; }
#backstageArea a.backstageSelTab {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
#backstageButton a {background:none; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; border:none;}
#backstageButton a:hover {background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; border:none;}
#backstagePanel {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; border-color: [[ColorPalette::Background]] [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]] [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]] [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}
.backstagePanelFooter .button {border:none; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.backstagePanelFooter .button:hover {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
#backstageCloak {background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; opacity:0.6; filter:alpha(opacity=60);}
/*}}}*/
/*{{{*/
* html .tiddler {height:1%;}

body {font-size:.75em; font-family:arial,helvetica; margin:0; padding:0;}

h1,h2,h3,h4,h5,h6 {font-weight:bold; text-decoration:none;}
h1,h2,h3 {padding-bottom:1px; margin-top:1.2em;margin-bottom:0.3em;}
h4,h5,h6 {margin-top:1em;}
h1 {font-size:1.35em;}
h2 {font-size:1.25em;}
h3 {font-size:1.1em;}
h4 {font-size:1em;}
h5 {font-size:.9em;}

hr {height:1px;}

a {text-decoration:none;}

dt {font-weight:bold;}

ol {list-style-type:decimal;}
ol ol {list-style-type:lower-alpha;}
ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-roman;}
ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:decimal;}
ol ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-alpha;}
ol ol ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-roman;}
ol ol ol ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:decimal;}

.txtOptionInput {width:11em;}

#contentWrapper .chkOptionInput {border:0;}

.externalLink {text-decoration:underline;}

.indent {margin-left:3em;}
.outdent {margin-left:3em; text-indent:-3em;}
code.escaped {white-space:nowrap;}

.tiddlyLinkExisting {font-weight:bold;}
.tiddlyLinkNonExisting {font-style:italic;}

/* the 'a' is required for IE, otherwise it renders the whole tiddler in bold */
a.tiddlyLinkNonExisting.shadow {font-weight:bold;}

#mainMenu .tiddlyLinkExisting,
	#mainMenu .tiddlyLinkNonExisting,
	#sidebarTabs .tiddlyLinkNonExisting {font-weight:normal; font-style:normal;}
#sidebarTabs .tiddlyLinkExisting {font-weight:bold; font-style:normal;}

.header {position:relative;}
.header a:hover {background:transparent;}
.headerShadow {position:relative; padding:4.5em 0 1em 1em; left:-1px; top:-1px;}
.headerForeground {position:absolute; padding:4.5em 0 1em 1em; left:0; top:0;}

.siteTitle {font-size:3em;}
.siteSubtitle {font-size:1.2em;}

#mainMenu {position:absolute; left:0; width:10em; text-align:right; line-height:1.6em; padding:1.5em 0.5em 0.5em 0.5em; font-size:1.1em;}

#sidebar {position:absolute; right:3px; width:16em; font-size:.9em;}
#sidebarOptions {padding-top:0.3em;}
#sidebarOptions a {margin:0 0.2em; padding:0.2em 0.3em; display:block;}
#sidebarOptions input {margin:0.4em 0.5em;}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel {margin-left:1em; padding:0.5em; font-size:.85em;}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a {font-weight:bold; display:inline; padding:0;}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel input {margin:0 0 0.3em 0;}
#sidebarTabs .tabContents {width:15em; overflow:hidden;}

.wizard {padding:0.1em 1em 0 2em;}
.wizard h1 {font-size:2em; font-weight:bold; background:none; padding:0; margin:0.4em 0 0.2em;}
.wizard h2 {font-size:1.2em; font-weight:bold; background:none; padding:0; margin:0.4em 0 0.2em;}
.wizardStep {padding:1em 1em 1em 1em;}
.wizard .button {margin:0.5em 0 0; font-size:1.2em;}
.wizardFooter {padding:0.8em 0.4em 0.8em 0;}
.wizardFooter .status {padding:0 0.4em; margin-left:1em;}
.wizard .button {padding:0.1em 0.2em;}

#messageArea {position:fixed; top:2em; right:0; margin:0.5em; padding:0.5em; z-index:2000; _position:absolute;}
.messageToolbar {display:block; text-align:right; padding:0.2em;}
#messageArea a {text-decoration:underline;}

.tiddlerPopupButton {padding:0.2em;}
.popupTiddler {position: absolute; z-index:300; padding:1em; margin:0;}

.popup {position:absolute; z-index:300; font-size:.9em; padding:0; list-style:none; margin:0;}
.popup .popupMessage {padding:0.4em;}
.popup hr {display:block; height:1px; width:auto; padding:0; margin:0.2em 0;}
.popup li.disabled {padding:0.4em;}
.popup li a {display:block; padding:0.4em; font-weight:normal; cursor:pointer;}
.listBreak {font-size:1px; line-height:1px;}
.listBreak div {margin:2px 0;}

.tabset {padding:1em 0 0 0.5em;}
.tab {margin:0 0 0 0.25em; padding:2px;}
.tabContents {padding:0.5em;}
.tabContents ul, .tabContents ol {margin:0; padding:0;}
.txtMainTab .tabContents li {list-style:none;}
.tabContents li.listLink { margin-left:.75em;}

#contentWrapper {display:block;}
#splashScreen {display:none;}

#displayArea {margin:1em 17em 0 14em;}

.toolbar {text-align:right; font-size:.9em;}

.tiddler {padding:1em 1em 0;}

.missing .viewer,.missing .title {font-style:italic;}

.title {font-size:1.6em; font-weight:bold;}

.missing .subtitle {display:none;}
.subtitle {font-size:1.1em;}

.tiddler .button {padding:0.2em 0.4em;}

.tagging {margin:0.5em 0.5em 0.5em 0; float:left; display:none;}
.isTag .tagging {display:block;}
.tagged {margin:0.5em; float:right;}
.tagging, .tagged {font-size:0.9em; padding:0.25em;}
.tagging ul, .tagged ul {list-style:none; margin:0.25em; padding:0;}
.tagClear {clear:both;}

.footer {font-size:.9em;}
.footer li {display:inline;}

.annotation {padding:0.5em; margin:0.5em;}

* html .viewer pre {width:99%; padding:0 0 1em 0;}
.viewer {line-height:1.4em; padding-top:0.5em;}
.viewer .button {margin:0 0.25em; padding:0 0.25em;}
.viewer blockquote {line-height:1.5em; padding-left:0.8em;margin-left:2.5em;}
.viewer ul, .viewer ol {margin-left:0.5em; padding-left:1.5em;}

.viewer table, table.twtable {border-collapse:collapse; margin:0.8em 1.0em;}
.viewer th, .viewer td, .viewer tr,.viewer caption,.twtable th, .twtable td, .twtable tr,.twtable caption {padding:3px;}
table.listView {font-size:0.85em; margin:0.8em 1.0em;}
table.listView th, table.listView td, table.listView tr {padding:0 3px 0 3px;}

.viewer pre {padding:0.5em; margin-left:0.5em; font-size:1.2em; line-height:1.4em; overflow:auto;}
.viewer code {font-size:1.2em; line-height:1.4em;}

.editor {font-size:1.1em;}
.editor input, .editor textarea {display:block; width:100%; font:inherit;}
.editorFooter {padding:0.25em 0; font-size:.9em;}
.editorFooter .button {padding-top:0; padding-bottom:0;}

.fieldsetFix {border:0; padding:0; margin:1px 0px;}

.zoomer {font-size:1.1em; position:absolute; overflow:hidden;}
.zoomer div {padding:1em;}

* html #backstage {width:99%;}
* html #backstageArea {width:99%;}
#backstageArea {display:none; position:relative; overflow: hidden; z-index:150; padding:0.3em 0.5em;}
#backstageToolbar {position:relative;}
#backstageArea a {font-weight:bold; margin-left:0.5em; padding:0.3em 0.5em;}
#backstageButton {display:none; position:absolute; z-index:175; top:0; right:0;}
#backstageButton a {padding:0.1em 0.4em; margin:0.1em;}
#backstage {position:relative; width:100%; z-index:50;}
#backstagePanel {display:none; z-index:100; position:absolute; width:90%; margin-left:3em; padding:1em;}
.backstagePanelFooter {padding-top:0.2em; float:right;}
.backstagePanelFooter a {padding:0.2em 0.4em;}
#backstageCloak {display:none; z-index:20; position:absolute; width:100%; height:100px;}

.whenBackstage {display:none;}
.backstageVisible .whenBackstage {display:block;}
/*}}}*/
/***
StyleSheet for use when a translation requires any css style changes.
This StyleSheet can be used directly by languages such as Chinese, Japanese and Korean which need larger font sizes.
***/
/*{{{*/
body {font-size:0.8em;}
#sidebarOptions {font-size:1.05em;}
#sidebarOptions a {font-style:normal;}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel {font-size:0.95em;}
.subtitle {font-size:0.8em;}
.viewer table.listView {font-size:0.95em;}
/*}}}*/
/*{{{*/
@media print {
#mainMenu, #sidebar, #messageArea, .toolbar, #backstageButton, #backstageArea {display: none !important;}
#displayArea {margin: 1em 1em 0em;}
noscript {display:none;} /* Fixes a feature in Firefox 1.5.0.2 where print preview displays the noscript content */
}
/*}}}*/
<!--{{{-->
<div class='toolbar' role='navigation' macro='toolbar [[ToolbarCommands::ViewToolbar]]'></div>
<div class='title' macro='view title'></div>
<div class='subtitle'><span macro='view modifier link'></span>, <span macro='view modified date'></span> (<span macro='message views.wikified.createdPrompt'></span> <span macro='view created date'></span>)</div>
<div class='tagging' macro='tagging'></div>
<div class='tagged' macro='tags'></div>
<div class='viewer' macro='view text wikified'></div>
<div class='tagClear'></div>
<!--}}}-->
>To receive music you have to open the ears and wait, not for Godot, but for the music; you must feel that it is something you need. Some let the ear be present and they make no effort to understand. To listen is an effort, and just to hear is no merit. A duck hears also.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Igor Stravinksy
>It is indeed a feeble light that reaches us from the starry sky. But what would human thought have achieved if we could not see the stars?
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Jean Perrin
>Somewhere he found a large anatomical chart showing the structure of the ear and this he taped onto the kitchen wall near the photographs of great accordion players. So there loomed over every meal the pale orange pinna resembling some extinct mollusk, the curving tunnel of the auditory canal, the eardrum shaped like a Japanese fan, and beyond it the curious tiny bones of the middle ear, the hammer, the anvil and the stirrup. The eye swept along, unable to escape, to the snail of the cochlea -- a whirlpool, a hurricane seen from a cloud, a jelly roll, spinning tops, a fallen strip of orange peel.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Annie Proulx, //Accordian Crimes//
In the evening we came back
Into our yellow room,
For a moment taken aback
To find the light left on,
Falling on silent flowers,
Table, book, empty chair
While we had gone elsewhere,
Had been away for hours.

When we came home together
We found the inside weather.
All of our love unended
The quiet light demanded,
And we gave, in a look
At yellow walls and open book.
The deepest world we share
And do not talk about
But have to have, was there,
And by that light found out.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- May Sarton
>"//This// is how things are." -- That is the kind of proposition that one repeats to oneself countless times. One thinks that one is tracing the outline of the thing's nature over and over again, and one is merely tracing round the frame through which we look at it. A //picture// held us captive. And we could not get outside it, for it lay in our language and language seemed to repeat it to us inexorably.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Ludwig Wittgenstein, //Philosophical Investigations//
{{imgfloatright{[img[http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/TripleSpiralLabyrinth.png]]}}}Most of Earwicki's TiddlyWiki labyrinth starts out hidden. Follow the internal links to navigate from familiar objects toward the unfamiliar -- guiding yourself along, as it were, a chain of flowers into the mysteries of life. Each item (or tiddler) opens and closes separately.

''Tips for browsing:''
* [[Bold links|What About the Ear?]] reveal other Earwicki tiddlers; [[plain links|http://www.mjt.org]] whisk you away on the web.
* The search bar at the upper right probes all tiddlers, whether open or closed.
* Since the entire Earwicki site is [[just one file|Gallery]], using your browser's "Back" button will //not// return you to previously viewed tiddlers; //use the internal links instead.//
* Tiddlers can be closed using the @@bgcolor(#ddd):close@@ and @@bgcolor(#ddd):close others@@ buttons located atop every tiddler or the @@bgcolor(#ddd):close all@@ button below the search bar. /%Alternatively, the link to any tiddler can be used to close its target by holding down the Cmd (Mac) or Ctrl (Win) key while clicking.%/
An [[Earwicki Glossary|Glossary]] is available.
''Acoustics of Speech and Hearing'' ([[HST714|http://bit.ly/pVxniF]]) 
>And suddenly I've found
>How wonderful a sound
>Can be.
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; -- Stephen Sondheim, "Maria" from //West Side Story//

{{imgfloatright{[img[Ear and Mouth|http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/images/earmouth.png]]}}}This course reviews the physical processes involved in the production, propagation, and [[reception|Kircher's Hearing Aids]] of human speech. Particular attention is paid to how the acoustics and mechanics of the speech and auditory systems determine the [[sounds|Picture of Sound]] we are capable of producing and the sounds we can sense.

''Instructors:''
*Louis Braida
*Satra Ghosh
*John Rosowksi
*Christopher Shera
<html></br></html>
[img[Sarah Verhulst|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/SarahV.jpg]]
''Sarah Verhulst'' 
For her thesis work at DTU's [[Center for Applied Hearing Research|http://www.dtu.dk/centre/cahr/English.aspx]], where she worked in collaboration with [[James Harte|http://www.idh.warwick.ac.uk/IDH/idh-staff.html]] and [[Torsten Dau|http://tinyurl.com/torstendau]], Sarah studied cochlear nonlinearities and their manifestation in the temporal suppression of otoacoustic emissions. After a postdoctoral year at the Technical University of Denmark, Sarah returned to Boston as Harvard Research Fellow jointly sponsored by [[BU's Auditory Neuroscience Lab|http://cns.bu.edu/~shinn/ANL/]] directed by [[Barb Shinn-Cunningham|http://cns.bu.edu/~shinn/]]. Sarah is now an Assistant Professor in the Department of Medical Physics and Acoustics at Carl von Ossietzky University in Oldenburg.

[img[Karin Knudson|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/KarinK.jpg]]
''Karin Knudson'' 
A graduate student in mathematics at the [[University of Texas at Austin|http://www.ma.utexas.edu/]], Karin studied the dynamics of coupled nonlinear oscillators, with applications to the generation of otoacoustic emissions.

[img[Leah Acker|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/Leah.jpg]]
''Leah Acker'' 
For her EECS Masters thesis, Leah studied otoacoustic correlates of tinnitus in collaboration with the EPL Tinnitus group led by [[Jennifer Melcher|http://hst.mit.edu/biosketch/Melcher.html]]. She is now pursuing a Ph.D. and working on deep brain stimulation in the [[Boyden lab|http://neuro.media.mit.edu]].

[img[Chris Bergevin|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/cb2.jpg][http://www.yorku.ca/cberge/]]
''Christopher Bergevin'' 
For his thesis work, [[Chris|http://www.yorku.ca/cberge/]] initiated a collaboration between the EPL Auditory Physics Group and the MIT [[Micromechanics Group|http://umech.mit.edu]] led by Dennis Freeman. The result was the first systematic, comparative study of otoacoustic emissions in mammals, amphibians, reptiles, and birds. Chris earned his Ph.D. from MIT in 2007 and did postdoctoral work in the [[Department of Mathematics|http://math.arizona.edu]] at the University of Arizona, where he was an NSF VIGRE/Howard Hughes Postdoctoral Fellow, and in the [[Fowler Memorial Laboratory|http://www.columbia.edu/cu/fowlerlab/index.html]] at Columbia University. Chris is now an [[Assistant Professor of Physics|http://www.physics.yorku.ca/index.php/research-physics-astronomy/biophysics/313]] and head of the [[Sensory Biophysics Laboratory|http://www.yorku.ca/cberge/]] at York University.

[img[Radha Kalluri|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/rk1.jpg][http://www.hei.org/research/kalluri/]]
''Radha Kalluri''
For her work understanding the mechanisms of otoacoustic emission generation, Radha won Honorable Mention in the 2006 [[Helen Carr Peake Research Prize|http://www.rle.mit.edu/news/news_04242006.html]] from MIT's [[Research Laboratory of Electronics|http://www.rle.mit.edu]]. She earned her Ph.D. from MIT in 2006 and went on to work with [[Ruth Anne Eatock|http://www.masseyeandear.org/research/ent/eaton-peabody/epl-investigators/eatock/]] as a Harvard Research Fellow. Radha is now an [[Assistant Professor of Otolaryngology|http://www.usc.edu/programs/neuroscience/faculty/profile.php?fid=156]] at the University of Southern California.

[img[Jeffery Lichtenhan|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/jlichtenhan06.jpg]]
''Jeffery Lichtenhan'' 
In a collaboration with [[John Guinan|https://research.meei.harvard.edu/epl/investigators.html]] at EPL, Jeff combined otoacoustic and neurophysiological approaches to test models of emission generation and cochlear mechanics. [[Jeff|http://otocore.wustl.edu/lichtenhanlab]] is now Assistant Professor in the Department of Otolaryngology at Washington University School of Medicine.

[img[David O'Gorman|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/deo1.jpg]]
''David O'Gorman''
For his work identifying the dynamical mechanisms responsible for firing irregularity in neurons stimulated at high rates, David won the 2006 [[Helen Carr Peake Research Prize|http://www.rle.mit.edu/news/news_04242006.html]] from MIT's [[Research Laboratory of Electronics|http://www.rle.mit.edu]]. He earned his Ph.D. from MIT in 2006 and is now working with Steve Colburn in the [[Center for BioDynamics|http://cbd.bu.edu]] at Boston University.

[img[Tony Miller|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/ajm1.jpg]]
''Antonio Miller''
For this thesis work, Tony developed methods for measuring the two-port characteristics of the middle ear. He earned his S.M. in Health Sciences & Technology from MIT in 2006 and is now working on speech perception in the Acoustics group at Motorola.
>Man asked God for a riddle, and God obliged:
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space10x11.gif]]-- What is green, hangs from a tree, and sings?
>This, of course, was a very difficult question.
>So man asked God for the answer, and God replied:
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space10x11.gif]]-- A herring!
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space10x11.gif]]-- A herring? But why is it green?
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space10x11.gif]]-- Because I painted it green.
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space10x11.gif]]-- But why does it hang from a tree?
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space10x11.gif]]-- Because I put it there.
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space10x11.gif]]-- And why does it sing?
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space10x11.gif]]-- If it didn't sing, you would have guessed it was a herring.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- George Zweig, from "Origins of the Quark Model," 1980
>One thing is absolutely definite: not everything that enters our ears penetrates our consciousness. Anything too far out of tune with our attitude is lost, either in the ears themselves or somewhere beyond, but it is lost.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, //The Gulag Archipelago//
[img[Ernst Haeckel, 1866|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/386px-Haeckel_arbol_bn.png]]
[img[Max Brodel, 1939|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/brodel.jpg][What About the Ear?]]
I'm standing outside on the balcony
balloon man is passing below
making his way to the park by the church
he goes where the little ones go

balloon man's a little bit ragged  
his glasses are slightly askew
one lens is cracked and shoes never match
he might have a screw loose or two

and you're so far away
on the other side of the world
I  thought you might like to know
that balloon man lives in it too

his rig is a marvel of equipoise
Leonardo might've designed
bamboo for the wide horizontal
pine for the vertical rise

he's wearing in a flag-bearers harness
he's holding the whole thing aloft
balloons all arrayed, he's a one man parade
if he ran he'd surely take off

and you're so far away
on the other side of the world
I  just thought you should know
that balloon man lives in it too

but it's cold up here on the balcony
and it's time that I went back inside
balloon man waits for the light at the corner
I'll watch til he goes out of sight

but there's a wind that whips round the corner
and he's having a hell of a time
he staggers and it looks like he might just go over
but balloon man he puts up a fight

and you're so far away
on the other side of the world
I  just thought you should know
that balloon man lives in it too

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Richard Shindell
[img[Bedolina Petroglyph, Valcalmonica c. 2500 BCE|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/bedolina.gif]]
>I had two spoonfuls of soup and looked up at her.
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]]"Tell me more about your 'blocked ears.'"
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]]"Blocked ears are dead ears. I killed my own ears. That is, I consciously cut off the passageway....Do you follow me?"
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]]No, I didn't follow her.
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]]"Ask me, then," she said.
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]]"By killing your ears, do you mean you made yourself deaf?"
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]]"No, I can hear quite fine. But even so, my ears are dead. You can probably do it too."
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]]She set her soupspoon back down, straightened her back, raised her shoulders two inches, thrust her jaw full out, held that posture for all of ten seconds, and suddenly dropped her shoulders.
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]]"There. My ears are dead. Now you try."
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]]Three times I repeated the movements she'd made. Slowly, carefully, but nothing left me with the impression that my ears had died. The wine was rapidly circulating through my system.
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]]"I do believe that my ears aren't dying properly," I said, disappointed.
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]]She shook her head. "That's okay. If your ears don't need to die, there's nothing wrong with them not dying."
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Haruki Murakami, //A Wild Sheep Chase//
#Shera CA, Olson ES, eds. //What Fire is in Mine Ears: Progress in Auditory Biomechanics.//  Melville, NY: American Institute of Physics, 2011. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://www.mechanicsofhearing.org/moh2011/#Proceedings]]
#Shera CA. //Listening to the Ear//. Thesis (Ph.D., Physics), California Institute of Technology, 1992. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechTHESIS:09072011-150449036]]
[img[Rene Descartes, 1644|http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/images/DescartesVortices1644.png]]
[img[Santiago Ramon y Cajal|http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/images/cajal-purkinje.gif]]
[img[Bat skeleton|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/ChauvetLions.jpg]]
[img[Frederic Chopin, Sonata for Cello and Piano in G minor, op. 65, 1845-46|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/ChopinSonataGmOp65.jpg]]
[img[Richard Kirk|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/kirk-cochlea.gif][http://www.richardakirk.com/]]
> Blow in my ear and I'll follow you anywhere.  -- Rowan and Martin

''Cochlear Mechanics and Otoacoustic Emissions''
&emsp;&emsp;[[Nigel Cooper|http://www.mechanicsofhearing.com/cooper.html]]
&emsp;&emsp;__Egbert de Boer__
&emsp;&emsp;[[Paul Fahey|http://matrix.scranton.edu/academics/cas/physics-eeng/faculty/fahey.shtml]]
&emsp;&emsp;[[John Guinan|http://www.masseyeandear.org/research/ent/eaton-peabody/epl-investigators/guinan/]]
&emsp;&emsp;[[Radha Kalluri|http://www.hei.org/research/kalluri/]]
&emsp;&emsp;__Arturo Moleti & Renata Sisto__
&emsp;&emsp;[[Alfred Nuttall|http://www.ohsu.edu/ohrc/staff/nuttall/nuttall.html]]
&emsp;&emsp;[[Carrick Talmadge|http://www.olemiss.edu/depts/ncpa/]]
&emsp;&emsp;[[Arnold Tubis|http://inls.ucsd.edu/]]
&emsp;&emsp;[[Robert Withnell|http://apl.sphs.indiana.edu/]]
&emsp;&emsp;[[George Zweig|http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Zweig.html]]

''Otoacoustic Emissions and Cochlear Tuning''
&emsp;''Humans''
&emsp;&emsp;[[Carolina Abdala|http://www.usc.edu/programs/neuroscience/faculty/profile.php?fid=115]]
&emsp;&emsp;[[John Guinan|http://www.masseyeandear.org/research/ent/eaton-peabody/epl-investigators/guinan/]]
&emsp;&emsp;[[Andrew Oxenham|http://www.psych.umn.edu/psylabs/apc/]]
&emsp;''Monkeys''
&emsp;&emsp;[[Christopher Bergevin|http://www.yorku.ca/cberge/]]
&emsp;&emsp;__Philip Joris & Marcel van der Heijden__
&emsp;&emsp;[[Radha Kalluri|http://www.hei.org/research/kalluri/]]
&emsp;&emsp;[[Xiaoqin Wang|http://ww2.jhu.edu/xwang/]]
&emsp;''Felids''
&emsp;&emsp;[[Christopher Bergevin|http://www.yorku.ca/cberge/]]
&emsp;&emsp;[[Ed Walsh & JoAnn McGee|http://www.boystownhospital.org/research/molecularstudies/Pages/DevelopmentalAuditoryPhysiology.aspx]]
&emsp;''Ferrets''
&emsp;&emsp;[[Christopher Bergevin|http://www.yorku.ca/cberge/]]
&emsp;&emsp;[[Alan Palmer & Chris Sumner|http://www.brainbody.nottingham.ac.uk/memberpage.php?member=Prof.%20Alan%20Palmer]]
&emsp;&emsp;[[Andrew Oxenham|http://www.psych.umn.edu/psylabs/apc/]]
&emsp;''Mutant Mice''
&emsp;&emsp;[[Shirin Farrahi, Roozbeh Ghaffari & Dennis Freeman|http://www.rle.mit.edu/rleonline/People/DennisM.Freeman.html]]
&emsp;''Lizards''
&emsp;&emsp;[[Christopher Bergevin|http://www.yorku.ca/cberge/]]
&emsp;&emsp;[[Dennis Freeman|http://www.rle.mit.edu/rleonline/People/DennisM.Freeman.html]]

''Otoacoustic Emissions and Auditory Attention''
&emsp;&emsp;[[Barb Shinn-Cunningham|http://cns.bu.edu/~shinn/]]
&emsp;&emsp;[[Sarah Verhulst|http://cns.bu.edu/~shinn/ANL/]]

''Otoacoustic Emissions and Tinnitus''
&emsp;&emsp;[[Jennifer Melcher|http://hst.mit.edu/biosketch/Melcher.html]]

''Otoacoustic Emissions and Intracranial Pressure''
&emsp;&emsp;[[Susan Voss|http://www.science.smith.edu/~svoss]]

''Nonlinear Dynamics of Neural Excitation''
&emsp;&emsp;[[Steve Colburn|http://www.bu.edu/dbin/bme/people/primary/colburn.php]]
&emsp;&emsp;__David O'Gorman__

''Middle Ear Mechanics''
&emsp;&emsp;[[William Peake|http://www.rle.mit.edu/rleonline/People/WilliamT.Peake.html]]
&emsp;&emsp;[[John Rosowski|http://www.masseyeandear.org/research/ent/eaton-peabody/epl-investigators/merchant/middle-ear/]]
&emsp;&emsp;[[Susan Voss|http://www.science.smith.edu/~svoss]]

''Acoustics''
&emsp;&emsp;[[Jont Allen|http://hear.ai.uiuc.edu]]
&emsp;&emsp;[[Stephen Neely|http://www.boystownhospital.org/research/Faculty/Pages/StephenNeely.aspx]]

''Viral Integration in Tumorigenesis''
&emsp;&emsp;__Katherine Shera__

''Reviews and Tutorials''
&emsp;&emsp;[[Carolina Abdala|http://www.usc.edu/programs/neuroscience/faculty/profile.php?fid=115]]
&emsp;&emsp;[[Stephen Elliott|http://www.soton.ac.uk/engineering/about/staff/sje.page]]
&emsp;&emsp;[[John Guinan|http://www.masseyeandear.org/research/ent/eaton-peabody/epl-investigators/guinan/]]
&emsp;&emsp;[[Elizabeth Olson|http://www.columbia.edu/cu/fowlerlab/index.html]]
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TertiaryLight: #ccc
TertiaryMid: #999
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Error: #f88
HCELightGray: #eee
HCEMidGray: #888
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HCEDarkerGray: #333
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space10x11.gif]]I listened, and with each listen the game grew clearer.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Rudyard Kipling, "My Own True Ghost Story"

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/images/MichaelSowa-MannImOhr3.jpg]]
|bgcolor(#eee):By email|<<email shera at mit dot edu "?subject=Earwicki referral">> |
|bgcolor(#eee):By phone|617-573-4235 (voice)<br/>617-720-4408 (fax) |
|bgcolor(#eee):By mail|~Eaton-Peabody Laboratory<br/>Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary<br/>243 Charles Street<br/>Boston, MA 02114 |
/%|''Contact information''|c%/
/% [<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]]A man hears what he wants to hear and disregards the rest.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Paul Simon, "The Boxer" %/
@@margin-left:.5em;<<slider chkContents SideBarTabs "contents »" "Show list of Earwicki's tiddlers">>@@
All courses taught by members of the [[Auditory Physics Group|Here Comes Everybody]] are available through [[MIT OpenCourseWare|http://ocw.mit.edu]] (see course-specific links in the tabs below). Courses are taught under the auspices of the Harvard&ndash;MIT Speech & Hearing Biosciences and Technology Program ([[SHBT|http://web.mit.edu/shbt]]).

<<tabs txtFavourite
"Modeling" "Modeling Issues in Speech and Hearing" "Modeling Course"
"Acoustics" "Acoustics of Speech and Hearing" "Acoustics Course"
"Physiology" "Physiology of the Ear" "Physiology Course"
>>
<<tabs txtFavourite
"HCE" "Head Chief Earwigger" "Head Chief Earwigger"
"Graduate students" "Graduate students" GraduateStudents
"Postdoctoral fellows" "Postdocs" Postdocs
>>
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// CustomTracker as a namespace for tracking related functions
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// store a reference to the original displayTiddler function
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CustomTracker.track = function() {
if (readOnly) {
urchinTracker.apply(this, arguments);
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CustomTracker.trackAndDisplayTiddler = function(srcElement, titles) {
// log with the tracker
CustomTracker.track('/' + titles);
// call the original displayTiddler function
CustomTracker.displayTiddler.apply(this,arguments);
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// replace the default displayTiddler function with a tracking version
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// Call once for the initial page load
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[img[Charles Darwin, 1837|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/DarwinTree.png][On the Tree of Life]]
All the year the flax-dam festered in the heart
Of the townland; green and heavy headed
Flax had rotted there, weighted down by huge sods.
Daily it sweltered in the punishing sun.
Bubbles gargled delicately, bluebottles
Wove a strong gauze of sound around the smell.
There were dragon-flies, spotted butterflies,
But best of all was the warm thick slobber
Of frogspawn that grew like clotted water
In the shade of the banks. Here, every spring
I would fill jampots full of the jellied
Specks to range on the window-sills at home,
On shalves at school, and wait and watch until
The fattening dots burst into nimble-
Swimming tadpoles. Miss Walls would tell us how
The daddy frog was called a bullfrog
And how he croaked and how the mammy frog
Laid hundreds of little eggs and this was
Frogspawn. You could tell the weather by frogs too
For they were yellow in the sun and brown
In rain.

Then one hot day when fields were rank
With cowdung in the grass the angry frogs
Invaded the flax-dam; I ducked through hadges
To a coarse croaking that I had not heard
Before. The air was thick with a bass chorus.
Right down the dam gross-bellied frogs were cocked
On sods; their loose necks pulsed like snails. Some hopped:
The slap and plop were obscene threats. Some sat
Poised like mud grenades, their blunt heads farting.
I sickened, turned, and ran. The great slime kings
Were gathered there for vengeance and I knew
That if I dipped my hand the spawn would clutch it.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Seamus Heaney
[[Auditory Physics Group]]
[img[Charles Meryon, Le Stryge, 1853|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/MeryonLeStryge1.jpg]]
[img[Cochlea|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/cochlea.jpg]]
#{{imgfloatright{[img[Poles of the BM admittance|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/Ybm-poles.jpg][http://web.mit.edu/apg/downloads/pole-movies.zip]]}}}''[[Animations|http://web.mit.edu/apg/downloads/pole-movies.zip]]'' showing model basilar-membrane admittance pole trajectories in the complex plane. The poles generally move away from the real axis as the stimulus intensity is increased. For details, see //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2001; 110:332&ndash;348. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-intensity-JASA01.pdf]]
#''[[Movies|http://web.mit.edu/apg/downloads/soae-movie.zip]]'' showing the time evolution of the probability distribution of a human spontaneous otoacoustic emission compared to that of a Gaussian noise signal with the same power spectrum. For details, see //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2003; 114:244&ndash;262. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-soaes-JASA03.pdf]]  [img[SOAE molerun|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/soae-moleruns.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/downloads/soae-movie.zip]]
>... 'and what is the use of a book,' thought Alice, 'without pictures or conversation?'
&emsp;&emsp;&emsp;&emsp;&emsp;&emsp;&emsp;&emsp;&emsp;&emsp;&emsp;&emsp;&emsp;&emsp;&emsp; -- Lewis Carroll, //Alice's Adventures in Wonderland//
#Animated [[sound|Picture of Sound]] and [[silence|Picture of Silence]]
#Bat [[skeleton|Eternally Frozen]]
#Bedolina [[petroglyph|Bedolina Petroglyph]]
#Brancusi's [[portrait of James Joyce|Symbol of Joyce]]
#Brodel's [[ear|Auditory Physics Group]] and [[inner ear|Inner Ear]]
#Cellular automaton [[rule 30|Rule 30]]
#~CfA's [[galaxy map|Redshift Map]]
#Chauvet [[lions|Chauvet Lions]]
#Chopin's [[Sonata for cello|Chopin Cello Sonata]]
#Descartes' [[aetherial vortices|Celestial Vortices]]
#Darwin's [[tree of life|Darwin's Thought]]
#Duverney's [[organ of hearing|Of the Organ of Hearing]]
#Escher's [[Hell|Inexplicably Linked]] (after Bosch)
#Feynman's [[electron scattering diagram|Feynman's Diagram]]
#Galileo's [[phases of the Moon|Galileo's Moons]]
#Golgi's [[olfactory bulb|Olfactory Bulb in a Dog]]
#Gulliver's [[Lilliputian ear|Lilliputian Ear]]
#Haeckel's [[embryos|Haeckel's Embryos]] and [[tree of life|Arbol]]
#Herschel's [[map of the Milky Way|Map of the Milky Way]]
#Hillis's [[radial tree of life|You Are Here]]
#Hooke's [[flea|Of A Flea]]
#Hubble's [[NGC 5866]]
#Hurst's [[map of the blogosphere|Map of the Blogosphere]]
#Kepler's [[Ptolemaic diagram of the path of Mars|Martian Orbit]]
#Kircher's [[hearing aids|Kircher's Hearing Aids]] and [[web|Life Can Never Become Monotonous]]
#Kirk's [[Cochlea]]
#Landsat's [[vortex street|Vortex Street]]
#Lorenz's [[attractor|Lorenz Attractor]]
#Mandelbrot's [[set|Mandelbrot Set]]
#Mankind's [[first graph|First Graph]]
#Meryon's [[Le Stryge|Demon Emitter]]
#Mivart's [[fibres of Corti|Fibres of Corti]]
#Ramanujan's [[series|Ramanujan's Series for Pi]] for &pi;
#Ram&oacute;n y Cajal's [[cerebellar neuron|Cerebellar Purkinje Cell]]
#Snow's [[cholera map|Snow's Cholera Map]]
#Van Gogh's [[Starry Night]]
#da Vinci's [[study of eye and brain|Eye and Brain]]
#Young's [[wave interference diagram|Wave Interference]]
#[[Balloon Man]] -- Richard Shindell
#Excerpt from [[The Bear|Taintless and Incorruptible]] -- William Faulkner
#Excerpt from [[Childe Harold|To Mingle with the Universe]] -- Lord Byron
#Excerpt from [[The Dead|Falling Faintly Through the Universe]] -- James Joyce
#[[Death of a Naturalist]] -- Seamus Heaney
#[[For the Anniversary of My Death]] -- W. S. Merwin
#[[The Hidden Structure]]-- HCE
#[[The Jumblies]]-- Edward Lear
#[[The Last Snowfall]] -- Vienna Teng
#[[A Light Left On]] -- May Sarton
#[[Living]] -- Denise Levertov
#Excerpt from [[Little Gidding]] -- T. S. Eliot
#[[Long-Legged Fly]] -- William Butler Yeats
#[[Love After Love]] -- Derek Walcott
#[[Love the Wild Swan]] -- Robinson Jeffers
#[[Maybe All This]] -- Wislawa Szymborska
#Excerpt from [[Molly Bloom's soliloquy|The One True Thing He Said]] -- James Joyce
#[[Not Waving But Drowning]] -- Stevie Smith
#Excerpt from [[The Orchard Keeper|Softly, Faintly Sounding]] -- Cormac ~McCarthy
#Excerpt from [[The Origin of Species|Endless Forms Most Beautiful]] -- Charles Darwin
#[[Paradoxes and Oxymorons]] -- John Ashbery
#[[pity this busy monster, manunkind|pity this busy monster, manunkind]]  -- e.e. cummings
#[[Postscript]] -- Seamus Heaney
#[[The Search for Sound Free from Motion]] -- Wallace Stevens
#[[The Secret Sits]] -- Robert Frost
#[[Shoveling Snow with Buddha]] -- Billy Collins
#[[Silence]] -- Billy Collins
#[[Small Hands, Relinquish All]] -- Edna St. Vincent Millay
#[[The Snow Man]] -- Wallace Stevens
#[[Some Trees]] -- John Ashbery
#[[somewhere i have never traveled|somewhere i have never traveled]]''&hellip;''  -- e.e. cummings
#[[The Sun]] -- Mary Oliver
#[[The Starry Night]] -- Anne Sexton
#Excerpt from [[Suttree|Lightwire Shadows]] -- Cormac ~McCarthy
#[[Tea at the Palaz of Hoon]] -- Wallace Stevens
#[[The Three Goals]] -- David Budbill
#[[Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird]] -- Wallace Stevens
#Excerpt from [[Tintern Abbey]] -- William Wordsworth
#[[To Be of Use]] -- Marge Piercy
#[[Vulture]] -- Robinson Jeffers
#[[The Well Dressed Man with a Beard]] -- Wallace Stevens
#[[Wild Geese]] -- Mary Oliver
#[[Writing a Resume]] -- Wislawa Szymborska
#[[You Begin]] -- Margaret Atwood
#Arendt [[on education|On Education]]
#Borges [[on exactitude in science|On Exactitude in Science]]
#Brown [[on quietness|On Quietness]]
#Carroll [[on getting somewhere|Getting Somewhere]]
#Carroll [[on riding the wave|Riding the Wave]]
#Darwin [[on evolution|Endless Forms Most Beautiful]]
#Darwin [[on the soul of observation|On Observation]]
#Darwin [[on the tree of life|On the Tree of Life]]
#Dickens [[on solitary confinement|On Solitary Confinement]]
#Eliot [[on the other side of silence|The Roar]]
#Einstein [[on science|In the Song of Birds]]
#Faraday [[on wonder|How Wonderfully We Stand Upon This World]]
#Faulkner [[on time and history|In a Different Tone]]
#Feynman [[on time's arrow|The Way Toward the Future]]
#Fleck [[on the history of science|On Our Ties with the Past]]
#Fourier [[on dimensional analysis|On Dimensional Analysis]]
#Glass [[on creative work|Nobody Tells This to Beginners]]
#Hofmann [[on simplification|On Simplification]]
#James [[on being wise|On Being Wise]]
#Kafka [[on the room inside|Everyone Carries a Room]]
#Kepler [[on error|Our Path to the Truth]]
#Krishnamurti [[on solving problems|On Solving Problems]]
#Lakatos [[on falsification|On Falsification]]
#Marx [[on the criticism of religion|That Vale of Tears]]
#~McCarthy [[on the collapse of the wavefunction|On Measurement]]
#Mill [[on reification|Something Peculiarly Abstruse]]
#Murukami [[on perfection|On Perfection]]
#O'Keefe [[on realism|On Realism]]
#Perrin [[on seeing the stars|A Feeble Light]]
#Phillpotts on [[magical things|Waiting for Our Wits to Grow Sharper]]
#Proust [[on clarity|On Clarity]]
#Shakespeare [[on the divinity in music|On Divinity in Music]]
#Shawn [[on the fetishism of commodities|The Fetishism of Commodities]]
#Weinberg [[on the equations we play with at our desks|Our Mistake]]
#Wilde [[on truth|Pure and Simple]]
#Window [[on Pooh's universe|His Christophoric Ear]]
#Woolf [[on modeling|The Spiral is on Top]]
#Wittgenstein [[on conceptual confusion|A Picture Held Us Captive]]
#Wittgenstein [[on progress|On Progress]]
#Zweig's [[parable of the aces|And Why Does it Sing?]]
/%#Feynman [[on electron scattering|On Feynman's Diagram]]
#Young [[on wave interference|On Wave Interference]]%/
#''[[Earwicki HCE|http://web.mit.edu/apg/downloads/EarwickiHCE.html]]'': Earwicki's HTML Code Entire.
#''[[dePlot|http://web.mit.edu/apg/downloads/deplot.zip]]'': Matlab programs and GUI for digitizing data from scanned 2D plots.
#''[[explode|http://web.mit.edu/apg/downloads/explode.m]]'': Matlab function for assigning matrix columns to variables.
#''[[loessfit|http://web.mit.edu/apg/downloads/loessfit.zip]]'': Matlab functions for linear fitting and loess smoothing (see WS Cleveland, //Visualizing Data,// AT&T 1993). The package includes numerous enhancements, including support for estimation of confidence intervals (see also CA Shera & C Bergevin //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2012; 132:927&ndash;943).
#''[[plawscale|http://web.mit.edu/apg/downloads/plawscale.zip]]'': Matlab functions for creating linearly, logarithmically, and power-law spaced vectors.
#''[[recexp|http://web.mit.edu/apg/downloads/recexp.m]]'': Matlab function for generating recursive-exponential filters (see CA Shera & G Zweig, //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 1993; 93:3333&ndash;3352). The recexp filters are entire functions, with no poles or other analytic unpleasantness to contribute excessive ringing to the impulse response.
>When played at the right sound level, which is quite high and exciting, the tones in this music will cause your ears to act as neurophonic instruments that emit sounds that will seem to be issuing directly from your head … [my audiences] discover they are producing a tonal dimension of the music which interacts melodically, rhythmically, and spatially with the tones in the room. Tones dance in the immediate space of their body, around them like a sonic wrap, cascade inside ears, and out to space in front of their eyes … Do not be alarmed! Your ears are not behaving strange or being damaged! … these virtual tones are a natural and very real physical aspect of auditory perception, similar to the fusing of two images resulting in a third three dimensional image in binocular perception … I want to release this music which is produced by the listener … 
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Maryanne Amacher, //Sound Characters//
#Amacher [[on ear dances|Ear Dances]]
#Diderot [[on thought and resonance|On Thought and Resonance]]
#Delillo [[on the whole world right inside your body|Totally Forget the Ear]]
#Duchamp [[on (not) listening to the ear|On (Not) Listening to the Ear]]
#Ito's [[cochlear catastrophe|Spiral into Horror]]
#Joyce on [[musemathematics|Symmetry of a Peeled Pear]]
#Joyce on [[babies bawling|You Couldn't Hear Your Ear]]
#Mitchell [[on the listening noise|Listening Noise]]
#Mivart [[on the fibres of Corti|On the Fibres of Corti]]
#Mozart [[on hearing the whole|On Hearing the Whole]]
#Murakami [[on blocking your ears|Blocked Ears]]
#Phillips [[on listening|Enough]]
#Poe [[on hearing too well|How, then, am I mad?]]
#Proulx [[on the structure of the ear|A Hurricane Seen from a Cloud]]
#Serres [[on hearing in a world without people|Heard in a World Without People]]
#Serres [[on hearing and voice at once|I Am the Resonance and the Tone]]
#Shakespeare [[on where wonder lurketh|Where Wonder Lurketh]]
#Solzhenitsyn [[on auditory filters|Anything Too Far Out of Tune]]
#Stravinksy on [[listening to music|A Duck Hears Also]]
#Valliant [[on tiger ears|The Ears Are Her Steering Wheel]]
#The [[War of Jenkins' Ear]]
#White [[on mouse ears|Solemnly With a Flashlight]]
;Shera CA, Tubis A, Talmadge CL. Do forward and backward-traveling waves occur within the cochlea? Countering the critique of Nobili et al. //J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol.// 2004; 5:349&ndash;359. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-tubis-talmadge-waves-JARO04.pdf]]
*[[Published version|http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-tubis-talmadge-JARO04-BAD.pdf]] of //J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol.// 2004; 5:349&ndash;359 and its incomplete [[erratum|http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-tubis-talmadge-JARO04-erratum.pdf]]. Once again, //JARO// messed up the corrected proofs during final production. The errors they somehow introduced are so egregious that we recommend the [[ manuscript|http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-tubis-talmadge-waves-JARO04.pdf]] we typeset ourselves using [[LaTeX|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LaTeX]].
;Shera CA. Mammalian spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are amplitude-stabilized cochlear standing waves. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2003; 114:244&ndash;262. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-soaes-JASA03.pdf]]
*In footnote 7, the limit should read
:[<img[ |http://latex.codecogs.com/gif.latex?$\textbar$R_{\rm{stapes}}$\textbar$\to1\;.]]
<br>
;Oxenham AJ, Shera CA. Estimates of human cochlear tuning at low levels using forward  and simultaneous masking. //J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol.// 2003; 4:541&ndash;554. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/oxenham-shera-tuning-JARO03.pdf]]
*[[Erratum|http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/oxenham-shera-erratum-JARO03.pdf]] for Oxenham and Shera, //J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol.// 2003; 4:541&ndash;554. //JARO// garbled Table I in the final stages of production.
;Shera CA, Guinan JJ, Oxenham AJ. Revised estimates of human cochlear tuning from otoacoustic and behavioral measurements. //Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA// 2002; 99: 3318&ndash;3323.  [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-guinan-oxenham-tuning-PNAS02.pdf]]
*In the caption to Fig. 1, Glasberg and Moore's formula should read
:[<img[ |http://latex.codecogs.com/gif.latex?Q_{\rm ERB}({\rm CF}) = Q_\infty {\rm CF} / ({\rm CF} + {\rm CF}_{1/2})\;.]]
<br>
;Shera CA. Intensity-invariance of fine time structure in basilar-membrane click responses: Implications for cochlear mechanics.  //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.//  2001; 110:332&ndash;348. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-intensity-JASA01.pdf]]
*The word "obtained" in the first sentence of the abstract implies that the indirect measurements  referred to (e.g., cross-correlation functions measured using broadband noise) yield results that are entirely equivalent to click responses. This is misleading&mdash;although it would be true in a linear system, in the nonlinear cochlea it is only an approximation, albeit often a surprisingly good one (e.g., Recio et al. J Acoust Soc Am 1998 103:1972&ndash;1989; Temchin et al. J Neurophysiol 2005 93:3635&ndash;3648; ~Recio-Spinoso et al. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 2009 10:471&ndash;484).  Thus, rather than implying that click responses can be "obtained" using these indirect techniques, the text should read "estimated" or "approximated".
*George Zweig has pointed out that because the equations defining his 1991 model involve time-delayed feedback forces, the model does not satisfy the admissibility conditions for de Boer's ~EQ-NL theorem. Nevertheless, when applied to the model the theorem seems to work well in practice, albeit perhaps only approximately. How can this be? In a nutshell, I suspect that the reason boils down to the fact that the time delay is not necessary to reproduce the model's responses, at least to within the tolerances required by the goal of explaining the data. In practice, the active contribution to the model's responses are almost entirely determined by the form of the active impedance (//Z//~~a~~) in a fairly narrow range of &beta; (roughly, 0.7<&beta;<1.2). The form of //Z//~~a~~ outside that range is largely irrelevant (within reason, of course). In other words, although the time-delay model specifies the precise form of //Z//~~a~~ for all &beta;, the model's responses can be effectively simulated using other models, so long as their active impedances approximate the form of //Z//~~a~~ over the much smaller, relevant range of &beta;. For this, time delays are not strictly necessary (phase shifts are, but those can be done with filtering). Among the effectively infinite number of models that can simulate the responses of the time-delay model to the desired accuracy, there are presumably many that satisfy the ~EQ-NL admissibility conditions and many that do not. For practical purposes, however, the responses of the inadmissible models are indistinguishable from the admissible models, and hence the domain of practical validity of the ~EQ-NL theorem is wider than it might appear. (Practical validity is of course very different from mathematical validity, but the importance of this distinction can depend upon the goal.) To get an idea of how much the active impedance can depart from the assumed time-delay form while remaining in tolerable agreement with the data, one can look at Figs. 10 and 12 of Zweig's 1991 paper, which show the functions //m// (&beta;)&mdash;closely related to //Z//~~a~~&mdash;and the corresponding transfer functions //T// (&beta;) computed both for the empirical impedance and for the time-delay model. In practice, one sees that there is substantial leeway in choosing the form of //m// (&beta;), and that the data might be explained just as well, or perhaps even better, using an admissible model without time delays.
*Equation (7) should read
:[<img[ |http://latex.codecogs.com/gif.latex?Y_{\rm p}(\zeta) \propto {i \zeta \nu \over {(\zeta-\zeta_\times)(\zeta+{\zeta_\times}^*)}}\;.]]
<br>

;Zweig G, Shera CA. The origin of periodicity in the spectrum  of evoked otoacoustic emissions. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 1995; 98:2018&ndash;2047. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-zweig-origin-JASA95.pdf]]
*The label on the horizontal axis of the top panel in Fig. 12 should read
:[img[ |http://latex.codecogs.com/gif.latex?\chi-\widehat\chi\;.]]<br>
*Equation (B1) should read
:[<img[ |http://latex.codecogs.com/gif.latex?\left({P_{\rm ec}^- \atop  P^+}\right)=\left({r^+ \quad t^- \atop t^+ \quad r^-}\right)\left({P_{\rm ec}^+ \atop  P^-}\right)\;.]]
<br>

*Equation (B5) assumes that the Thevenin-equivalen source  reflectance of the ear-canal transducer assembly is zero, i.e., that
:[<img[ |http://latex.codecogs.com/gif.latex?R_{\rm s}=0\;.]]
<br>
;Shera CA, Zweig G. Reflection of retrograde waves within the cochlea and at the stapes. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 1991; 89:1290&ndash;1305. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-zweig-retrograde-JASA91.pdf]]
*Equation (18) is missing an overall minus sign. The equation should read
:[<img[ |http://latex.codecogs.com/gif.latex?P^{\cal B}_{-}(\chi) \approx- {\cal B}_{-} \int_\chi^\infty\!\!{\cal B}_{+}(\acute\chi) \, \sigma^{\cal B}_{+}(\acute\chi)\,  {\cal B}_{+}(\acute\chi)\, d\acute\chi~+~ O(\sigma^{\cal B} \sigma^{\cal B})\;.]]<br><br>
:

;Shera CA, Zweig G. Phenomenological characterization of eardrum transduction. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 1991; 90:253&ndash;262. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-zweig-eardrum-JASA91.pdf]]
*With respect to Eqs. (9) and (10) and the surrounding discussion, Mike Ravicz has pointed out that it is not the matrix elements //T~~ij~~// that must be causal but their reciprocals. The transfer matrix //T// expresses the //input// port variables of a two-port system as a linear combination of the //output// variables. As a result, the matrix elements have the form input/output (i.e., the inverse of a transfer function). Therefore, it is not the real and imaginary parts of the //T~~ij~~// that are Hilbert transform pairs, but the real and imaginary parts of  1/(//T~~ij~~//).
#[[Methods section|Methods]] of a recent paper.
#[[The Art of the Fugue: A Sirensong in Ulysses|http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-artofthefugue83.pdf]]. Rejected by the [[James Joyce Quarterly|http://www.utulsa.edu/jjq]], whose editors claimed not to understand the notation.
/%#Miscellaneous [[errata and other commentary|http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/earrata.pdf]].%/
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>It is interesting to contemplate an entangled bank, clothed with many plants of many kinds, with birds singing on the bushes, with various insects flitting about, and with worms crawling through the damp earth, and to reflect that these elaborately constructed forms, so different from each other, and dependent on each other in so complex a manner, have all been produced by laws acting around us&hellip;. /% These laws, taken in the largest sense, being Growth with Reproduction; inheritance which is almost implied by reproduction; Variability from the indirect and direct action of the external conditions of life, and from use and disuse; a Ratio of Increase so high as to lead to a Struggle for Life, and as a consequence to Natural Selection, entailing Divergence of Character and the Extinction of less-improved forms. %/ Thus, from the war of nature, from famine and death, the most exalted object which we are capable of conceiving, namely, the production of the higher animals, directly follows. There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Charles Darwin, from //The Origin of Species//
listen to the
sound of
the colour of a flower
It is enough
listen

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Tom Phillips, from //A Humument//
[img[Bat skeleton|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/batskeleton.jpg]]
> Everyone carries a room about inside them. This fact can even be proved by means of the sense of hearing. If someone walks fast and one pricks up one's ears and listens, say in the night, when everything round about is quiet, one hears, for instance, the rattling of a mirror not quite firmly fastened to the wall.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Franz Kafka, //The Blue Octavo Notebooks//
[img[Leonardo da Vinci c. 1492|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/davinci-eye.gif]]
A few light taps upon the pane made him turn to the window. It had begun to snow again. He watched sleepily the flakes, silver and dark, falling obliquely against the lamplight. The time had come for him to set out on his journey westward. Yes, the newspapers were right: snow was general all over Ireland. It was falling on every part of the dark central plain, on the treeless hills, falling softly upon the Bog of Allen and, farther westward, softly falling into the dark mutinous Shannon waves. It was falling, too, upon every part of the lonely churchyard on the hill where Michael Furey lay buried. It lay thickly drifted on the crooked crosses and headstones, on the spears of the little gate, on the barren thorns. His soul swooned slowly as he heard the snow falling faintly through the universe and faintly falling, like the descent of their last end, upon all the living and the dead.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- James Joyce, from "The Dead" in //Dubliners//
[[Sadism]]
[img[RP Feynman, Space-time approach to quantum electrodynamics, Phys. Rev. 1949; 76:769&ndash;789|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/FeynmanDiagram.jpg][On Feynman's Diagram]]
[img[Mivart, from On the Genesis of Species, 1871|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/MivartFibresofCorti.png][On the Fibres of Corti]]
[img[http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/images/PlanetGraph.png]]
A 10th century graph showing the positions of the sun, moon, and known planets versus time.
See Funkhouser HG. A note on a tenth century graph. //Osiris// 1936;1:260&ndash;262.
 	 Every year without knowing it I have passed the day
When the last fires will wave to me
And the silence will set out
Tireless traveller
Like the beam of a lightless star

Then I will no longer
Find myself in life as in a strange garment
Surprised at the earth
And the love of one woman
And the shamelessness of men
As today writing after three days of rain
Hearing the wren sing and the falling cease
And bowing not knowing to what

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- W. S. Merwin
[img[Galileo, 1610|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/GalileoMoons.jpg]]
>These are the days of miracle and wonder
>And don't cry baby, don't cry.
>Don't cry.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Paul Simon, "The Boy in the Bubble"

<<tabs txtFavourite
"Data" "Data" DownloadData
"Demos" "Demos" DownloadDemos
"Images" "Images" DownloadImages
"Software" "Software" DownloadSoftware
"Digital Library" "MoH Digital Library" MoHDL
"Poetry" "Poetry" DownloadPoetry
"Quotations" "Quotations" DownloadQuotations
"Earcetera" "Earcetera" Earcetera
>>
>"Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here?"
>"That depends a good deal on where you want to get to," said the Cat.
>"I don't much care where-- ' said Alice.
>"Then it doesn't matter which way you go," said the Cat.
>"-- so long as I get //somewhere//,' Alice added as an explanation.
>"Oh, you're sure to do that," said the Cat, "if only you walk long enough."
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Lewis Carroll, //Alice's Adventures in Wonderland//
''complect'' //tr. v.// To join by weaving or twining together; interweave. See [[About|The Auditory Physics Group]].

''Earwicker'' //n.// The surname of Humphrey Chimpden Earwicker, a character in James Joyce's //[[Finnegans Wake|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finnegans_Wake]]//.  Earwicker's initials (HCE) appear frequently in phrases throughout the book.

''Earwicki'' //n.// The website defining this word. [//Etym.// A portmanteau word formed by complecting //earwig//, //Earwicker//, and //[[Wiki|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wiki]]//.]

''earwig''  //n.// Any of various elongate insects of the order [[Dermaptera|http://www.tolweb.org/Dermaptera]], having pincerlike appendages protruding from the rear of the abdomen. Named for the now discredited notion that [[the creature|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earwig]] penetrates the brain by tunneling in through the ear. &mdash;//tr. v.// To attempt to influence by insinuation or subterfuge. &mdash;//intr. v.// To study sensory perception (esp. the auditory system) by following the information as it flows from bottom up and outside in, recirculating along the riverrun while whirling round the [[Homuncular Conciousness of Everything|The Secret Sits]].
''Samiya Alkhairy'' 
A MIT graduate student in [[Speech and Hearing Biosciences and Technology|http://web.mit.edu/shbt/]], Samiya is using cochlear models to study the role of the tectorial membrane in cochlear tuning and wave amplification.

[img[Stefan Raufer|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/Stefan_Raufer.png]]
''Stefan Raufer'' 
Stefan recently completed his Masters degree at Carl von Ossietzky University in Oldenburg, where he worked with Sarah Verhulst developing new ways of measuring cochlear frequency selectivity using otoacoustic emissions. He is now a Harvard graduate student in the [[Speech and Hearing Biosciences and Technology|http://www.hms.harvard.edu/dms/shbt/]] Program.
B.A. in Physics, //summa cum laude,// Haverford College
Ph.D. in Physics (minor in Neurobiology), California Institute of Technology
Irving M. London Teaching Award, ~Harvard-MIT, 2007
Fellow, Acoustical Society of America, 2001
ARO 25th-Anniversary Design Contest Winner, 1998
National Insitutes of Health Individual NRSA Postdoctoral Fellow, 1994&ndash;1997
National Science Foundation Graduate Fellow, 1984&ndash;1987
Phi Beta Kappa, 1982
U.S. Presidential Scholar, 1979
Acoustical Society of America
American Association for the Advancement of Science
American Auditory Society
American Physical Society
Association for Research in Otolaryngology
History of Science Society
Professor of Otology & Laryngology and Health Sciences & Technology
Harvard Medical School
[img[Ernst Haeckel, 1874|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/HaeckelEmbryos.jpg]]
[img[Christopher Shera|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/ChristopherShera.jpg]]
As Head Chief Earwigger, Christopher Shera maintains this website when distracted from the study of hair-cell epithelia, human cochlear echoes, and other hellegantly conspiralling earnigmas. When not thinking about ears, he terrorizes domestic cats by attempting to play the cello.

<<tabs txtFavourite
"Position" "Academic position" HCEPosition
"Education" "Education" HCEEducation
"Honors" "Honors" HCEHonors
"Memberships" "Memberships" HCEMemberships
"Pentateuch" "Pentateuch" "Pentateuch"
>>
>What transmits of its own accord when no demons interfere? What can be heard in a world without people? The turbulence in its purest form, the flow of particles, the collision of individuals randomly dispersed in time, the steaming of the cloud due to the space-charge effect. Who converses inside this cloud? Strictly speaking, no one: though most certainly the object, the thing itself, the world. It speaks, as we say, yet here the third person retains the clear meaning that it had never lost: the accumulation of objects that form the universe; the interobjectivity as such.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Michel Serres, //Hermès II : L'interférence//, 1972 (trans. Michael Bischoff)
The tabs below show current and former group members. Colleagues with past or ongoing published collaborations are also listed.
<<tabs txtFavourite
"Current" "Current members" Current
"Alumni" "Alumni/ae" Alumni
"Collaborators" "Collaborators" Collaborators
>>
>The fatal mistake that has been made by every previous Poohologist is the confusion of Milne the writer with Milne the narrator, and of Christopher Robin the listener with Christopher Robin the character. These are not two personages but four, and no elementary understanding of Pooh is possible without this realization. We must designate, then, the Milne within the story as "the Milnean voice," and we must call the Christopher Robin who listens "the Christophoric ear." With these distinctions in mind, Pooh begins to make perfect sense for the first time. The real A. A. Milne is writing a book in which he, translated into the Milnean voice, is to narrate stories for the edification and amusement of his son, or rather of his son-in-the-role-of-listener, the Christophoric ear. These stories will have to do with various characters, among whom will be "Christopher Robin"&mdash;not Milne's actual son, nor yet the Christophoric ear, but a character whose features and actions are determined by what Milne wants the Milnean voice to decide will be best for the Christophoric ear to emulate. Or, to be even more precise, this character, Christopher Robin, will be treated partly in a manner meant to edify the Christophoric ear, and partly in a manner demanded by that ear in order to flatter its own egoistic conception of itself. This simple notion, like Einstein's E=mc^^2^^ (though perhaps less important, of course), contains the fundamental law governing Pooh's fictional universe.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Harvey C. Window (Frederick Crews), //The Pooh Perplex//
>Let us now consider, for a little while, how wonderfully we stand upon this world. Here it is we are born, bred, and live, and yet we view these things with an almost entire absence of wonder to ourselves respecting the way in which all this happens. So small, indeed, is our wonder, that we are never taken by surprise; and I do think that, to a young person of ten, fifteen, or twenty years of age, perhaps the first sight of a cataract or a mountain would occasion him more surprise than he had ever felt concerning the means of his own existence -- how he came here; how he lives; by what means he stands upright; and through what means he moves about from place to place. Hence, we come into this world, we live, and depart from it, without our thoughts being called specifically to consider how all this takes place; and were it not for the exertions of some few inquiring minds, who have looked //into// these things, and ascertained the very beautiful laws and conditions by which we //do// live and stand upon the earth, we should hardly be aware that there was any thing wonderful in it.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Michael Faraday, from //Lectures on the Forces of Matter,// 1859
>True!&mdash;nervous&mdash;very, very dreadfully nervous I had been and am; but why //will//  you say that I am mad? The disease had sharpened my senses&mdash;not destroyed&mdash;not dulled them. Above all was the sense of hearing acute. I heard all things in the heaven and in the earth. I heard many things in hell. 
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Edgar Allan Poe, "The ~Tell-Tale Heart", 1843
>At the beginning, the whole body or organism raises up a sculpture or statue of tense skin, vibrating amid voluminous sound, open-closed like a box (or drum), capturing that by which it is captured. We hear by means of the skin and the feet. We hear with the cranial box, the abdomen and the thorax. We hear by means of the muscles, nerves, and tendons. Our body-box, stretched with strings, veils itself within a global tympanum. We live amid sounds and cries, amid waves rather than spaces the organism moulds and indents itself…I am a house of sound, hearing and voice at once, black box and sounding-board, hammer and anvil, a grotto of echoes, a musicassette, the ear’s pavilion, a question mark, wandering in the space of messages filled or stripped of sense.…I am the resonance and the tone, I am altogether the mingling of the tone and its resonance.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Michel Serres, //Les Cinq Sens//, 1998
>Maybe nothing ever happens once and is finished.  Maybe happen is never once but like ripples maybe on water after the pebble sinks, the ripples moving on, spreading, the pool attached by a narrow umbilical water-cord to the next pool which the first pool feeds, has fed, did feed, let this second pool contain a different temperature of water, a different molecularity of having seen, felt, remembered, reflect in a different tone the infinite unchanging sky, it doesn’t matter: that pebble's watery echo whose fall it did not even see moves across its surface too at the original ripple-space, to the old ineradicable rhythm.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- William Faulkner, //Absalom, Absalom!//
>The essence lies ... in a sort of intoxicated joy and amazement at the beauty and grandeur of this world, of which man can just form a faint notion.  It is the feeling from which true scientific research draws its spiritual essence, but which also seems to find expression in the song of birds.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Albert Einstein
[img[M.C. Escher, 1935 (Hell, after Heironymus Bosch, The Garden of Earthly Delights, c. 1504)|images/escher-bosch.jpg]]

[[Sadism]] and [[farce|Farce]] are always [[inexplicably linked|Inexplicably Linked]].

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Alexander Theroux, //Master Snickup's Cloak//
[img[Max Brodel|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/brodel-inner-ear.jpg]]
[img[Athanasius Kircher, Phonurgia nova, 1673|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/kircher-tubus-cochleatus.png]]
[img[Athanasius Kircher, Phonurgia nova, 1673|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/kircher-acoustic.png]]
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[img[Athanasius Kircher|http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/images/kircher-web.png]]
Dear friend now in the dusty clockless hours of the town when streets lie black and steaming in the wake of the watertrucks and now when the drunk and the homeless have washed up in the lee of walls in alleys or abandoned lots and cats go forth highshouldered and lean in the grim perimeters about, now in these sootblacked brick or cobbled corridors where lightwire shadows make a gothic harp of cellar doors no soul shall walk save you.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Cormac ~McCarthy, //Suttree//
[img[Lemuel Gulliver, c1726|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/gulliver-lilliputian.png][On the Lilliputian Ear]]
>When people listen they make a listening noise. I'd heard //it//, so they'd heard //me//.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- David Mitchell, //Black Swan Green//
We shall not cease from exploration
 And the end of all our exploring
Will be to arrive where we started
And know the place for the first time.
Through the unknown, remembered gate
When the last of earth left to discover
Is that which was the beginning;
At the source of the longest river
The voice of the hidden waterfall
And the children in the apple-tree
Not known, because not looked for
But heard, half heard, in the stillness
Between the two waves of the sea.
Quick now, here, now, always--
A condition of complete simplicity
(Costing not less than everything)
And all shall be well and
All manner of things shall be well
When the tongues of flame are in-folded
Into the crowned knot of fire
And the fire and the rose are one.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- T. S. Eliot, from "Little Gidding", //Four Quartets//
The fire in leaf and grass
so green it seems
each summer the last summer.

The wind blowing, the leaves
shivering in the sun,
each day the last day.

A red salamander
so cold and so
easy to catch, dreamily

moves his delicate feet
and long tail. I hold
my hand open for him to go.

Each minute the last minute.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Denise Levertov
That civilization may not sink,
Its great battle lost,
Quiet the dog, tether the pony
To a distant post;
Our master Caesar is in the tent
Where the maps are spread,
His eyes fixed upon nothing,
A hand upon his head.

Like a long-legged fly upon the stream
His mind moves upon silence.

That the topless towers be burnt
And men recall that face,
Move most gently if move you must
In this lonely place.
She thinks, part woman, three parts a child,
That nobody looks; her feet
Practice a tinker shuffle
Picked up on a street.

Like a long-legged fly upon the stream
Her mind moves upon silence.

That girls at puberty may find
The first Adam in their thought,
Shut the door of the Pope's chapel,
Keep those children out.
There on that scaffolding reclines
Michael Angelo.
With no more sound than the mice make
His hand moves to and fro.

Like a long-legged fly upon the stream
His mind moves upon silence.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- William Butler Yeats
[img[Lorenz Attractor|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/Lorenz.png]]
The time will come
when, with elation
you will greet yourself arriving
at your own door, in your own mirror
and each will smile at the other's welcome,

and say, sit here. Eat.
You will love again the stranger who was your self.
Give wine. Give bread. Give back your heart
to itself, to the stranger who has loved you

all your life, whom you ignored
for another, who knows you by heart.
Take down the love letters from the bookshelf,

the photographs, the desperate notes,
peel your own image from the mirror.
Sit. Feast on your life.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Derek Walcott
"I hate my verses, every line, every word.
Oh pale and brittle pencils ever to try
One grass-blade's curve, or the throat of one bird
That clings to twig, ruffled against white sky.
Oh cracked and twilight mirrors ever to catch
One color, one glinting flash, of the splendor of things.
Unlucky hunter, Oh bullets of wax,
The lion beauty, the wild-swan wings, the storm of the wings."
-- This wild swan of a world is no hunter's game.
Better bullets than yours would miss the white breast
Better mirrors than yours would crack in the flame.
Does it matter whether you hate your &hellip; self? At least
Love your eyes that can see, your mind that can
Hear the music, the thunder of the wings. Love the wild swan.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Robinson Jeffers
[[About|The Auditory Physics Group]]
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[[People|Here Comes Everybody]]
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[[About this site|About This Site]]

[img[Cat|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/leftcat.jpg][Auditory Physics Group]]
[img[Mandelbrot set image by Paul Bourke|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/mandelbrotset.gif]]
[img[Matthew Hurst|http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/images/blogosphere.png][http://datamining.typepad.com]]
[img[William and Caroline Herschel, 1785|http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/images/Herschel1785.jpg]]
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[img[Ptolemaic prediction for the orbit of Mars from 1580-1596, Johannes Kepler 1609|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/kepler2.jpg]]
Maybe all this
is happening in some lab?
Under one lamp by day
and billions by night?

Maybe we’re experimental generations?
Poured from one vial to the next,
shaken in test tubes,
not scrutinized by eyes alone,
each of us separately
plucked up by tweezers in the end?

Or maybe it’s more like this:
No interference?
The changes occur on their own
according to plan?
The graph’s needle slowly etches
its predictable zigzags?

Maybe thus far we aren’t of much interest?
The control monitors aren’t usually plugged in?
Only for wars, preferably large ones,
for the odd ascent above our clump of Earth,
for major migrations from point A to B?

Maybe just the opposite:
They’ve got a taste for trivia up there?
Look! on the big screen a little girl
is sewing a button on her sleeve.
The radar shrieks,
the staff comes at a run.
What a darling little being
with its tiny heart beating inside it!
How sweet, its solemn
threading of the needle!
Someone cries enraptured:
Get the Boss,
tell him he’s got to see this for himself!

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Wislawa Szymborska
''Human subjects:'' After the adoption of universal precautions, no additional graduate students were harmed during the preparation of this article. Records concerning the mishap with the undergraduate intern (microwave, ball lightning) remain sealed pending litigation.

''Theoretical and data analysis:'' Conceptual progress began fitfully but eventually came to resemble a random walk. Cortical synapses in the first author (principally layer IV) were unfixed in vivo using caffeinated solutions (Peet's House Blend, #5 grind, 3T in a French press; initial dose of 5 ml/kg with hourly boosters). After habituation, visual stimuli were actively sought online, but downloads were usually blocked by closed-minded IT professionals (~WebSense). To minimize seepage, hydrostatic pressure was relieved periodically with the aid of stereotaxic restraints, usually in room 442. Although the author's cognitive performance rapidly plateaued with practice at a level slightly below chance, illusory insights were transiently up-regulated during leisurely strolls in the hallway followed by serial napping. During periods of peak productivity, initially promising ideas were discarded at a rate greatly exceeding their invention. Pro-forma consultation with colleagues was done remotely via Facebook and entirely in the passive voice. Despite funding cuts, progress appeared satisfactory when expressed in Planck units. During the first year of the study, exploratory data analysis revealed that the rows and columns had been interchanged; we maintain this convention for reasons of precedent and plot the data accordingly. As grant submission deadlines approached, data were alternately manipulated, massaged, caressed, cajoled, tweaked, fudged, renormalized, transformed to dB, and fit with double exponentials. Replotting the data using large circular symbols rather than tiny triangles improved the quality of the fits significantly (//p//<0.001, verified by bootstrap resampling). Multiplication by the additive identity following sporadic bouts of blind deconvolution was found to reduce the data to a universal curve while equalizing the variance. Behavioral results agreed with predictions obtained by numerically integrating the ~Navier-Stokes equations using an Excel spreadsheet purchased on eBay.

''Manuscript preparation:'' Initial attempts to automate the composition were abandoned after noting that drawing with replacement from the //Oxford Dictionary of Science// failed to produce adequate hype or consistently correct punctuation, especially for clauses involving the semicolon. Sentences were subsequently composed manually by rhythmic extension of the phalanges over a qwerty keyboard (Dell Multimedia Enhanced). Empirical validation of the recurrence theorem (Poincare 1890) was obtained via repeated returns to the initial state facilitated by the Delete key. Supposedly gratuitous padding of the text using pretentious Latin phrases was discouraged by nagging coauthors and decisively squelched by auto-correct software.

''Funding disclosure:'' In accordance with established protocols (IRS 1040), the authors and their institutions were funded by tax dollars diverted from the war effort (R01 ~DC003687). In return for their unwitting support, the public will receive complementary access to the paper through ~PubMed Central beginning one year after the study is first discredited.

''Note added in proof:'' Contrary to Editorial suggestion, the first sentence of the Introduction ("The thousand injuries of Fortunato I had borne as I best could; but when he ventured upon insult, I vowed revenge.") is not, in fact, a veiled threat to Reviewer #2. The paper mentions neither the Reviewer's extended family nor the whereabouts of his dog. The authors regret both the appearance of uncollegiality and the uncited use of previously published material.
[img[MoHDL|http://mechanicsofhearing.org/mohdl/rods_of_corti2x.png][http://mechanicsofhearing.org/mohdl.html]]
The ''Mechanics of Hearing Digital Library'' (~MoHDL) maintains a collection of hard-to-find items relevant to auditory mechanics.  Available to the hearing-science community for scholarly and educational purposes, the library can be accessed by clicking on the image above.
{{imgfloatright{[img[Galileo|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/galileos.jpg]]}}}''Modeling Issues in Speech and Hearing'' ([[HST750|http://bit.ly/qDp0lf]])
>This is often the way it is .... Our mistake is not that we take our theories too seriously, but that we do not take them seriously enough.
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; -- Steven Weinberg

This course explores the theory and practice of scientific modeling in the context of auditory and speech biophysics. Based on seminar-style discussions of the research literature, the class draws on examples from hearing and speech, and explores general, meta-theoretical issues that transcend the particular subject matter. Examples include: What is a model? What is the process of model building? What are the different approaches to modeling? What is the relationship between theory and experiment? How are models tested? What constitutes a good model?

''Instructors:''
*Christopher Shera
*Jennifer Melcher

''Assistant Instructors Emeriti:''
*Susan Voss
*Domenica Karavitaki
*Christopher Bergevin
*Radha Kalluri
[img[Hubble Space Telescope, 2005|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/NGC5866.jpg][On NGC 5866]]
<<tabs txtFavourite
"Waxing" "Upcoming" "Upcoming Events"
"Waning" "Event archive" "Past Events"
>>
>Nobody tells this to people who are beginners, I wish someone told me. All of us who do creative work, we get into it because we have good taste. But there is this gap. For the first couple years you make stuff, it’s just not that good. It’s trying to be good, it has potential, but it’s not. But your taste, the thing that got you into the game, is still killer. And your taste is why your work disappoints you. A lot of people never get past this phase, they quit. Most people I know who do interesting, creative work went through years of this. We know our work doesn’t have this special thing that we want it to have. We all go through this. And if you are just starting out or you are still in this phase, you gotta know its normal and the most important thing you can do is do a lot of work. Put yourself on a deadline so that every week you will finish one story. It is only by going through a volume of work that you will close that gap, and your work will be as good as your ambitions. And I took longer to figure out how to do this than anyone I’ve ever met. It’s gonna take awhile. It’s normal to take awhile. You’ve just gotta fight your way through.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Ira Glass
Nobody heard him, the dead man,
But still he lay moaning:
I was much further out than you thought
And not waving but drowning.

Poor chap, he always loved larking
And now he's dead
It must have been too cold for him his heart gave way,
They said.

Oh, no no no, it was too cold always
(Still the dead one lay moaning)
I was much too far out all my life
And not waving but drowning.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Stevie Smith
[img[Robert Hooke, Micrographia, 1665|http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/images/HookeFlea.png]]
[img[Guichard Joseph Duverney, Traite de l'organe de l'ouie, 1731, Plate I|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/DuverneyI.jpg]]

[img[Duverney, 1731, Plate V|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/DuverneyV.jpg]]

[img[JDuverney, 1731, Plate X|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/DuverneyX.jpg]]
[img[Camilo Golgi, 1875|http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/images/Golgi-OlfactoryBulbs.jpg]]
>One can look at [see] seeing; 
>one cannot hear hearing.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Marcel Duchamp, from the //Box of 1914//
>The art of being wise is the art of knowing what to overlook.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- William James 
>Everyone calls 'clear' those ideas which have the same degree of confusion as their own.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Marcel Proust, //À l'ombre des jeunes filles en fleurs,// 1918
>It must now be remarked that every undetermined magnitude or constant has one //dimension// proper to itself, and that the terms of one and the same equation could not be compared, if they had not the same //exponent of dimension//. We have introduced this consideration into the theory of heat, in order to make our definitions more exact, and to serve to verify the analysis; it is derived from primary notions on quantities; for which reason, in geometry and mechanics, it is the equivalent of the fundamental lemmas which the Greeks have left us without proof.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Joseph Fourier, from //Th&eacute;orie Analytique de la Chaleur,// 1822
>Is it not strange that sheep's guts should hale souls out of men's bodies?
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- William Shakespeare, //Much Ado about Nothing//
>Education is the point at which we decide whether we love the world enough to assume responsibility for it and by the same token save it from that ruin which, except for renewal, except for the coming of the new and young, would be inevitable. And education, too, is where we decide whether we love our children enough not to expel them from our world and leave them to their own devices, nor to strike from their hands their chance of undertaking something unforeseen by us, but to prepare them in advance for the task of renewing a common world.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Hannah Arendt, //The Crisis in Education//
>In that Empire, the Art of Cartography attained such Perfection that the map of a single Province occupied the entirety of a City, and the map of the Empire, the entirety of a Province. In time, those Unconscionable Maps no longer satisfied, and the Cartographers Guilds struck a Map of the Empire whose size was that of the Empire, and which coincided point for point with it. The following Generations, who were not so fond of the Study of Cartography as their Forebears had been, saw that that vast Map was Useless, and not without some Pitilessness was it, that they delivered it up to the Inclemencies of Sun and Winters. In the Deserts of the West, still today, there are Tattered Ruins of that Map, inhabited by Animals and Beggars; in all the Land there is no other Relic of the Disciplines of Geography.
>&emsp;&emsp;&emsp;&emsp;-- Su&aacute;rez Miranda, //Viajes de varones prudentes,// Libro IV, Cap. XLV, L&eacute;rida, 1658
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Jorge Luis Borges and Adolfo Bioy Casares

>No experiment, experimental report, observation statement, or well-corroborated low-level falsifying hypothesis alone can lead to falsification. There is no falsification before the emergence of a better theory.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Imre Lakatos, from //Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge//, 1970
>We shall now interpret [&thinsp;[[the diagram|Feynman's Diagram]]&thinsp;] in a manner which will permit us to write down the higher order terms.  It can be understood ... as saying that the amplitude for &ldquo;//a//&rdquo; to go from 1 to 3 and &ldquo;//b//&rdquo; to go from 2 to 4 is altered to first order because they can exchange a quantum.  Thus, &ldquo;//a//&rdquo; can go to 5 (amplitude (//K//~~+~~(5,1)), emit a quantum (longitudinal, transverse, or scalar //&gamma;~~a&mu;~~//), and then proceed to 3 ((//K//~~+~~(3,5)). Meantime &ldquo;//b//&rdquo; goes to 6 ((//K//~~+~~(6,2)), absorbs the quantum (//&gamma;~~b&mu;~~//), and proceeds to 4 ((//K//~~+~~(4,6)). The quantum meanwhile proceeds from 5 to 6, which it does with amplitude //&delta;//(//s//~~56~~^^2^^). We must sum over all the possible quantum polarizations //&mu;// and positions and times of emission 5, and of absorption 6. Actually, if //t//~~5~~&gt;//t//~~6~~ it would be better to say that &ldquo;//a//&rdquo; absorbs and &ldquo;//b//&rdquo; emits, but no attention need be paid to these matters, as all such alternatives are automatically contained in [the summation].
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Richard  Feynman, Space-time approach to quantum electrodynamics, 1949
>I can embrace the whole all at once like a painting or a statue. In my imagination, I do not hear the work as it unfolds, as it must play out, but I hold it all as one block so to speak ... and when I succeed in thus 'super-hearing' the entire assembly, it is the best moment.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
>For each event is revealed to us only at the surrender of every alternate course.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Cormac ~McCarthy, from //Cities of the Plain//
Hubble ACS image of the disk galaxy NGC 5866 tilted nearly edge-on to our line of sight. A crisp dust lane divides the galaxy into two halves. NGC 5866 lies in the Northern constellation Draco, at a distance of 44 million light-years. Its diameter is roughly 60,000 light-years, two-thirds the diameter of the Milky Way. The image highlights the galaxy's structure: a subtle, reddish bulge surrounding a bright nucleus, a blue disk of stars running parallel to the dust lane, and a transparent outer halo.  Faint, wispy trails of dust can be seen meandering away from the disk of the galaxy out into the bulge and inner halo of the galaxy. The outer halo is dotted with numerous gravitationally bound clusters of nearly a million stars each, known as globular clusters. Background galaxies that are millions to billions of light-years farther away than NGC 5866 are also seen through the halo. (Adapted from HST news release ~STScI-2006-24.)
>How profoundly ignorant B. must be of the very soul of observation! About thirty years ago there was much talk that geologists ought only to observe and not theorise; and I well remember someone saying that at this rate a man might as well go into a gravel-pit and count the pebbles and describe the colours. How odd it is that anyone should not see that all observation must be for or against some view if it is to be of any service!
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Charles Darwin, Letter to Henry Fawcett, 18 Sept 1861
>Furthermore, whether we like it or not, we can never sever our links with the past, complete with all its errors. It survives in accepted concepts, in the presentation of problems, in the syllabus of formal education, in everyday life, as well as in language and institutions. Concepts are not spontaneously created but are determined by their "ancestors." That which has occurred in the past is a greater cause of insecurity&mdash;rather, it only //becomes// a cause of insecurity&mdash;when our ties with it remain unconscious and unknown.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Ludwik Fleck, from //Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact//
>A certain type of perfection can only be realized through a limitless accumulation of the imperfect.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Haruki Murakami, //Kafka on the Shore//
>If people never did silly things, nothing intelligent would ever get done. 
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Ludwig Wittgenstein
>In this modern world where activity is stressed almost to the point of mania, quietness as a childhood need is too often overlooked. Yet a child's need for quietness is the same today as it has always been&mdash;it may even be greater&mdash;for quietness is an essential part of all awareness. In quiet times and sleepy times a child can dwell in thoughts of his own, and in songs and stories of his own.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Margaret Wise Brown
>Nothing is less real than realism. Details are confusing. It is only by selection, by elimination, by emphasis that we get at the real meaning of things.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Georgia O'Keefe
>The ability to simplify means to eliminate the unnecessary so that the necessary may speak.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Hans Hofmann
>I hold this slow and daily tampering with the mysteries of the brain, to be immeasurably worse than any torture of the body: and because its ghastly signs and tokens are not so palpable to the eye and sense of touch as scars upon the flesh; because its wounds are not upon the surface, and it extorts few cries that human ears can hear; therefore the more I denounce it, as a secret punishment which slumbering humanity is not roused up to stay.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Charles Dickens, from //American Notes,// 1842
>If we can really understand the problem, the answer will come out of it, because the answer is not separate from the problem.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Jiddu Krishnamurti
>Very dangerous things, theories.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Dorothy L. Sayers, //The Unpleasantness at the Bellona Club//
>A sensitive vibrating string oscillates and resonates a long time after one has plucked it. It is this oscillation, this sort of inevitable resonance, which holds the present object, while our understanding is busy with the quality which is appropriate to it. But vibrating strings have yet another property&mdash;it's one that makes other strings quiver. And thus the first idea recalls a second, and these two a third, then all three a fourth, and so it goes, without our being able to set a limit to the ideas which are aroused and linked in a philosopher who meditates or who listens to himself in silence and darkness. 
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Denis Diderot, //A Conversation between d'Alembert and Diderot//, 1769
>Supposing the light of any given colour to consist of undulations of a given breadth, or of a given frequency, it follows that these undulations must be liable to those effects which we have already examined in the case of the waves of water and the pulses of sound. It has been shown that two equal series of waves, proceeding from centres near each other, may be seen to destroy each other's effects at certain points, and at other points to redouble them; and the beating of two sounds has been explained from a similar interference. We are now to apply the same principles to the alternate union and extinction of colours. ([[Plate XX. Fig. 267.|Wave Interference]])
> [<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]]In order that the effects of two portions of light may be thus combined, it is necessary that they be derived from the same origin, and that they arrive at the same point by different paths, in directions not much deviating from each other. This deviation may be produced in one or both of the portions by diffraction, by reflection, by refraction, or by any of these effects combined; but the simplest case appears to be, when a beam of homogeneous light falls on a screen in which there are two very small holes or slits, which may be considered as centres of divergence, from whence the light is diffracted in every direction. In this case, when the two newly formed beams are received on a surface placed so as to intercept them, their light is divided by dark stripes into portions nearly equal, but becoming wider as the surface is more remote from the apertures, so as to subtend very nearly equal angles from the apertures at all distances, and wider also in the same proportion as the apertures are closer to each other. The middle of the two portions is always light, and the bright stripes on each side are at such distances, that the light coming to them from one of the apertures, must have passed through a longer space than that which comes from the other, by an interval which is equal to the breadth of one, two, three, or more of the supposed undulations, while the intervening dark spaces correspond to a difference of half a supposed undulation, of one and a half, of two and a half, or more.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Thomas Young, "On the Nature of Light and Colours," from //Course of Lectures,// 1845
>As to the ear, it would take up too much space to describe its internal structure; it must suffice to say that in its interior there is an immense series of minute rod-like bodies, termed [[fibres of Corti|Fibres of Corti]], having the appearance of a key-board, and each fibre being connected with a filament of the auditory nerve, these nerves being like strings to be struck by the keys, i.e. by the fibres of Corti. Moreover, this apparatus is supposed to be a key-board in function as well as in appearance, the vibration of each one fibre giving rise, it is believed, to the sensation of one particular tone, and combinations of such vibrations producing chords. It is by the action of this complex organ then, that all the wonderful intricacy and beauty of Beethoven and Mozart come, most probably, to be perceived and appreciated.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- George Jackson Mivart, from //On the Genesis of Species,// 1871
{{imgfloatright{[img[Title page of the 1726 first edition and a flattering portrait of Capt. Lemuel Gulliver|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/GulliversTravels.png]]}}}A striking example of island dwarfism was reported in 1726 by surgeon and Capt. Lemuel Gulliver in his //Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World//. On the island of Lilliput northwest of Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania), Gulliver chanced upon an extant population of hominins apparently identical to 18th-century Europeans in every respect except stature: the tallest spanned a mere 6 inches head to foot.  Historians today regard the //Travels'// descriptions of a technologically advanced  Lilliputian civilization as exaggerated, even largely fictitious.  Most suspect that Gulliver's account is more sly commentary on European society than objective anthropological treatise.  The modern scholarly consensus followed hard on the 1973 discovery of Gulliver's private notebooks, notebooks whose true authorship Gulliver evidently took pains to conceal by inscribing every third page with the florid signature of an apparently apocryphal apothecary, Dr. A.B.C.J. Less, Cambridge. Tellingly, the ~Gulliver-Less notebooks reveal a Lilliputian society considerably at odds with the sunny portrait painted in the popular travelogue.  Indeed, ~Gulliver-Less describes the Lilliputians not as diminutive aristocrats flourishing in an affluent island kingdom but as scrappy nocturnal creatures reduced to feeding on uncooked crickets. 

{{imgfloatright{[img[The Gulliver-Less marginal diagram, c1726|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/lilliputian-circuit.png]]}}}~Gulliver-Less reports that Lilliputians successfully stalked their chirping prey even on moonless nights by tracking the crickets' mating calls. According to his double-blind (i.e., night-time) observations, peckish Lilliputians could reliably detect angular cricket movements amounting to only 1&ndash;2 degrees azimuth downwind. ~Gulliver-Less conjectured that the Lilliputians'  impressive sound-localization abilities were made possible by a remarkable adaptation in the Lilliputian ear, an adaptation documented in one of the notebook's many fascinating anatomical drawings.  (At one point during the island visit, Gulliver put his surgical skills to the test by meticulously dissecting a Lilliputian family.) Although Lilliputian anatomy appears conventionally hominid in most respects, the drawings reveal an [[unusual peripheral auditory system|Lilliputian Ear]].  The two membrana tympani appear nearly flush with the sides of the skull and are located at opposite ends of a narrow, air-filled internal auditory meatus that runs completely through the head. Firmly attached to each membrane is a bony columella.  The two columellae are joined near the mid-line via an elastic inter-columellar joint.  Adjacent the illustration of the Lilliputian ear, in a margin almost too small to contain it, appears the unlabeled drawing reproduced above. Physiological acousticians conjecture that the diagram represents an acoustico-mechanical equivalent circuit for the Lilliputian ear.
>As buds give rise by growth to fresh buds, and these, if vigorous, branch out and overtop on all sides many a feebler branch, so by generation I believe it has been with the great Tree of Life, which fills with its dead and broken branches the crust of the earth, and covers the surface with its ever-branching and beautiful ramifications.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Charles Darwin, from //The Origin of Species//
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>This is often the way it is .... Our mistake is not that we take our theories too seriously, but that we do not take them seriously enough. /%It is always hard to realize that these numbers and equations we play with at our desks have something to do with the real world.%/
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Steven Weinberg, //The First Three Minutes//
>But, my good man, if I were concerned with results, I could have avoided all this work, being content with the vicarious hypothesis. Be it known, therefore, that these errors are going to be our path to the truth.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Johannes Kepler, //Astronomia Nova//, Chapter 49
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#Rasetshwane DM, Neely ST, Allen JB, Shera CA. Reflectance of acoustic horns and solution of the inverse problem. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2012; 131:1863&ndash;1873. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/Rasetshwane-Neely-Allen-Shera-JASA2012.pdf]]
#Voss SE, Rosowski JJ, Shera CA, Peake WT.  Acoustic mechanisms that determine ear-canal sound pressures generated by earphones.  //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2000; 107:1548&ndash;1565. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/voss-etal-earphones-JASA00.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Abdala C. Otoacoustic emissions: Mechanisms and applications. In: Tremblay KL, Burkard RF, eds. //Translational Perspectives in Auditory Neurocience. Hearing Across the Lifespan&mdash;Assessment and Disorders.// San Diego: Plural Publishing, 2012; 123&ndash;159. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/Shera-Abdala-OAEChapter2012.pdf]]
#Voss SE, Adegoke MF, Horton NJ, Sheth KN, Rosand J, Shera CA. Posture systematically alters ear-canal refectance and DPOAE properties. //Hear. Res.// 2010; 263:43&ndash;51.  [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/voss-etal-HearRes2010.pdf]]
#Voss SE, Horton NJ, Tabucchi THP, Folowosele FO, Shera CA. Posture-induced changes in distortion-product otoacoustic emissions and the potential for noninvasive monitoring of changes in intracranial pressure. //Neurocrit. Care// 2006; 4:251&ndash;257. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/voss-etal-NeurocritCare06.pdf]]
#Shera CA. Mechanisms of mammalian otoacoustic emission and their implications for the clinical utility of ~OAEs. //Ear Hear.// 2004; 25:86&ndash;97. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-EarHear04.pdf]]
#Voss SE, Rosowksi JJ, Merchant SN, Thornton AR, Shera CA, Peake WT.  Middle-ear pathology can affect the ear-canal sound pressure generated by audiologic earphones. //Ear and Hear.// 2000; 21:265&ndash;274. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/voss-etal-EarHear00.pdf]]
#Voss SE, Rosowski JJ, Shera CA, Peake WT.  Acoustic mechanisms that determine ear-canal sound pressures generated by earphones.  //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2000; 107:1548&ndash;1565. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/voss-etal-earphones-JASA00.pdf]]
#Bergevin C, Walsh EJ, ~McGee J, Shera CA. Probing cochlear tuning and tonotopy in the tiger using otoacoustic emissions. //J. Comp. Physiol. A.// 2012; 198:617&ndash;624. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/Bergevin-etal-JCompPhysiolA2012.pdf]]
#Joris PX, Bergevin C, Kalluri R, Mc Laughlin M, Michelet P, van der Heijden M, Shera CA. Frequency selectivity in ~Old-World monkeys corroborates sharp cochlear tuning in humans. //Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA// 2011;108:17516&ndash;17520. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/Joris-etal-MacaqueQerbs-PNAS2011.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Bergevin C, Kalluri R, Mc Laughlin M, Michelet P, van der Heijden M, Joris PX. Otoacoustic estimates of cochlear tuning: Testing predictions in macaque. In: Shera CA, Olson ES, eds. //What Fire is in Mine Ears: Progress in Auditory Biomechanics.//  Melville, NY: American Institute of Physics, 2011:286&ndash;292. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/Shera-etal-MoH2011.pdf]]
#Bergevin C, Shera CA. Coherent reflection without traveling waves: On the origin of long-latency otoacoustic emissions in lizards. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2010;127:2398&ndash;2409. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/bergevin-shera-LizardCRF-JASA2010.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Guinan JJ, Oxenham AJ. Otoacoustic estimation of cochlear tuning: Validation in the chinchilla. //J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol.// 2010;11:343&ndash;365. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/shera-guinan-oxenham-JARO2010.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Guinan JJ, Oxenham AJ. Revised estimates of human cochlear tuning from otoacoustic and behavioral measurements. //Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA// 2002; 99: 3318&ndash;3323. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-guinan-oxenham-tuning-PNAS02.pdf]]
#Bergevin C, Freeman DM, Saunders JC, Shera CA.  Otoacoustic emissions in humans, birds, lizards, and frogs: Evidence for multiple generation mechanisms.  //J. Comp. Physiol. A// 2008; 194:665&ndash;683. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/bergevin-etal-JCompPhysiolA08.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Bergevin C. Obtaining reliable phase-gradient delays from otoacoustic emission data. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2012; 132:927&ndash;943. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/Shera-Bergevin-JASA2012.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Cooper NP. Basilar-membrane interference patterns from multiple internal reflection of cochlear traveling waves. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2013; 133:2224&ndash;2239. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/Shera-Cooper-JASA2013.pdf]]
#Verhulst S, Dau T, Shera CA. Nonlinear time-domain cochlear model for transient stimulation and human otoacoustic emission. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2012; 132:3842&ndash;3848. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/Verhulst-Dau-Shera-JASA2012.pdf]]
#Bergevin C, Walsh EJ, ~McGee J, Shera CA. Probing cochlear tuning and tonotopy in the tiger using otoacoustic emissions. //J. Comp. Physiol. A.// 2012; 198:617&ndash;624. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/Bergevin-etal-JCompPhysiolA2012.pdf]]
#Elliott SJ, Shera CA. The cochlea as a smart structure. //Smart Mater. Struct.// 2012; 21:064001. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/Elliott-Shera-SmartMatStruct2012.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Olson ES, eds. //What Fire is in Mine Ears: Progress in Auditory Biomechanics.//  Melville, NY: American Institute of Physics, 2011. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://www.mechanicsofhearing.org/moh2011/#Proceedings]]
#Joris PX, Bergevin C, Kalluri R, Mc Laughlin M, Michelet P, van der Heijden M, Shera CA. Frequency selectivity in ~Old-World monkeys corroborates sharp cochlear tuning in humans. //Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA// 2011;108:17516&ndash;17520. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/Joris-etal-MacaqueQerbs-PNAS2011.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Olson ES, Guinan JJ. On cochlear impedances and the miscomputation of power gain. //J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol.// 2011; 12:671&ndash;676. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/Shera-Olson-Guinan-JARO2011.pdf]]
#Sisto R, Shera CA, Moleti A, Botti T. Forward- and reverse-traveling waves in DP phenomenology: Does inverted direction of wave propagation occur in classical models?  In: Shera CA, Olson ES, eds. //What Fire is in Mine Ears: Progress in Auditory Biomechanics.//  Melville, NY: American Institute of Physics, 2011:584&ndash;589. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/Sisto-Shera-Moleti-Botti-MoH2011.pdf]]
#Verhulst S, Shera CA, Harte JM, Dau T. Can a static nonlinearity account for the dynamics of otoacoustic emission suppression? In: Shera CA, Olson ES, eds. //What Fire is in Mine Ears: Progress in Auditory Biomechanics.//  Melville, NY: American Institute of Physics, 2011:257&ndash;263. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/Verhulst-Shera-Harte-Dau-MoH2011.pdf]]
#de Boer E, Shera CA, Nuttall AL. Tracing distortion product (DP) waves in a cochlear model. In: Shera CA, Olson ES, eds. //What Fire is in Mine Ears: Progress in Auditory Biomechanics.//  Melville, NY: American Institute of Physics, 2011:557&ndash;562. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/deBoer-Shera-Nuttall-MoH2011.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Bergevin C, Kalluri R, Mc Laughlin M, Michelet P, van der Heijden M, Joris PX. Otoacoustic estimates of cochlear tuning: Testing predictions in macaque. In: Shera CA, Olson ES, eds. //What Fire is in Mine Ears: Progress in Auditory Biomechanics.//  Melville, NY: American Institute of Physics, 2011:286&ndash;292. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/Shera-etal-MoH2011.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Guinan JJ, Oxenham AJ. Otoacoustic estimation of cochlear tuning: Validation in the chinchilla. //J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol.// 2010;11:343&ndash;365. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/shera-guinan-oxenham-JARO2010.pdf]]
#Bergevin C, Shera CA. Coherent reflection without traveling waves: On the origin of long-latency otoacoustic emissions in lizards. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2010;127:2398&ndash;2409. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/bergevin-shera-LizardCRF-JASA2010.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Tubis A, Talmadge CL.  Testing coherent reflection in chinchilla: Auditory-nerve responses predict stimulus-frequency emissions. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2008; 124:381&ndash;395. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/shera-tubis-talmadge-JASA08.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Guinan JJ. Mechanisms of mammalian otoacoustic emission. In: Manley GA, Fay RR, Popper AN, eds. //Active Processes and Otoacoustic Emissions.// New York: Springer, 2008:305&ndash;342. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-guinan-SHAR08.pdf]]
#Shera CA. Laser amplification with a twist: Traveling-wave propagation and gain functions from throughout the cochlea. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2007; 122:2738&ndash;2758. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-twist-JASA07.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Tubis A, Talmadge CL, de Boer E, Fahey PF, Guinan JJ. Allen&ndash;Fahey and related experiments support the predominance of cochlear slow-wave otoacoustic emissions. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2007; 121:1564&ndash;1575. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-etal-JASA07.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Guinan JJ. Cochlear traveling-wave amplification, suppression, and  beamforming probed using noninvasive calibration of intracochlear distortion sources. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2007; 121:1003&ndash;1016. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-guinan-JASA07.pdf]]
#de Boer E, Nuttall AL, Shera CA. Wave propagation patterns in a “classical” three-dimensional model of the cochlea. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2007; 121:352&ndash;362. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/deboer-nuttall-shera-JASA07.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Tubis A, Talmadge CL. Coherent reflection in a two-dimensional cochlea: Short-wave versus long-wave scattering in the generation of reflection-source otoacoustic emissions. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2005; 118:287&ndash;313 [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-tubis-talmadge-JASA05.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Tubis A, Talmadge CL. Do forward and backward-traveling waves occur within the cochlea? Countering the critique of Nobili et al. //J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol.// 2004; 5:349&ndash;359. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-tubis-talmadge-waves-JARO04.pdf]]
#Shera CA. Mammalian spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are amplitude-stabilized cochlear standing waves. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2003; 114:244&ndash;262. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-soaes-JASA03.pdf]]  [[SOAE movies|Downloads]]
#Shera CA, Guinan JJ. Stimulus-frequency-emission group delay: A test of coherent reflection filtering and a window on cochlear tuning. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2003; 113:2762&ndash;2772. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-guinan-sfedelay-JASA03.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Guinan JJ, Oxenham AJ. Revised estimates of human cochlear tuning from otoacoustic and behavioral measurements. //Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA// 2002; 99: 3318&ndash;3323. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-guinan-oxenham-tuning-PNAS02.pdf]]
#Shera CA. Intensity-invariance of fine time structure in basilar-membrane click responses: Implications for cochlear mechanics.  //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.//  2001; 110:332&ndash;348. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-intensity-JASA01.pdf]]  [[Admittance pole animations|Downloads]]
#Shera CA. Frequency glides in click responses of the basilar membrane and auditory nerve: Their scaling behavior and origin in traveling-wave dispersion. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2001; 109: 2023&ndash;2034. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-glides-JASA01.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Guinan JJ. Frequency dependence of stimulus-frequency-emission phase: Implications for cochlear mechanics. In: Wada H, Takasaka T, Ikeda K, Ohyama K, eds. //Recent Developments in Auditory Mechanics// Singapore: World Scientific Press, 2000:381&ndash;387. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-guinan-sendai00.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Zweig G. An empirical bound on the compressibility of the cochlea. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 1992; 92:1382&ndash;1388. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-zweig-compressibility-JASA92.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Zweig G. Reflection of retrograde waves within the cochlea and at the stapes. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 1991; 89:1290&ndash;1305. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-zweig-retrograde-JASA91.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Zweig G. A symmetry suppresses the cochlear catastrophe. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 1991; 89:1276&ndash;1289. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-zweig-symmetry-JASA91.pdf]]
#Shera KA, Shera CA, ~McDougall JK. Small tumor virus genomes are integrated near nuclear matrix attachment regions in transformed cells. //J. Virol.// 2001; 75:12339&ndash;12346. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-shera-mcdougall-JVirol01.pdf]]
#Voss SE, Nakajima HH, Huber AM, Shera CA. Function and acoustics of the normal and diseased middle ear. In: Puria S, Popper AN, Fay RR, eds. //The Middle Ear: Science, Otosurgery, and Technology.//  New York: Springer, 2013; 67&ndash;91.
#Voss SE, Shera CA. Simultaneous measurement of middle-ear input impedance and forward/reverse transmission in cat. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2004; 116:2187&ndash;2198. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/voss-shera-catme-JASA04.pdf]]
#Voss SE, Rosowski JJ, Shera CA, Peake WT.  Acoustic mechanisms that determine ear-canal sound pressures generated by earphones.  //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2000; 107:1548&ndash;1565. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/voss-etal-earphones-JASA00.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Zweig G. Analyzing reverse middle-ear transmission: Noninvasive Gedankenexperiments. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 1992; 92:1371&ndash;1381. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-zweig-gedanken-JASA92.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Zweig G. Middle-ear phenomenology: The view from the three windows. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 1992; 92:1356&ndash;1370. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-zweig-threewindows-JASA92.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Zweig G. Phenomenological characterization of eardrum transduction. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 1991; 90:253&ndash;262. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-zweig-eardrum-JASA91.pdf]]
#Knudson IM, Shera CA, Melcher JR. Increased contralateral suppression of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions indicates hyper-responsiveness of the medial olivocochlear system in humans with chronic tinnitus and hyperacusis. //J. Neurophysiol.// 2014; in press.
#O'Gorman DE, Colburn HS, Shera CA.  Auditory sensitivity may require dynamically unstable spike generators: Evidence from a model of electrical stimulation. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2010; 128:~EL300&ndash;~EL305. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/ogorman-colburn-shera-JASAExpLett2010.pdf]]
#O'Gorman DE, White JA, Shera CA. Dynamical instability determines the effect of ongoing noise on neural firing. //J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol.//, 2009; 10:251&ndash;267.  [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/ogorman-white-shera-JARO2009.pdf]]
#Knudson IM, Shera CA, Melcher JR. Increased contralateral suppression of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions indicates hyper-responsiveness of the medial olivocochlear system in humans with chronic tinnitus and hyperacusis. //J. Neurophysiol.// 2014; in press.
#Abdala C, Guérit F, Luo P, Shera CA. Distortion-product otoacoustic emission reflection-component delays and cochlear tuning: Estimates from across the human lifespan. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2014; 134:1950&ndash;1958. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/Abdala-etal-JASA2014.pdf]]
#Kalluri R, Shera CA. Measuring stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions using swept tones. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2013; 134:356&ndash;368. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/Kalluri-Shera-SweptSFOAEs-JASA2013.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Cooper NP. Basilar-membrane interference patterns from multiple internal reflection of cochlear traveling waves. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2013; 133:2224&ndash;2239. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/Shera-Cooper-JASA2013.pdf]]
#Verhulst S, Dau T, Shera CA. Nonlinear time-domain cochlear model for transient stimulation and human otoacoustic emission. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2012; 132:3842&ndash;3848. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/Verhulst-Dau-Shera-JASA2012.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Bergevin C. Obtaining reliable phase-gradient delays from otoacoustic emission data. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2012; 132:927&ndash;943. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/Shera-Bergevin-JASA2012.pdf]]
#Bergevin C, Walsh EJ, ~McGee J, Shera CA. Probing cochlear tuning and tonotopy in the tiger using otoacoustic emissions. //J. Comp. Physiol. A.// 2012; 198:617&ndash;624. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/Bergevin-etal-JCompPhysiolA2012.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Abdala C. Otoacoustic emissions: Mechanisms and applications. In: Tremblay KL, Burkard RF, eds. //Translational Perspectives in Auditory Neurocience. Hearing Across the Lifespan&mdash;Assessment and Disorders.// San Diego: Plural Publishing, 2012; 123&ndash;159. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/Shera-Abdala-OAEChapter2012.pdf]]
#Joris PX, Bergevin C, Kalluri R, Mc Laughlin M, Michelet P, van der Heijden M, Shera CA. Frequency selectivity in ~Old-World monkeys corroborates sharp cochlear tuning in humans. //Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA// 2011; 108:17516&ndash;17520. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/Joris-etal-MacaqueQerbs-PNAS2011.pdf]]
#Sisto R, Shera CA, Moleti A, Botti T. Forward- and reverse-traveling waves in DP phenomenology: Does inverted direction of wave propagation occur in classical models?  In: Shera CA, Olson ES, eds. //What Fire is in Mine Ears: Progress in Auditory Biomechanics.//  Melville, NY: American Institute of Physics, 2011:584&ndash;589. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/Sisto-Shera-Moleti-Botti-MoH2011.pdf]]
#Verhulst S, Shera CA, Harte JM, Dau T. Can a static nonlinearity account for the dynamics of otoacoustic emission suppression? In: Shera CA, Olson ES, eds. //What Fire is in Mine Ears: Progress in Auditory Biomechanics.//  Melville, NY: American Institute of Physics, 2011:257&ndash;263. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/Verhulst-Shera-Harte-Dau-MoH2011.pdf]]
#de Boer E, Shera CA, Nuttall AL. Tracing distortion product (DP) waves in a cochlear model. In: Shera CA, Olson ES, eds. //What Fire is in Mine Ears: Progress in Auditory Biomechanics.//  Melville, NY: American Institute of Physics, 2011:557&ndash;562. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/deBoer-Shera-Nuttall-MoH2011.pdf]]
#Sisto R, Moleti A, Botti T, Bertaccini D, Shera CA. Distortion products and backward traveling waves in nonlinear active models of the cochlea. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2011;  129:3141&ndash;3152.  [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/Sisto-Moleti-Botti-Bertaccini-Shera-JASA2011.pdf]] 
#Shera CA, Guinan JJ, Oxenham AJ. Otoacoustic estimation of cochlear tuning: Validation in the chinchilla. //J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol.// 2010;11:343&ndash;365. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/shera-guinan-oxenham-JARO2010.pdf]]
#Voss SE, Adegoke MF, Horton NJ, Sheth KN, Rosand J, Shera CA. Posture systematically alters ear-canal refectance and DPOAE properties. //Hear. Res.// 2010; 263:43&ndash;51.  [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/voss-etal-HearRes2010.pdf]]
#Bergevin C, Shera CA. Coherent reflection without traveling waves: On the origin of long-latency otoacoustic emissions in lizards. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2010;127:2398&ndash;2409. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/bergevin-shera-LizardCRF-JASA2010.pdf]]
#Cooper NP, Shera CA. Comparing otoacoustic emissions and basilar-membrane motion in individual ears. In: Cooper NP, Kemp DT, eds. //Concepts and Challenges in the Biophysics of Hearing.// Singapore: World Scientific, 2009:25&ndash;26. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/cooper-shera-Keele2008.pdf]]
#Bergevin C, Shera CA. Modeling stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions in the gecko. In: Cooper NP, Kemp DT, eds. //Concepts and Challenges in the Biophysics of Hearing.// Singapore: World Scientific, 2009:85&ndash;90. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/bergevin-shera-Keele2008.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Tubis A, Talmadge CL.  Testing coherent reflection in chinchilla: Auditory-nerve responses predict stimulus-frequency emissions. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2008; 124:381&ndash;395. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/shera-tubis-talmadge-JASA08.pdf]]
#Bergevin C, Freeman DM, Saunders JC, Shera CA.  Otoacoustic emissions in humans, birds, lizards, and frogs: Evidence for multiple generation mechanisms.  //J. Comp. Physiol. A// 2008; 194:665&ndash;683. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/bergevin-etal-JCompPhysiolA08.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Guinan JJ. Mechanisms of mammalian otoacoustic emission. In: Manley GA, Fay RR, Popper AN, eds. //Active Processes and Otoacoustic Emissions.// New York: Springer, 2008:305&ndash;342. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-guinan-SHAR08.pdf]]
#Johnson TA, Gorga MP, Neely ST, Oxenham AJ, Shera CA. Relations between otoacoustic and psychophysical measures of cochlear function. In: Manley GA, Fay RR, Popper AN, eds. //Active Processes and Otoacoustic Emissions.// New York: Springer, 2008:395&ndash;420.
#Kalluri R, Shera CA. Comparing stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions measured by compression, suppression, and spectral smoothing. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2007; 122:3562&ndash;3575. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/kalluri-shera-SFOAEs-JASA07.pdf]]
#Sisto R, Moleti A, Shera CA. Cochlear reflectivity in transmission-line models and otoacoustic emission characteristic time delays. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2007; 122:3554&ndash;3561. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/sisto-moleti-shera-JASA07.pdf]]
#Kalluri R, Shera CA. Near equivalence of human click-evoked and stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2007; 121:2097&ndash;2110. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/kalluri-shera-JASA07.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Tubis A, Talmadge CL, de Boer E, Fahey PF, Guinan JJ. Allen&ndash;Fahey and related experiments support the predominance of cochlear slow-wave otoacoustic emissions. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2007; 121:1564&ndash;1575. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-etal-JASA07.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Guinan JJ. Cochlear traveling-wave amplification, suppression, and  beamforming probed using noninvasive calibration of intracochlear distortion sources. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2007; 121:1003&ndash;1016. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-guinan-JASA07.pdf]]
#de Boer E, Nuttall AL, Shera CA. Wave propagation patterns in a “classical” three-dimensional model of the cochlea. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2007; 121:352&ndash;362. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/deboer-nuttall-shera-JASA07.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Tubis A, Talmadge CL. Four counter-arguments for slow-wave ~OAEs. In: Nuttall AL, Ren T, Gillespie P, Grosh K, de Boer E, eds. //Auditory Mechanisms: Processes and Models// Singapore: World Scientific Press, 2006:449&ndash;457. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-tubis-talmadge-counterarguments-portland06.pdf]]
#Voss SE, Horton NJ, Tabucchi THP, Folowosele FO, Shera CA. Posture-induced changes in distortion-product otoacoustic emissions and the potential for noninvasive monitoring of changes in intracranial pressure. //Neurocrit. Care// 2006; 4:251&ndash;257. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/voss-etal-NeurocritCare06.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Tubis A, Talmadge CL. Coherent reflection in a two-dimensional cochlea: Short-wave versus long-wave scattering in the generation of reflection-source otoacoustic emissions. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2005; 118:287&ndash;313 [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-tubis-talmadge-JASA05.pdf]]
#Shera CA. Mechanisms of mammalian otoacoustic emission and their implications for the clinical utility of ~OAEs. //Ear Hear.// 2004; 25:86&ndash;97. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-EarHear04.pdf]]
#Goodman SS, Withnell RH, Shera CA. The origin of SFOAE microstructure in the guinea pig. //Hear. Res.// 2003; 183:1&ndash;17. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/goodman-withnell-shera-HR03.pdf]]
#Shera CA. Mammalian spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are amplitude-stabilized cochlear standing waves. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2003; 114:244&ndash;262. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-soaes-JASA03.pdf]] [[SOAE movie|Downloads]]
#Shera CA. Wave interference in the generation of reflection- and distortion-source emissions. In: Gummer AW, ed. //Biophysics of the Cochlea: Molecules to Models.// Singapore: World Scientific Press, 2003:439&ndash;453. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-interference-titisee03.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Guinan JJ. Stimulus-frequency-emission group delay: A test of coherent reflection filtering and a window on cochlear tuning. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2003; 113:2762&ndash;2772. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-guinan-sfedelay-JASA03.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Guinan JJ, Oxenham AJ. Revised estimates of human cochlear tuning from otoacoustic and behavioral measurements. //Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA// 2002; 99: 3318&ndash;3323.  [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-guinan-oxenham-tuning-PNAS02.pdf]] 
#Kalluri R, Shera CA. Distortion-product source unmixing: A test of the two-mechanism model for DPOAE generation.  //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2001; 109:622&ndash;637. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/kalluri-shera-unmixing-JASA01.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Talmadge CL, Tubis A. Interrelations among distortion-product phase-gradient delays: Their connection to scaling symmetry and its breaking.  //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2000; 108:2933&ndash;2948. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-talmadge-tubis-interrelations-JASA00.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Guinan JJ. Frequency dependence of stimulus-frequency-emission phase: Implications for cochlear mechanics. In: Wada H, Takasaka T, Ikeda K, Ohyama K, eds. //Recent Developments in Auditory Mechanics// Singapore: World Scientific Press, 2000:381&ndash;387. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-guinan-sendai00.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Guinan JJ. Evoked otoacoustic emissions arise by two fundamentally different mechanisms: A taxonomy for mammalian otoacoustic emissions. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 1999; 105:782&ndash;798. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-guinan-taxonomy-JASA99.pdf]]
#Zweig G, Shera CA. The origin of periodicity in the spectrum  of evoked otoacoustic emissions. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 1995; 98:2018&ndash;2047. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-zweig-origin-JASA95.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Zweig G. Order from chaos: Resolving the paradox of periodicity in evoked otoacoustic emission. In: Duifhuis H, Horst JW, van Dijk P, van Netten SM, eds. //Biophysics of Hair Cell Sensory Systems.// Singapore: World Scientific Press, 1993:54&ndash;63. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/shera-zweig-OrderFromChaos-MoH1993.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Zweig G. Noninvasive measurement of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 1993; 93:3333&ndash;3352. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-zweig-twr-JASA93.pdf]]
#Knudson IM, Shera CA, Melcher JR. Increased contralateral suppression of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions indicates hyper-responsiveness of the medial olivocochlear system in humans with chronic tinnitus and hyperacusis. //J. Neurophysiol.// 2014; in press.
#Joris PX, Bergevin C, Kalluri R, Mc Laughlin M, Michelet P, van der Heijden M, Shera CA. Frequency selectivity in ~Old-World monkeys corroborates sharp cochlear tuning in humans. //Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA// 2011;108:17516&ndash;17520. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/Joris-etal-MacaqueQerbs-PNAS2011.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Bergevin C, Kalluri R, Mc Laughlin M, Michelet P, van der Heijden M, Joris PX. Otoacoustic estimates of cochlear tuning: Testing predictions in macaque. In: Shera CA, Olson ES, eds. //What Fire is in Mine Ears: Progress in Auditory Biomechanics.//  Melville, NY: American Institute of Physics, 2011:286&ndash;292. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/Shera-etal-MoH2011.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Guinan JJ, Oxenham AJ. Otoacoustic estimation of cochlear tuning: Validation in the chinchilla. //J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol.// 2010;11:343&ndash;365. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/shera-guinan-oxenham-JARO2010.pdf]]
#Johnson TA, Gorga MP, Neely ST, Oxenham AJ, Shera CA. Relations between otoacoustic and psychophysical measures of cochlear function. In: Manley GA, Fay RR, Popper AN, eds. //Active Processes and Otoacoustic Emissions.// New York: Springer, 2008:395&ndash;420.
#Oxenham AJ, Shera CA. Estimates of human cochlear tuning at low levels using forward  and simultaneous masking. //J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol.// 2003; 4:541&ndash;554. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/oxenham-shera-tuning-JARO03.pdf]], [[erratum|http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/oxenham-shera-erratum-JARO03.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Guinan JJ, Oxenham AJ. Revised estimates of human cochlear tuning from otoacoustic and behavioral measurements. //Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA// 2002; 99: 3318&ndash;3323.  [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-guinan-oxenham-tuning-PNAS02.pdf]] 
#Voss SE, Nakajima HH, Huber AM, Shera CA. Function and acoustics of the normal and diseased middle ear. In: Puria S, Popper AN, Fay RR, eds. //The Middle Ear: Science, Otosurgery, and Technology.// New York: Springer, 2013; 67&ndash;91.
#Elliott SJ, Shera CA. The cochlea as a smart structure. //Smart Mater. Struct.// 2012; 21:064001. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/Elliott-Shera-SmartMatStruct2012.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Abdala C. Otoacoustic emissions: Mechanisms and applications. In: Tremblay KL, Burkard RF, eds. //Translational Perspectives in Auditory Neurocience. Hearing Across the Lifespan&mdash;Assessment and Disorders.// San Diego: Plural Publishing, 2012; 123&ndash;159. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/Shera-Abdala-OAEChapter2012.pdf]]
#Shera CA. Shampooing, skydiving, and the cochlear amplifier. ASA Proc Meet Acoust 2009; 6:1&ndash;22. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/talks/shera-ASA2009.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Mountain DC. Edited transcript of the open discussion session at the 10th International Workshop on the Mechanics of Hearing, July 31, 2008. In: Cooper NP, Kemp DT, eds. //Concepts and Challenges in the Biophysics of Hearing.// Singapore: World Scientific, 2009; 467&ndash;504. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/shera-mountain-Keele2008.
pdf]]
#Shera CA. Book review&mdash;//Otoacoustic Emissions: Clinical Applications.// //Ear Hear.// 2008; 29:971&ndash;972. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-bookreview-EarHear08.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Guinan JJ. Mechanisms of mammalian otoacoustic emission. In: Manley GA, Fay RR, Popper AN, eds. //Active Processes and Otoacoustic Emissions.// New York: Springer, 2008; 305&ndash;342. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-guinan-SHAR08.pdf]]
#Johnson TA, Gorga MP, Neely ST, Oxenham AJ, Shera CA. Relations between otoacoustic and psychophysical measures of cochlear function. In: Manley GA, Fay RR, Popper AN, eds. //Active Processes and Otoacoustic Emissions.// New York: Springer, 2008; 395&ndash;420.
#Shera CA. Mechanisms of mammalian otoacoustic emission and their implications for the clinical utility of ~OAEs. //Ear Hear.// 2004; 25:86&ndash;97. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-EarHear04.pdf]]
#Shera CA. Wave interference in the generation of reflection- and distortion-source emissions. In: Gummer AW, ed. //Biophysics of the Cochlea: Molecules to Models.// Singapore: World Scientific Press, 2003; 439&ndash;453. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-interference-titisee03.pdf]]
#Marshall L, Lapsley Miller JA, Guinan JJ, Shera CA, Reed CM, Perez ZD, Delhorne LA, Boege P. Otoacoustic emission-based medial-olivocochlear reflex assays for humans. 
#Shera CA. On the method of lumens: A comment on "Wave model of the cat tympanic membrane" [J Acoust Soc Am 122:918&ndash;931 (2007)]
#Sisto R, Moleti A, Shera CA. On the spatial distribution of different latency components of reflection-source otoacoustic emissions./%
#Abdala C, Kalluri R, Shera CA. Otoacoustic emissions: The morning after.%/ 
This poem is concerned with language on a very plain level.
Look at it talking to you. You look out the window.
Or pretend to fidget. You have it but you don't have it.
You miss it, it misses you. You miss each other.

This poem is sad because it wants to be yours, and cannot be.
What's a plain level? It is that and other things,
Bringing a system of them into play. Play?
Well, actually, yes, but I consider play to be

A deeper outside thing, a dreamed role-pattern,
As in the division of grace these long August days
Without proof. Open-ended. And before you know it
It gets lost in the steam and chatter of typewriters.

It has been played once more. I think you exist only
To tease me into doing it, on your level, and then you aren't there
Or have adopted a different attitude. And the poem
Has set me softly down beside you. The poem is you.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- John Ashbery
[img[MARC-MANS 2014|http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/images/MARC.jpg][http://otocore.wustl.edu/marcmans2014/Home.aspx]]
''Midwest Auditory Research Conference / Neuroscience Symposium''
Washington University in St. Louis; 17&ndash;19 July 2014

[img[Temple of Corti|http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/images/Temple-of-Corti.png][http://mechanicsofhearing.org]]
''Mechanics of Hearing 2014 &mdash; The 12th International Workshop''
Cape Sounio in Attica, Greece; 23–29 June  2014

[img[Spinal Tap|http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/images/tist.jpg][http://www.coolidge.org/content/spinal-tap]]
''This Is Spinal Tap''
[[Science on Screen|http://www.coolidge.org/programs/science-on-screen]] program with an introduction to sound and hearing by a [[preserved moose|Preserved Moose on Stage]]
[[Coolidge Corner Theatre|http://www.coolidge.org/]], 18 March 2013
Download the slides [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/talks/Shera-SpinalTap-2013.pdf]] and watch the [[YouTube video|http://youtu.be/bmWIqekH0Qg]]

[img[MoH2011|http://www.mechanicsofhearing.org/moh2011/images/Cover.png][http://www.mechanicsofhearing.org/moh2011/#Proceedings]]
''What Fire is in Mine Ears: Progress in Auditory Biomechanics''
Proceedings of the 11th International Mechanics of Hearing Workshop
Edited by [[HCE|Head Chief Earwigger]] and [[Elizabeth Olson|http://www.columbia.edu/cu/fowlerlab/index.html]]
American Institute of Physics, 2011

[img[MoHDL|http://www.mechanicsofhearing.org/moh2011/images/MoHDL.png][http://www.mechanicsofhearing.org/mohdl.html]]
''Mechanics of Hearing Digital Library''
Curated by [[HCE|Head Chief Earwigger]] and [[Elizabeth Olson|http://www.columbia.edu/cu/fowlerlab/index.html]]

[img[MoH2011|http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/images/MoHSpiralTree100.png][http://www.mechanicsofhearing.org/moh2011]]
''Mechanics of Hearing 2011 &mdash; The 11th International Workshop''

[img[Soundcheck on WNYC|http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/images/earinns.jpg][http://www.wnyc.org/shows/soundcheck/2011/jan/27/ear-sounds/]]
''Ear Wars: Inside Your Ear'' on ''NPR's Soundcheck''
A [[conversation|http://www.wnyc.org/shows/soundcheck/2011/jan/27/ear-sounds/]] about ears and hearing with WNYC's [[Soundcheck|http://www.wnyc.org/shows/soundcheck]] host [[John Schaefer|http://www.wnyc.org/people/john-schaefer]],  [[HCE|Head Chief Earwigger]], and sound artist [[Jacob Kirkegaard|http://fonik.dk]]. 
Soundcheck, WNYC, 27 Jan 2011

[img[White Light Festival|http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/images/WLFs.jpg][http://new.lincolncenter.org/live/index.php/white-light-festival-2010]]
''White Light Festival''
A conversation on [[sound|Picture of Sound]] and [[silence|Picture of Silence]] with composer [[John Luther Adams|http://www.johnlutheradams.com]], author [[Karen Armstrong|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karen_Armstrong]], pianist [[Pedja Muzijevic|http://www.pedjamuzijevic.com/]],  [[HCE|Head Chief Earwigger]], and host [[John Schaefer|http://www.wnyc.org/people/john-schaefer]].
Lincoln Center, New York City, 31 Oct 2010

''Cochlear Mechanics Short Course''
University of Roma Tor Vergata, 28-30 Sept 2010
Lecturers: Steve Elliott and Ben Lineton  (ISVR Southampton), Daniele Bertaccini, Teresa Botti, Arturo Moleti, Nicolo Paternoster, and Renata Sisto (URTV Rome)

''Mini Symposium on Cochlear Amplification''
[[SIAM Conference on the Life Sciences|http://www.siam.org/meetings/ls10/]]

[img[Good Vibrations|http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/images/goodvibrations100.jpg][http://www.worldsciencefestival.com/good-vibrations]] 
''Good Vibrations: The Science of Sound'' at the ''World Science Festival''
Read about it [[here|http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/discoblog/2010/06/07/world-science-festival-listening-to-illusions-of-sound/]], watch [[one|http://wsf.tv/videos/how_we_hear]] or [[two|http://wsf.tv/videos/how_loud_can_you_go]] short excerpts, or replay the [[entire program|http://wsf.tv/videos/good_vibrations_the_science_of_sound]].

[[HCE|Head Chief Earwigger]] [[quoted|http://focus.aps.org/story/v17/st8]] in //Physical Review Focus// on why there are [[spirals|Spiral into Horror]]  in your ears.

[[HCE|Head Chief Earwigger]] [[quoted|http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/papers/CochlearWaves-PhysicsToday2008.pdf]] in //Physics Today// on the enigma of wave propagation in the cochlea.

[[HCE|Head Chief Earwigger]] [[quoted|http://news.discovery.com/tech/universal-radio-chip-ear.html]] in //Discovery News// on the Sarpeshkar group's radio-frequency cochlea.
Historical Collaboration path from Erd&ouml;s (see [[5|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erdos_number]])
#Erd&ouml;s P, Kleitman DJ. On coloring graphs to maximize the proportion of multicolored //k//-edges. //J. Combin. Theory// 1968; 5:164&ndash;169. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/erdos-kleitman-JCombThy1968.pdf]]
#Glashow SL, Kleitman DJ. Baryon resonances in //W//~~3~~ symmetry. //Phys. Lett.// 1964 11:84&ndash;86. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/glashow-kleitman-PhysLett1964.pdf]]
#Glashow SL, ~Gell-Mann M.  Gauge theories of vector particles. //Ann. Phys.// 1961; 15:437&ndash;460. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/glashow-gellmann-AnnPhys61.pdf]]
#Feynman RP, ~Gell-Mann M, Zweig G. Group //U//(6)&times;//U//(6) generated by current components. //Phys. Rev. Lett.// 1964; 13:678&ndash;680. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/feynman-gellmann-zweig-PRL64.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Zweig G. A symmetry suppresses the cochlear catastrophe. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 1991; 89:1276&ndash;1289. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/papers/shera-zweig-symmetry-JASA91.pdf]]
''Physiology of the Ear'' ([[HST720|http://bit.ly/oXtoJo]]) 
>... and the thought had clearly never even crossed his mind that one must always take great care with what one thinks one knows, because behind it one finds concealed an endless chain of unknowns, the last of which will probably prove insoluble.
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; -- Jos&eacute; Saramago,  from //Seeing//

{{imgfloatright{[img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/cochlea.jpg]]}}}This course emphasizes the reading and discussion of papers from the original research literature that cover the physical and physiological mechanisms of acoustic signal processing in the [[auditory periphery|On the Lilliputian Ear]]. Topics include the acoustics, mechanics, and hydrodynamics of sound transmission; the biophysical basis for cochlear amplification; the physiology of hair-cell transduction and synaptic transmission; efferent feedback control; the analysis and coding of simple and complex sounds by the inner ear; and the physiological bases for hearing disorders.

''Instructors:''
*John Guinan
*John Rosowski
*Christopher Shera
*Jocelyn Songer
[img[http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/images/IMsilence.gif][Picture of Sound]]
[img[http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/images/IMsound.gif][Picture of Silence]]
[img[Karolina Charaziak|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/KarolinaCharaziak.jpg]]
''Karolina Charaziak'' 
Karolina received her Ph.D. in 2014 from Northwestern University's [[Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders|http://www.communication.northwestern.edu/]], where she worked with [[Jonathan Siegel|http://www.communication.northwestern.edu/departments/csd/research/otoacoustic_emissions_laboratory/]] at the  [[Knowles Hearing Center|http://comm.soc.northwestern.edu/knowles-hearing-center/]]. For her doctoral work, Karolina worked on a number of projects, including the mechanisms of  stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emission (SFOAE) generation and the relationship between SFOAE suppression tuning curves and behavioral measures of cochlear frequency selectivity.
Except perhaps for a handful of the most recent, the following posters are now superseded by other [[publications|Publications]].
#Knudson IM, Shera CA. Melcher JR. Increased contralateral suppression of ~DPOAEs in humans with chronic tinnitus and hyperacusis suggests hyperactivity of the medial olivocochlear pathway.  //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2014;37:~PS835.
#Gruters KG, Shera CA, Groh JM. Eye position influences on auditory processes measured from within the external ear canal.  //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2014;37:~PS747. 
#Verhulst S, Bharadwaj H, Shera CA, ~Shinn-Cunningham B. A human auditory brainstem response model for broadband stimulation.  //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2014;37:~PS050.
#Sisto R, Botti T, Moleti A, Shera CA. Basal SFOAE sources and fine-structure of the reflectivity function.  //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2014;37:~PS118.
#Wells TT, Palmer AR, Oxenham AJ, Shera CA, Bergevin C, Sumner CJ. Frequency selectivity measured behaviorally in the ferret using forward masking. Brit. Soc. Audiol. 2013.
#Verhulst S, Shera CA, ~Shinn-Cunningham B. Probing the auditory attention filter along the auditory pathway.  //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2013;36:1084.
#Abdala C, Guérit F, Luo P, Shera CA. Estimates of human cochlear tuning derived from DPOAE reflection-component delays. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2013;36:1069.
#Alkhairy S, Shera CA. Reducing boundary reflection in computational models of the cochlea. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2013;36:1050. 
#Kalluri R, Shera CA. Equivalence of swept- and discrete-tone stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2012;35:399.
#Epp B, Bergevin C, Shera CA. Relationships between cochlear tuning and delay probed with a nonlinear transmission-line model. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2012;35:201.
#O'Gorman DE, Shera CA, Colburn HS. Dynamical instability is conducive to the encoding of ITD in the spike rate. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2012;35:779.
#Bergevin C, Walsh EJ, ~McGee J, Shera CA. Using otoacoustic emissions to explore cochlear tuning and tonotopy in the tiger. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2011;34:372. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/posters/Bergevin-etal-Tigers-ARO2011.pdf]]
#Bergevin C, ~McDermott JJ, Roy S, Li F, Shera CA, Wang X. Stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions as a probe of cochlear tuning in the common marmoset. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2011;34:371.  [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/posters/Bergevin-etal-Marmosets-ARO2011.pdf]]
#Lichtenhan JT, Guinan JJ, Shera CA. Stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions originate predominantly in the peak pegion of the traveling wave. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2011;34:96.
#Lichtenhan JT, Guinan JJ, Shera CA. Probing the source of stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions using low-frequency biasing. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2010;33:134.
#Verhulst S, Harte JM, Shera CA, Dau T. Temporal adaptation of the click-evoked otoacoustic emission level-curve reveals dynamic properties of human cochlear processing. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2010;33:137.
#Knudson IM, Shera CA, Levine RA, Melcher JR. Auditory peripheral dysfunction in tinnitus subjects with clinically normal audiograms. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2010;33:667.
#O'Gorman DE, Colburn HS, Shera CA. Neural modulation sensitivity is determined by one-dimensional, nonlinear maps. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2010;33:748.
#Knudson IM, Shera CA, Gu J, Levine RA, Melcher JR. Auditory peripheral dysfunction in tinnitus subjects with normal audiograms. Third Tinnitus Research Initiative Meeting, Stresa, 2009.
#Shera CA, Cooper NP. Wave-interference patterns on the basilar membrane: Testing models of OAE propagation. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2009;32:56. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/posters/shera-cooper-ARO2009.pdf]]
#Bergevin C, Shera CA. Long delays without basilar-membrane traveling waves:  Correlations between tuning bandwidth and emission delay in a model of the gecko inner ear. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2009;32:344.
#Lichtenhan JT, Guinan JJ, Shera CA. Comparisons among modulated stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2009;32:345.
#Bergevin C, Shera CA. Modeling stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions in the gecko. Tenth International Mechanics of Hearing Workshop, Keele, 2008. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/posters/bergevin-shera-MOH2008.pdf]]
#Adegoke MF, Voss SE, Horton NJ, Raza Y, Shera CA.  Combining levels and phases for DPOAE analysis.  Annual Meeting of the American Auditory Society, Scottsdale, 2008. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/posters/adegoke-etal-AAS2008.pdf]]
#Bergevin C, Kalluri R, Joris PX, ~McLaughlin M, van der Heijden M, Shera CA. SFOAE phase-gradient delays and auditory-nerve tuning in a non-human primate. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2008;31:194. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/posters/bergevin-etal-ARO2008.pdf]]
#Acker L, Shera CA, Melcher JR. DPOAE behavior and growth rate in tinnitus subjects with normal audiograms. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2008;31:687. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/posters/acker-shera-melcher-ARO2008.pdf]]
#O'Gorman DE, Shera CA, White JA, Colburn HS. Realistically irregular and sensitive neural firing without physiological noise. Conference on Implantable Auditory Prostheses (CIAP), Lake Tahoe, 2007;B34.
#Shera CA, Guinan JJ, Oxenham AJ. Otoacoustic estimates of cochlear tuning: Validation in the chinchilla. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2007;30:519.
#Bergevin C, Freeman DM, Shera CA. Otoacoustic emissions in humans, birds, lizards, and amphibians: A comparative study reveals differences in emission generation mechanisms. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2007;30:811. 
#Shera CA, Tubis A, Talmadge CL. Delays of ~SFOAEs and cochlear vibrations support the theory of coherent reflection filtering. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2006;29:52. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/posters/shera-tubis-talmadge-ARO2006.pdf]]
#Kalluri R, Shera CA. Do different SFOAE measurement methods yield equivalent results? //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2006; 29:53.
#Voss SE, Horton NJ, Tabucchi THP, Folowosele FO, Shera CA. Noninvasive detection of changes in intracranial pressure using ~DPOAEs. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2006; 29:67. 
#Bergevin C, Freeman DM, Shera CA. A comparative study of evoked otoacoustic emissions in geckos and humans. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2006; 29:70.
#O'Gorman D, Shera CA, White J. Realistically irregular and desynchronized neural firing without physiological noise. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2006; 29:652. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/posters/ogorman-shera-white-ARO2006.pdf]]
#Miller AJ, Shera CA, Voss SE. Analysis of a technique for measuring the transmission matrix of the middle ear. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2006; 29:637. 
#Shera CA, Tubis A, Talmadge CL. Coherent-reflection models of reflection-source ~OAEs with and without slow transverse retrograde waves. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2005; 28:657. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/posters/shera-tubis-talmadge-ARO2005.pdf]]
#Cooper NP, Shera CA. Backward traveling waves in the cochlea? Comparing basilar membrane vibrations and otoacoustic emissions from individual guinea-pig ears. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2004; 27:1008. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/posters/cooper-shera-ARO2004.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Tubis A, Talmadge CL, Guinan JJ. The dual effect of 'suppressor' tones on stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2004; 27:538. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/posters/shera-etal-ARO2004.pdf]]
#Kalluri R, Shera CA. The relationship between ~TEOAEs and ~SFOAEs at low stimulus levels. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2004; 27:537.
#Shera CA. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions: Evidence for cellular Hopf oscillators in the organ of Corti? //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2004; 27:450. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/apg/posters/shera-ARO2004.pdf]]
#Goodman SS, Withnell RH, de Boer E, Lilly DJ, Nuttall AL, Shera CA. Group delays and production mechanisms for tone-burst evoked ~OAEs in the guinea pig. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2003; 26:520.
#Shera CA, Miller AJ. Using ~DPOAEs to measure forward and reverse middle-ear transmission noninvasively. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2002; 25:769. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/posters/shera-miller-ARO2002.pdf]]
#Voss SE, Shera CA. Simultaneous measurement of ~DPOAEs, middle-ear input impedance, and forward/reverse middle-ear transmission in cat. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2002; 25:585.
#Oxenham AJ, Shera CA. Frequency selectivity estimated using stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions and psychophysical masking. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 2001; 109:2408.
#Shera CA. The effect of reflection emissions on impulse responses of the basilar membrane and the auditory nerve. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2001; 24:815.
#Shera CA. Intensity-invariance of fine-time structure in basilar-membrane impulse responses: Implications for cochlear mechanics //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2001; 24:815.
#O'Gorman D, Shera CA. Does the high-rate response of electrically stimulated neurons reflect non-classical sodium gating? //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2001; 24:911.
#Shera CA, Guinan JJ. Reflection-emission phase: A test of coherent reflection filtering and a window on cochlear tuning. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2000; 23:545.
#Kalluri R, Shera CA. Are ~DPOAEs a mixture of emissions generated by different mechanisms? //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2000; 23:480.
#Shera CA, Zweig G. The origin of evoked otoacoustic emissions in mammals at low sound-pressure levels. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 1999; 22:211.
#Shera CA, Guinan JJ. A mechanism-based taxonomy for mammalian ~OAEs. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 1999; 22:205.
#Shera CA, Guinan JJ. Reflection emissions and distortion products arise by fundamentally different mechanisms. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 1998; 21:344.
#Shera CA, Guinan JJ. Measuring cochlear amplification and nonlinearity using distortion-product otoacoustic emissions as a calibrated intracochlear sound source. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 1997; 20:51.
#Kimberley BP, Shaw G, Shera CA, Allen JB. Cochlear acoustic reflectance and traveling wave delay. //J. Acoust. Soc. Am.// 1995; 97:3413.
#Shera CA, Zweig G. Noninvasive measurement of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 1992; 15:157.
#Shera CA, Zweig G. The opposing tapers of cochlear geometry. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 1991; 14:153.
>All lies and jests.
>Still, a man hears what he wants to hear
>And disregards the rest.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Paul Simon, "The Boxer"

<<tabs txtFavourite
"Posters" "Posters" Posters
"Talks" "Talks" Talks
>>
And some time make the time to drive out west
Into County Clare, along the Flaggy Shore,
In September or October, when the wind
And the light are working off each other
So that the ocean on one side is wild
With foam and glitter, and inland among stones
The surface of a slate-grey lake is lit
By the earthed lightning of a flock of swans,
Their feathers roughed and ruffling, white on white,
Their fully grown headstrong-looking heads
Tucked or cresting or busy underwater.
Useless to think you’ll park and capture it
More thoroughly. You are neither here nor there,
A hurry through which known and strange things pass
As big soft buffetings come at the car sideways
And catch the heart off guard and blow it open.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Seamus Heaney
[img[HCE introducing ''This Is Spinal Tap''|http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/images/CAS-SpinalTap.jpg]]
Publications are sorted by subject matter (see tabs). Some appear in more than one category.
<<tabs txtFavourite
"OAEs" "Otoacoustic emission papers" PapersOnOAEs
"Cochlea" "Cochlear mechanics papers" PapersOnCochlea
"MiddleEar" "Middle-ear papers" PapersOnMiddleEar
"Psychophysics" "Psychophysics papers" PapersOnPsychophysics
"Neuroscience" "Neuroscience papers" PapersOnNeuroscience
"Comparative" "Comparative papers" PapersComparative
"Acoustics" "Acoustics papers" PapersAcoustics
"Genetics" "Molecular genetics papers" PapersOnGenetics
"Translational" "Clinical/technology papers" PapersApplied
"Reviews" "Review papers" PapersReview
"Books" "Books of papers" BooksOfPapers
"Submitted" "Submitted papers" PapersSubmitted
"Earrata" "Errata and discussion" Earrata
"Earreverent" "Irreverent and irrelevant" Earreverent
>>
/%"Methods" "Methods papers" PapersMethods%/

>The truth is rarely pure, and never simple.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Oscar Wilde, //The Importance of Being Earnest//
[img[Srinivasa Ramanujan, 1913-14|http://latex.codecogs.com/gif.latex?{1\over\pi}={2\sqrt{2}\over9801}\sum_{k=0}^\infty{(4k)!\over(k!)^4}\left({1103+26390k\over396^{4k}}\right)]]
[img[http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/images/Galaxies.gif]]
Cross-section of the local galaxy distribution (redshift versus right ascension) according to the ~CfA2 and ~SSRS2 redshift surveys.
/*{{{*/
merge(config.macros.search,{
	prompt: "Search Earwicki"});
merge(config.macros.closeAll,{
	prompt: "Close all tiddlers"});
/*}}}*/
>What fire is in mine ears? Can this be true?
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Shakespeare, //Much Ado About Nothing//

<<tabs txtFavourite
"The Problem" "The Cochlea" [[The Cochlea]]
"The Need" "Hearing Loss" [[The Need]]
>>
>We find ourselves, not as a central player in the life of the cosmos, but as a tiny epiphenomenon, flourishing for a brief moment as we ride a wave of increasing entropy from the Big Bang to the quiet emptiness of the future universe. Purpose and meaning are not to be found in the laws of nature, nor in the plans of any external agent who made things that way; it is our job to create them. One of these purposes&mdash;among many&mdash;stems from our urge to explain the world around us the best we can. If our lives are brief and undirected, at least we can take pride in our mutual courage as we struggle to understand things much greater than ourselves.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Sean Carroll, //From Eternity to Here//
[img[Rule 30|http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/images/Rule30.png]]
[[Farce]]
version.extensions.favicon = {major: 0, minor: 1, revision: 0, date: new Date("Jul 18, 2005")};
var n = document.createElement("link");	
n.rel = "shortcut icon"; 
n.href = "http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/earicon16x16.jpg"; 
document.getElementsByTagName("head")[0].appendChild(n);
In the usual iconography of the temple or the local Wok
you would never see him doing such a thing,
tossing the dry snow over a mountain
of his bare, round shoulder,
his hair tied in a knot,
a model of concentration.

Sitting is more his speed, if that is the word
for what he does, or does not do.

Even the season is wrong for him.
In all his manifestations, is it not warm or slightly humid?
Is this not implied by his serene expression,
that smile so wide it wraps itself around the waist of the universe?

But here we are, working our way down the driveway,
one shovelful at a time.
We toss the light powder into the clear air.
We feel the cold mist on our faces.
And with every heave we disappear
and become lost to each other
in these sudden clouds of our own making,
these fountain-bursts of snow.

This is so much better than a sermon in church,
I say out loud, but Buddha keeps on shoveling.
This is the true religion, the religion of snow,
and sunlight and winter geese barking in the sky,
I say, but he is too busy to hear me.

He has thrown himself into shoveling snow
as if it were the purpose of existence,
as if the sign of a perfect life were a clear driveway
you could back the car down easily
and drive off into the vanities of the world
with a broken heater fan and a song on the radio.

All morning long we work side by side,
me with my commentary
and he inside his generous pocket of silence,
until the hour is nearly noon
and the snow is piled high all around us;
then, I hear him speak.

After this, he asks,
can we go inside and play cards?

Certainly, I reply, and I will heat some milk
and bring cups of hot chocolate to the table
while you shuffle the deck.
and our boots stand dripping by the door.

Aaah, says the Buddha, lifting his eyes
and leaning for a moment on his shovel
before he drives the thin blade again
deep into the glittering white snow.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Billy Collins

<<search>><<closeAll>><<permaview>><<newTiddler>><<newJournal 'DD MMM YYYY'>><<saveChanges>><<slider chkSliderOptionsPanel OptionsPanel 'options »' 'Change Earwicki options'>>
Now it is time to say what you have to say.
The room is quiet.
The whirring fan has been unplugged,
and the girl who was tapping
a pencil on her desktop has been removed.

So tell us what is on your mind.
We want to hear the sound of your foliage,
the unraveling of your tool kit,
your songs of loneliness,
your songs of hurt.

The trains are motionless on the tracks,
the ships are at rest in the harbor.
The dogs are cocking their heads
and the gods are peering down from their balloons.
The town is hushed,

and everyone here has a copy.
So tell us about your parents --
your father behind the steering wheel,
your cruel mother at the sink.
Let's hear about all the clouds you saw, all the trees.

Read the poem you brought with you tonight.
The ocean has stopped sloshing around,
and even Beethoven
is sitting up in his deathbed,
his cold hearing horn inserted in one ear.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Billy Collins
/***
|''Name''|SimpleSearchPlugin|
|''Description''|displays search results as a simple list of matching tiddlers|
|''Authors''|FND|
|''Version''|0.4.0|
|''Status''|stable|
|''Source''|http://devpad.tiddlyspot.com/#SimpleSearchPlugin|
|''CodeRepository''|http://svn.tiddlywiki.org/Trunk/contributors/FND/plugins/SimpleSearchPlugin.js|
|''License''|[[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/]]|
|''Keywords''|search|
!Revision History
!!v0.2.0 (2008-08-18)
* initial release
!!v0.3.0 (2008-08-19)
* added Open All button (renders Classic Search option obsolete)
* sorting by relevance (title matches before content matches)
!!v0.4.0 (2008-08-26)
* added tag matching
!To Do
* tag matching optional
* animations for container creation and removal
* when clicking on search results, do not scroll to the respective tiddler (optional)
* use template for search results
!Code
***/
//{{{
if(!version.extensions.SimpleSearchPlugin) { //# ensure that the plugin is only installed once
version.extensions.SimpleSearchPlugin = { installed: true };

if(!plugins) { var plugins = {}; }
plugins.SimpleSearchPlugin = {
	heading: "Search Results",
	containerId: "searchResults",
	btnCloseLabel: "close",
	btnCloseTooltip: "dismiss search results",
	btnCloseId: "search_close",
	btnOpenLabel: "Open all",
	btnOpenTooltip: "open all search results",
	btnOpenId: "search_open",
	
	displayResults: function(matches, query) {
		story.refreshAllTiddlers(true); // update highlighting within story tiddlers
		var el = document.getElementById(this.containerId);
		query = '"""' + query + '"""'; // prevent WikiLinks
		if(el) {
			removeChildren(el);
		} else { //# fallback: use displayArea as parent
			var container = document.getElementById("displayArea");
			el = document.createElement("div");
			el.setAttribute("id", this.containerId);
			el = container.insertBefore(el, container.firstChild);
		}
		var msg = "!" + this.heading + "\n";
		if(matches.length > 0) {
			msg += "''" + config.macros.search.successMsg.format([matches.length.toString(), query]) + ":''\n";
			this.results = [];
			for(var i = 0 ; i < matches.length; i++) {
				this.results.push(matches[i].title);
				msg += "* [[" + matches[i].title + "]]\n";
			}
		} else {
			msg += "''" + config.macros.search.failureMsg.format([query]) + "''"; // XXX: do not use bold here!?
		}
		createTiddlyButton(el, this.btnCloseLabel, this.btnCloseTooltip, plugins.SimpleSearchPlugin.closeResults, "button", this.btnCloseId);
		wikify(msg, el);
		if(matches.length > 0) { // XXX: redundant!?
			createTiddlyButton(el, this.btnOpenLabel, this.btnOpenTooltip, plugins.SimpleSearchPlugin.openAll, "button", this.btnOpenId);
		}
	},

	closeResults: function() {
		var el = document.getElementById(plugins.SimpleSearchPlugin.containerId);
		removeNode(el);
		plugins.SimpleSearchPlugin.results = null;
		highlightHack = null;
	},

	openAll: function(ev) {
		story.displayTiddlers(null, plugins.SimpleSearchPlugin.results);
		return false;
	}
};

config.shadowTiddlers.StyleSheetSimpleSearch = "/*{{{*/\n" +
	"#" + plugins.SimpleSearchPlugin.containerId + " {\n" +
	"\toverflow: auto;\n" +
	"\tpadding: 5px 1em 10px;\n" +
	"\tbackground-color: [[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]];\n" +
	"}\n\n" +
	"#" + plugins.SimpleSearchPlugin.containerId + " h1 {\n" +
	"\tmargin-top: 0;\n" +
	"\tborder: none;\n" +
	"}\n\n" +
	"#" + plugins.SimpleSearchPlugin.containerId + " ul {\n" +
	"\tmargin: 0.5em;\n" +
	"\tpadding-left: 1.5em;\n" +
	"}\n\n" +
	"#" + plugins.SimpleSearchPlugin.containerId + " .button {\n" +
	"\tdisplay: block;\n" +
	"\tborder-color: [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];\n" +
	"\tpadding: 5px;\n" +
	"\tbackground-color: [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];\n" +
	"}\n\n" +
	"#" + plugins.SimpleSearchPlugin.containerId + " .button:hover {\n" +
	"\tborder-color: [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];\n" +
	"\tbackground-color: [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];\n" +
	"}\n\n" +
	"#" + plugins.SimpleSearchPlugin.btnCloseId + " {\n" +
	"\tfloat: right;\n" +
	"\tmargin: -5px -1em 5px 5px;\n" +
	"}\n\n" +
	"#" + plugins.SimpleSearchPlugin.btnOpenId + " {\n" +
	"\tfloat: left;\n" +
	"\tmargin-top: 5px;\n" +
	"}\n" +
	"/*}}}*/";
store.addNotification("StyleSheetSimpleSearch", refreshStyles);

// override Story.search()
Story.prototype.search = function(text, useCaseSensitive, useRegExp) {
	highlightHack = new RegExp(useRegExp ? text : text.escapeRegExp(), useCaseSensitive ? "mg" : "img");
	var matches = store.search(highlightHack, null, "excludeSearch");
	var q = useRegExp ? "/" : "'";
	plugins.SimpleSearchPlugin.displayResults(matches, q + text + q);
};

// override TiddlyWiki.search() to sort by relevance
TiddlyWiki.prototype.search = function(searchRegExp, sortField, excludeTag, match) {
	var candidates = this.reverseLookup("tags", excludeTag, !!match);
	var primary = [];
	var secondary = [];
	var tertiary = [];
	for(var t = 0; t < candidates.length; t++) {
		if(candidates[t].title.search(searchRegExp) != -1) {
			primary.push(candidates[t]);
		} else if(candidates[t].tags.join(" ").search(searchRegExp) != -1) {
			secondary.push(candidates[t]);
		} else if(candidates[t].text.search(searchRegExp) != -1) {
			tertiary.push(candidates[t]);
		}
	}
	var results = primary.concat(secondary).concat(tertiary);
	if(sortField) {
		results.sort(function(a, b) {
			return a[sortField] < b[sortField] ? -1 : (a[sortField] == b[sortField] ? 0 : +1);
		});
	}
	return results;
};

} //# end of "install only once"
//}}}
/%EPL Auditory Physics Group[img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space10x11.gif]<hr/>%/
[img[http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/images/EarwickiTitle.png]] @@color(white):EPL Auditory Physics Group@@
http://web.mit.edu/apg/
Small hands, relinquish all:
Nothing the fist can hold,&mdash;
Not power, not love, not gold&mdash;
But suffers from the cold,
And is about to fall.

The mind, at length bereft
Of thinking, and its pain,
Will soon disperse again,
And nothing will remain:
No, not a thought be left.

Exhort the closing eye,
Urge the resisting ear
To say, "The thrush is here";
To say, "His song is clear";
To live, before it die.

Small hands, relinquish all:
Nothing the fist can hold,
Not power, not love, not gold,
But suffers from the cold,
And is about to fall.

The mind, at length bereft
Of thinking and its pain,
Will soon disperse again,
And nothing will remain:
No, not a thing be left.

Only the ardent eye,
Only the listening ear
Can say, "The thrush was here!"
Can say, "His song was clear!"
Can live, before it die.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Edna St. Vincent Millay
<html></br></html>
[img[John Snow, 1854|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/SnowCholeraMap1.png]]
Some time after midnight on the twenty-first of December it began to snow. By morning in the gray spectral light of a brief and obscure winter sun the fields lay dead-white and touched with a phosphorous glow as if producing illumination of themselves, and the snow was still wisping down thickly, veiling the trees beyond the creek and the mountain itself, falling softly, and softly, faintly sounding in the immense white silence.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Cormac ~McCarthy, //The Orchard Keeper//
>(Not every doctor can look into a mouse's ear without laughing.)
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- E.B. White, //Stuart Little//
These are amazing: each
Joining a neighbor, as though speech
Were a still performance.
Arranging by chance

To meet as far this morning
From the world as agreeing
With it, you and I
Are suddenly what the trees try

To tell us we are:
That their merely being there
Means something; that soon
We may touch, love, explain.

And glad not to have invented
Some comeliness, we are surrounded:
A silence already filled with noises,
A canvas on which emerges

A chorus of smiles, a winter morning.
Placed in a puzzling light, and moving,
Our days put on such reticence
These accents seem their own defense.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- John Ashbery
>The tendency was always strong to believe that whatever receives a name must be an entity or being, having an independent existence of its own; and if no real entity answering to the name could be found, men did not for that reason suppose that none existed, but imagined that it was something peculiarly abstruse and mysterious.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- John Stuart Mill
/% from an Editor's note (pg 5) by JS Mill in James Mill's "Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind," 1869.  %/
From the manga //Uzumaki -- Spiral into Horror// by Junji Ito

[img[Junji Ito|http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/images/uzumaki-cochlea2.png]]

[img[Junji Ito|http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/images/uzumaki-spirals2.png]]
[img[Vincent Van Gogh, 1889|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/van-gogh-starry-night.jpg][The Starry Night]]
/*{{{*/
#sidebarTabs {
	padding-top: 0.3em;
}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel {
	background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];
}
/*}}}*/
/*{{{*/
body {
	background: [[ColorPalette::Background]];
	color: [[ColorPalette::Foreground]];
}

a{
	color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];
}

a:hover{
	background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];
	color: [[ColorPalette::Background]];
}

a img{
	border: 0;
}


.zoomer {background:none; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}

.annotation {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border:2px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];}

h1,h2,h3,h4,h5 {
	color: [[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]];
	background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];
}

.button {
	color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];
	border: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::Background]];
}

.button:hover {
	color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];
	background: [[ColorPalette::HCELightGray]];
	border-color: [[ColorPalette::HCEMidGray]];
}

.button:active {
	color: [[ColorPalette::Background]];
	background: [[ColorPalette::HCEDarkGray]];
	border: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::HCEDarkerGray]];
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.headerShadow {
	color: [[ColorPalette::Foreground]];
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.headerShadow a {
	font-weight: normal;
	color: [[ColorPalette::Background]];
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.headerForeground a {
	font-weight: normal;
	color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];
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.tabSelected{
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	background: [[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]];
	border-left: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];
	border-top: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];
	border-right: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];
}

.tabUnselected {
	color: [[ColorPalette::Background]];
	background: [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];
}

.tabContents {
	color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];
	background: [[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]];
	border: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];
}

.tabContents .button {
	 border: 0;}

#sidebar {
}

#sidebarOptions input {
	border: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];
}

#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel {
	background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];
}

#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a {
	border: none;
	color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];
}

#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a:hover {
	color: [[ColorPalette::Background]];
	background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];
}

#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a:active {
	color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];
	background: [[ColorPalette::Background]];
}

.wizard {
	background: [[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]];
	border-top: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];
	border-left: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];
}

.wizard h1 {
	color: [[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]];
}

.wizard h2 {
	color: [[ColorPalette::Foreground]];
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.wizardStep {
	background: [[ColorPalette::Background]];
	border-top: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];
	border-bottom: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];
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}

.wizard .button {
	color: [[ColorPalette::Background]];
	background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];
	border-top: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryLight]];
	border-right: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];
	border-bottom: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];
	border-left: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryLight]];
}

.wizard .button:hover {
	color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryLight]];
	background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];
	border-color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryLight]];
}

.wizard .button:active {
	color: [[ColorPalette::Background]];
	background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];
	border-top: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryLight]];
	border-right: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];
	border-bottom: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];
	border-left: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryLight]];
}

#messageArea {
	border: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::HCEDarkGray]];
	background: [[ColorPalette::HCELightGray]];
	color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];
}

#messageArea .button {
	padding: 0.2em 0.2em 0.2em 0.2em;
	color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];
	background: [[ColorPalette::Background]];
}

.popup {
	background: [[ColorPalette::Background]];
	border: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];
}

.popup hr {
	color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];
	background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];
	border-bottom: 1px;
}

.popup li.disabled {
	color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];
}

.popup li a, .popup li a:visited {
	color: [[ColorPalette::DarkerGray]];
	border: none;
}

.popup li a:hover {
	background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];
	color: [[ColorPalette::Background]];
	border: none;
}

.tiddler .defaultCommand {
 font-weight: bold;
}

.shadow .title {
	color: [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];
}

.title {
	color: [[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]];
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.subtitle {
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.toolbar {
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.tagging, .tagged {
	border: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]];
	background-color: [[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]];
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.selected .tagging, .selected .tagged {
	background-color: [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];
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.tagging .listTitle, .tagged .listTitle {
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.warning {
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}

.viewer blockquote {
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.viewer td, .viewer tr {
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[img[Constantin Brancusi, 1929|http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/images/brancusi-joyce.png]]
According to Ellmann, when Joyce's father saw Brancusi's portrait of James he remarked, "The boy seems to have changed a good deal." 
>Numbers it is. All music when you come to think. Two multiplied by two divided by half is twice one. Vibrations: chords those are. One plus two plus six is seven. Do anything you like with figures juggling. Always find out this equal to that, symmetry under a cemetery wall. He doesn't see my mourning. Callous: all for his own gut. Musemathematics. And you think you're listening to the etherial. But suppose you said it like: Martha, seven times nine minus //x// is thirty-five thousand. Fall quite flat. It's on account of the sounds it is.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- James Joyce, //Ulysses//, "Sirens"
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<<timeline modified 40>>
When he realized he was lost, he did as Sam had coached and drilled him: made a cast to cross his backtrack. He had not been going very fast for the last two or three hours, and he had gone even less fast since he left the compass and watch on the bush. So he went slower still now, since the tree could not be very far; in fact, he found it before he really expected to and turned and went to it. But there was no bush beneath it, no compass nor watch, so he did next as Sam had coached and drilled him: made his next circle in the opposite direction and much larger, so that the pattern of the two of them would bisect his track somewhere, but crossing no trace nor mark anywhere of his feet or any feet, and now he was going faster though still not panicked, his heart beating a little more rapidly but strong and steady enough, and this time it was not even the tree because there was a down log beside it which he had never seen before and beyond the log a little swamp, a seepage of moisture somewhere between earth and water, and he did what Sam had coached and drilled him as the next and the last, seeing as he sat down on the log the crooked print, the warped indentation in the wet ground which while he looked at it continued to fill with water until it was level full and the water began to overflow and the sides of the print began to dissolve away. Even as he looked up he saw the next one, and, moving the one beyond it; moving, not hurrying, running, but merely keeping pace with them as they appeared before him as though they were being shaped out of thin air just one constant pace short of where he would lose them forever and be lost forever himself, tireless, eager, without doubt or dread, panting a little above the strong rapid little hammer of his heart, emerging suddenly into a little glade and the wilderness coalesced. It rushed, soundless, and solidified -- the tree, the bush, the compass and the watch glinting where a ray of sunlight touched them.  Then he saw the bear. It did not emerge, appear: it was just there, immobile, fixed in the green and windless noon's hot dappling, not as big as he had dreamed it but as big as he had expected, bigger, dimensionless against the dappled obscurity, looking at him. Then it moved. It crossed the glade without haste, walking for an instant into the sun's full glare and out of it, and stopped again and looked back at him across one shoulder. Then it was gone. It didn't walk into the woods. It faded, sank back into the wilderness without motion as he had watched a fish, a huge old bass, sink back into the dark depths of its pool and vanish without even any movement of its fins.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- William Faulkner, from //The Bear//
#Shera CA. The spiral staircase: Tonotopic microstructure and cochlear tuning. Keynote address, Midwest Auditory Research Conference / Neuroscience Symposium, 2014.
#Shera CA. Macromechanics of hearing: The unknown known. Plenary lecture, 12th International Mechanics of Hearing Workshop, Cape Sounio, Greece, 2014.
#Shera CA. The spiral staircase: Tonotopic microstructure and cochlear tuning. 12th International Mechanics of Hearing Workshop, Cape Sounio, Greece, 2014.
#Verhulst S, Shera CA. What the variability in tone-burst otoacoustic emission and brainstem response latency tells us about the underlying cochlear mechanics. 12th International Mechanics of Hearing Workshop, Cape Sounio, Greece, 2014.
#Sumner CJ, Wells TT, Bergevin C, Palmer AR, Oxenham AJ, Shera CA. Comparing otoacoustic, auditory-nerve, and behavioral estimates of cochlear tuning in the ferret. //Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs.// 2014;37:~PD017.
#Shera CA. Ripple effect ~ Do random micromechanical irregularities distort the cochlear frequency map? ~Eaton-Peabody Laboratories, 2013.
#Shera CA. Do otoacoustic emissions distort the cochlear frequency map? Boys Town National Research Hospital, 2013.
#Shera CA. What fire is in mine ears. Neuroscience Grand Rounds, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2013.
#Shera CA. This is spinal tap. Invited presentation, Science on Screen, Coolidge Corner Theatre, 2013.  [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/talks/Shera-SpinalTap-2013.pdf]], [[video|http://youtu.be/bmWIqekH0Qg]]
#Shera CA. Why are human otoacoustic delays so long? Boys Town National Research Hospital, 2011.
#Shera CA, Bergevin C, Kalluri K, Mc Laughlin M, Michelet P, van der Heijden M, Joris PX. Otoacoustic estimates of cochlear tuning: Testing predictions in macaque. 11th International Mechanics of Hearing Workshop, Williamstown, 2011.
#Bergevin C, Walsh EJ, ~McGee J, Shera CA. Effects of size on stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emission delays: Evidence from the tiger ear. Eastern Auditory Retreat, Columbia University, 2010. 
#Shera CA. The fire within the ear. Center for Studies in Physics and Biology, Rockefeller University, 2009. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/talks/shera-CSPBRU2009.pdf]]
#Shera CA. The fire within the ear. Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, 2009.
#Voss SE,  Horton NJ, Sheth KN, Adegoke MF, Rosand J, Shera CA. Detecting changes in intracranial pressure using emissions from the inner ear. MEMRO Symposium, Stanford, 2009.
#Shera CA. Shampooing, skydiving, and the cochlear amplifier. Invited presentation, Special Session on Theory Construction in Auditory Perception, Acoustical Society of America, Portland, 2009. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/talks/shera-ASA2009.pdf]]
#Bergevin C, Shera CA. Long time coming: Modeling sound emission from the ear. Invited presentation, SIAM Conference on Applications of Dynamical Systems, Snowbird, 2009.
#Shera CA. Are different otoacoustic emissions different? Invited presentation, American Academy of Audiology Research Conference, Dallas, 2009. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/talks/shera-AAA-ARC2009.pdf]]
#Shera CA. The fire within the ear. Featured speaker, Biomedical Engineering Day, Boston University, 2009.
#Shera CA. How exceptional is human cochlear tuning? ~Eaton-Peabody Laboratory, 2009. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/talks/shera-EPL2009.pdf]]
#Shera CA. On human cochlear tuning: A triangle of interrelationships. Distinguished Speaker Series, House Ear Institute, 2008.
#Shera CA. On human cochlear tuning: A triangle of interrelationships. Center for Applied Hearing Research, Technical University of Denmark, 2008. 
#Shera CA, Tubis A, Talmadge CL. Testing coherent reflection in chinchilla. Acoustics'08, Paris, 2008. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/talks/shera-ASA2008.pdf]]
#Shera CA. The fire within the ear. Plenary lecture, ~Eaton-Peabody Laboratory 50th Anniversary Symposium, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2008. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/talks/shera-EPL50-2008.pdf]]
#Shera CA. Coherent reflection and its discontents. Boston University, 2008. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/talks/shera-BU2008.pdf]]
#Shera CA. Double, double, toil & trouble: Otoacoustic emission phase and what it tells us. Invited Translational Research Presentation, American Auditory Society, Scottsdale, 2008. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/talks/shera-AAS2008.pdf]]
#Shera CA. Laser amplification with a twist. Mathematical Biosciences Institute, Ohio State University, 2007. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/talks/shera-MBI2007.pdf]]
#Shera CA. Noninvasive measurement of human cochlear tuning. Boys Town National Research Hospital, 2007.
#Shera CA, Kalluri R. Are different otoacoustic emissions different? Keynote address, American ~Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Miami, 2006. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/talks/shera-ASHA2006.pdf]]
#Shera CA. The fire within the ear. Keynote address, ~Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences & Technology, 2006.
#Shera CA, Tubis A, Talmdage CL. Four counter arguments for slow-wave ~OAEs. Ninth International Symposium on the Mechanics of Hearing, Portland, 2005. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/talks/shera-Portland2005.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Tubis A, Talmdage CL. Do short-wave effects suppress the reflection of cochlear traveling waves? College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 2005. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/talks/shera-Columbia2005.pdf]]
#Shera CA. Emergent phenomena in cochlear mechanics. Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics, UCLA, 2005. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/talks/shera-IPAM2005.pdf]]
#Shera CA, Guinan JJ, Oxenham AJ. Noninvasive measurement of human cochlear tuning. Beckman Institute, University of Illinois ~Urbana-Champaign, 2004.
#Shera CA. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions: Evidence for cellular Hopf oscillators in the organ of Corti? National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, 2003. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/talks/shera-NIDCD2003.pdf]]
#Shera CA. The clinical use of ~OAEs: Future directions. Keynote address, American Academy of Audiology, San Antonio, 2003. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/talks/shera-AAA2003.pdf]]
#Shera CA. Thirty-two short slides (and a film) about otoacoustic emissions. Plenary lecture, Eighth International Symposium on the Mechanics of Hearing, Titisee, 2002. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/talks/shera-Titisee2002.pdf]]
#Shera CA. Intensity invariance of fine time structure in basilar-membrane click responses: Implications for cochlear mechanics. International Symposium on Perceptual Consequences of Cochlear Nonlinearity, Hanse Institute for Advanced Study, 2001. [img[pdf|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/pdf.gif][http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/talks/shera-PCCN2001.pdf]]
Not less because in purple I descended
The western day through what you called
The loneliest air, not less was I myself.

What was the ointment sprinkled on my beard?
What were the hymns that buzzed beside my ears?
What was the sea whose tide swept through me there?

Out of my mind the golden ointment rained,
And my ears made the blowing hymns they heard.
I was myself the compass of that sea:

I was the world in which I walked, and what I saw
Or heard or felt came not but from myself;
And there I found myself more truly and more strange.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Wallace Stevens
>The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the people is the demand for their real happiness. To call on them to give up their illusions about their condition is to call on them to give up a condition that requires illusions. The criticism of religion is, therefore, in embryo, the criticism of that vale of tears of which religion is the halo.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Karl Marx, //Critique of Hegel’s "Philosophy of Right,"// 1844
{{imgfloatright{[img[Earwigging|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/earwigging.jpg][Glossary]]}}}
>The way of paradoxes is the way of truth. To test reality we must see it on the tight-rope. When the verities become acrobats we can judge them.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Oscar Wilde, //The Picture of Dorian Gray//

The ''Auditory Physics Group'' at the ~Eaton-Peabody Laboratory of Auditory Physiology ([[EPL|http://research.meei.harvard.edu/epl/]]) works to solve fundamental problems in the mechanics and physiology of the [[auditory system|What About the Ear?]].  Current interests of the group include cochlear nonlinearity and amplification, middle-ear mechanics, and otoacoustic emissions.

Committed to the dialectical intertwine of theory and experiment, the Auditory Physics Group [[appears periodically|News and Events]] as the Hearing Complection Ensemble ([[HCE|Glossary]]).
The peripheral auditory system transforms air-borne pressure waves into neural impulses that are interpreted by the brain as sound and speech. The cochlea of the inner ear is a snail-shaped electro-hydromechanical signal amplifier, frequency analyzer, and transducer with an astounding constellation of performance characteristics, including
* &ensp;sensitivity to sub-atomic displacements with microsecond mechanical response times;
* &ensp;wideband operation spanning three orders-of-magnitude in frequency;
* &ensp;an input dynamic range of 120 dB, corresponding to a million-million-fold change in signal energy;
* &ensp;useful operation even at signal powers 100 times smaller than the background noise; and
* &ensp;ultra-low power consumption (15 &mu;W).
All of this is achieved not with the latest silicon technology or by exploiting the power of quantum computers -- neither has yet approached the performance of the ear -- but by self-maintaining biological tissue, most of which is salty water.

How does the ear do it?
>[Vladimir Kruglov] is one of the only human beings in the history of the species to grab wild tigers by the ears repeatedly and live to tell about it. “I have never let anyone else handle the ears,” he explained…in 2001. “You know, the ears are her steering wheel. You can turn off her teeth with the ears.” 
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- John Vaillant, //The Tiger: A True Story of Vengeance and Survival//
>I wanted to understand that weird-sounding phrase, but I could tell that, to understand it, your whole life would probably have to change.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Wallace Shawn, //The Fever//
All I know:
A digit.
Portraits of number
Color the mind's creation,
Revealing Nature's harmonies
All as one
Flawless plan.
Number or series,
Both are her language.
One to forever--
Numerical bliss.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- HCE
They went to sea in a Sieve, they did,
&emsp;In a Sieve they went to sea:
In spite of all their friends could say,
On a winter's morn, on a stormy day,
&emsp;In a Sieve they went to sea!
And when the Sieve turned round and round,
And every one cried, 'You'll all be drowned!'
They called aloud, 'Our Sieve ain't big,
But we don't care a button! we don't care a fig!
&emsp;In a Sieve we'll go to sea!'
&emsp;&emsp;Far and few, far and few,
&emsp;&emsp;&emsp;Are the lands where the Jumblies live;
&emsp;&emsp;Their heads are green, and their hands are blue,
&emsp;&emsp;&emsp;And they went to sea in a Sieve.

They sailed away in a Sieve, they did,
&emsp;In a Sieve they sailed so fast,
With only a beautiful pea-green veil
Tied with a riband by way of a sail,
&emsp;To a small tobacco-pipe mast;
And every one said, who saw them go,
'O won't they be soon upset, you know!
For the sky is dark, and the voyage is long,
And happen what may, it's extremely wrong
&emsp;In a Sieve to sail so fast!'
&emsp;&emsp;Far and few, far and few,
&emsp;&emsp;&emsp;Are the lands where the Jumblies live;
&emsp;&emsp;Their heads are green, and their hands are blue,
&emsp;&emsp;&emsp;And they went to sea in a Sieve.

The water it soon came in, it did,
&emsp;The water it soon came in;
So to keep them dry, they wrapped their feet
In a pinky paper all folded neat,
&emsp;And they fastened it down with a pin.
And they passed the night in a crockery-jar,
And each of them said, 'How wise we are!
Though the sky be dark, and the voyage be long,
Yet we never can think we were rash or wrong,
&emsp;While round in our Sieve we spin!'
&emsp;&emsp;Far and few, far and few,
&emsp;&emsp;&emsp;Are the lands where the Jumblies live;
&emsp;&emsp;Their heads are green, and their hands are blue,
&emsp;&emsp;&emsp;And they went to sea in a Sieve.

And all night long they sailed away;
&emsp;And when the sun went down,
They whistled and warbled a moony song
To the echoing sound of a coppery gong,
&emsp;In the shade of the mountains brown.
'O Timballo! How happy we are,
When we live in a Sieve and a crockery-jar,
And all night long in the moonlight pale,
We sail away with a pea-green sail,
&emsp;In the shade of the mountains brown!'
&emsp;&emsp;Far and few, far and few,
&emsp;&emsp;&emsp;Are the lands where the Jumblies live;
&emsp;&emsp;Their heads are green, and their hands are blue,
&emsp;&emsp;&emsp;And they went to sea in a Sieve.

They sailed to the Western Sea, they did,
&emsp;To a land all covered with trees,
And they bought an Owl, and a useful Cart,
And a pound of Rice, and a Cranberry Tart,
&emsp;And a hive of silvery Bees.
And they bought a Pig, and some green Jack-daws,
And a lovely Monkey with lollipop paws,
And forty bottles of ~Ring-Bo-Ree,
&emsp;And no end of Stilton Cheese.
&emsp;&emsp;Far and few, far and few,
&emsp;&emsp;&emsp;Are the lands where the Jumblies live;
&emsp;&emsp;Their heads are green, and their hands are blue,
&emsp;&emsp;&emsp;And they went to sea in a Sieve.

And in twenty years they all came back,
&emsp;In twenty years or more,
And every one said, 'How tall they've grown!
For they've been to the Lakes, and the Torrible Zone,
&emsp;And the hills of the Chankly Bore!'
And they drank their health, and gave them a feast
Of dumplings made of beautiful yeast;
And every one said, 'If we only live,
We too will go to sea in a Sieve,--
&emsp;To the hills of the Chankly Bore!'
&emsp;&emsp;Far and few, far and few,
&emsp;&emsp;&emsp;Are the lands where the Jumblies live;
&emsp;&emsp;Their heads are green, and their hands are blue,
&emsp;&emsp;&emsp;And they went to sea in a Sieve.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Edward Lear
if this were the last snowfall
no more halos on evergreens
if this were my last glimpse of winter
what would these eyes see

if this were the last slow curling
of your fingers in my palm
if this were the last I felt you breathing
how would I carry on

this is not the last snowfall
not our last embrace
but if I were that kind of grateful
what would I try to say

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Vienna Teng
The human cochlea, site of the exquisite analog signal processing and detection described earlier, is also the site of the most common and socially isolating form of human sensory impairment.  The World Health Organization estimates that 280 million people worldwide have moderate to profound hearing loss in both ears. Much of this suffering is currently preventable by political and economic means, especially in low- and middle-income countries where infectious disease and malnutrition are important causative factors.  But a significant portion of the problem, including much of that involving age-related or genetic mechanisms, remains incompletely understood and cannot yet be averted or reversed.  We still have much to learn about how the cochlea works, about what can and does go wrong, and about how it might be repaired.
the sun shines for you he said the day we were lying among the rhododendrons on Howth head in the grey tweed suit and his straw hat the day I got him to propose to me yes first I gave him the bit of seedcake out of my mouth and it was leapyear like now yes 16 years ago my God after that long kiss I near lost my breath yes he said was a flower of the mountain yes so we are flowers all a womans body yes that was one true thing he said in his life and the sun shines for you today yes that was why I liked him because I saw he understood or felt what a woman is and I knew I could always get round him and I gave him all the pleasure I could leading him on till he asked me to say yes and I wouldnt answer first only looked out over the sea and the sky I was thinking of so many things he didnt know of Mulvey and Mr Stanhope and Hester and father and old captain Groves and the sailors playing all birds fly and I say stoop and washing up dishes they called it on the pier and the sentry in front of the governors house with the thing round his white helmet poor devil half roasted and the Spanish girls laughing in their shawls and their tall combs and the auctions in the morning the Greeks and the jews and the Arabs and the devil knows who else from all the ends of Europe and Duke street and the fowl market all clucking outside Larby Sharans and the poor donkeys slipping half asleep and the vague fellows in the cloaks asleep in the shade on the steps and the big wheels of the carts of the bulls and the old castle thousands of years old yes and those handsome Moors all in white and turbans like kings asking you to sit down in their little bit of a shop and Ronda with the old windows of the posadas glancing eyes a lattice hid for her lover to kiss the iron and the wineshops half open at night and the castanets and the night we missed the boat at Algeciras the watchman going about serene with his lamp and O that awful deepdown torrent O and the sea the sea crimson sometimes like fire and the glorious sunsets and the figtrees in the Alameda gardens yes and all the queer little streets and pink and blue and yellow houses and the rosegardens and the jessamine and geraniums and cactuses and Gibraltar as a girl where I was a Flower of the mountain yes when I put the rose in my hair like the Andalusian girls used or shall I wear a red yes and how he kissed me under the Moorish wall and I thought well as well him as another and then I asked him with my eyes to ask again yes and then he asked me would I yes to say yes my mountain flower and first I put my arms around him yes and drew him down to me so he could feel my breasts all perfume yes and his heart was going like mad and yes I said yes I will Yes.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- James Joyce, from //Ulysses//
>If we had a keen vision and feeling of all ordinary human life, it would be like hearing the grass grow and the squirrel's heart beat, and we should die of that roar which lies on the other side of silence.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- George Eliot, //Middlemarch//
All afternoon the gramophone
Parl-parled the ~West-Indian weather.
The zebra leaves, the sea
And it all spoke together.

The many-stanzaed sea, the leaves
And it spoke all together.
But you, you used the word,
Your self its honor.

All afternoon the gramophoon,
All afternoon the gramophoon,
The world as word,
Parl-parled the ~West-Indian hurricane.

The world lives as you live,
Speaks as you speak, a creature that
Repeats its vital words, yet balances
The syllable of a syllable.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Wallace Stevens
We dance round in a ring and suppose,
But the Secret sits in the middle and knows.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Robert Frost
One must have a mind of winter
To regard the frost and the boughs
Of the pine-trees crusted with snow;

And have been cold a long time
To behold the junipers shagged with ice,
The spruces rough in the distant glitter

Of the January sun; and not to think
Of any misery in the sound of the wind,
In the sound of a few leaves,

Which is the sound of the land
Full of the same wind
That is blowing in the same bare place

For the listener, who listens in the snow,
And, nothing himself, beholds
Nothing that is not there and the nothing that is.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Wallace Stevens
>There is a square; there is an oblong. The players take the square and place it upon the oblong. They place it very accurately; they make a perfect dwelling-place. Very little is left outside. The structure is now visible; what is inchoate is here stated; we are not so various or so mean; we have made oblongs and stood them upon squares.  This is our triumph; this is our consolation. The sweetness of this content overflowing runs down the walls of my mind, and liberates understanding. Wander no more, I say; this is the end. The oblong has been set upon the square; the spiral is on top.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Virginia Woolf, //The Waves//
//That does not keep me from having a terrible need of -- shall I say the word -- religion. Then I go out at night to paint the stars.//

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Vincent Van Gogh (in a letter to his brother)

The town does not exist
except where one black-haired tree slips
up like a drowned woman into the hot sky.
The town is silent. The night boils with eleven stars.
Oh starry starry night! This is how
I want to die.

It moves. They are all alive.
Even the moon bulges in its orange irons
to push children, like a god, from its eye.
The old unseen serpent swallows up the stars.
Oh starry starry night! This is how
I want to die:

into that rushing beast of the night,
sucked up by that great dragon, to split
from my life with no flag,
no belly,
no cry.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Anne Sexton
Have you ever seen
anything 
in your life
more wonderful

than the way the sun, 
every evening,
relaxed and easy, 
floats toward the horizon

and into the clouds or the hills,
or the rumpled sea,
and is gone&mdash;
and how it slides again

out of the blackness,
every morning,
on the other side of the world,
like a red flower

streaming upward on its heavenly oils,
say, on a morning in early summer,
at its perfect imperial distance&mdash;
and have you ever felt for anything

such wild love&mdash;
do you think there is anywhere, in any language,
a word billowing enough
for the pleasure

that fills you,
as the sun 
reaches out,
as it warms you

as you stand there, 
empty-handed&mdash;
or have you too 
turned from this world&mdash;

or have you too
gone crazy
for power
and things?
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Mary Oliver
The first goal is to see the thing itself
in and for itself, to see it simply and clearly
for what it is.
&emsp;&emsp;&emsp;No symbolism please.

The second goal is to see each individual thing
as unified, as one, with all the other
ten thousand things.
&emsp;&emsp;&emsp;In this regard, a little wine helps a lot.

The third goal is to grasp the first and second goals,
to see the universal and the particular,
simultaneously.
&emsp;&emsp;&emsp;Regarding this one, call me when you get it.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- David Budbill
>[F]rom the hypothesis that the world is a fluctuation, all of the predictions are that if we look at a part of the world we have never seen before, we will find it mixed up, and not like the piece we just looked at. If our order were due to a fluctuation, we would not expect order anywhere but where we have just noticed it... We therefore conclude that the universe is //not// a fluctuation, and that the order is a memory of conditions when things started. This is not to say that we understand the logic of it. For some reason, the universe at one time had a very low entropy for its energy content, and since then the entropy has increased. So that is the way toward the future. That is the origin of all irreversibility, that is what makes the processes of growth and decay, that makes us remember the past and not the future, remember the things which are closer to that moment in history of the universe when the order was higher than now, and why we are not able to remember things where the disorder is higher than now, which we call the future.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Richard P. Feynman, //Lectures on Physics//
After the final no there comes a yes
And on that yes the future world depends.
No was the night. Yes is this present sun.
If the rejected things, the things denied,
Slid over the western cataract, yet one,
One only, one thing that was firm, even
No greater than a cricket's horn, no more
Than a thought to be rehearsed all day, a speech
Of the self that must sustain itself on speech,
One thing remaining, infallible, would be
Enough. Ah! douce campagna of that thing!
Ah! douce campagna, honey in the heart,
Green in the body, out of a petty phrase,
Out of a thing believed, a thing affirmed:
The form on the pillow humming while one sleeps,
The aureole above the humming house...
It can never be satisfied, the mind, never.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Wallace Stevens
1
Among twenty snowy mountains,
The only moving thing
Was the eye of the blackbird.

2
I was of three minds,
Like a tree
In which there are three blackbirds.

3
The blackbird whirled in the autumn winds.
It was a small part of the pantomime.

4
A man and a woman
Are one.
A man and a woman and a blackbird
Are one.

5
I do not know which to prefer,
The beauty of inflections
Or the beauty of innuendoes,
The blackbird whistling
Or just after.

6
Icicles filled the long window
With barbaric glass.
The shadow of the blackbird
Crossed it, to and fro.
The mood
Traced in the shadow
An indecipherable cause.

7
O thin men of Haddam,
Why do you imagine golden birds?
Do you not see how the blackbird
Walks around the feet
Of the women about you?

8
I know noble accents
And lucid, inescapable rhythms;
But I know, too,
That the blackbird is involved
In what I know.

9
When the blackbird flew out of sight,
It marked the edge
Of one of many circles.

10
At the sight of blackbirds
Flying in a green light,
Even the bawds of euphony
Would cry out sharply.

11
He rode over Connecticut
In a glass coach.
Once, a fear pierced him,
In that he mistook
The shadow of his equipage
For blackbirds.

12
The river is moving.
The blackbird must be flying.

13
It was evening all afternoon.
It was snowing
And it was going to snow.
The blackbird sat
In the cedar-limbs.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Wallace Stevens
This site was created using TiddlyWiki, whose author, Jeremy Ruston, writes:
<<<
TiddlyWiki is like a blog because it's divided up into neat little chunks, but it encourages you to read it by hyperlinking rather than sequentially: if you like, a non-linear blog analogue that binds the individual microcontent items into a cohesive whole. 
<<<
Thus, the TiddlyWiki architecture of the site nicely reflects the integrative mission of our group.

To learn more about TiddlyWiki, explore the [[TiddlyWiki web page|http://www.tiddlywiki.com]] or the [[Wikipedia entry|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TiddlyWiki]].
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]For I have learned
To look on nature, not as in the hour	
Of thoughtless youth; but hearing oftentimes	
The still, sad music of humanity,	
Nor harsh nor grating, though of ample power	
To chasten and subdue. And I have felt
A presence that disturbs me with the joy	
Of elevated thoughts: a sense sublime	
Of something far more deeply interfused,	
Whose dwelling is the light of setting suns,	
And the round ocean and the living air,
And the blue sky, and in the mind of man:	
A motion and a spirit, that impels	
All thinking things, all objects of all thought,	
And rolls through all things. Therefore am I still	
A lover of the meadows and the woods,
And mountains; and of all that we behold	
From this green earth; of all the mighty world	
Of eye and ear,—both what they half create,	
And what perceive; well pleased to recognise	
In nature and the language of the sense,
The anchor of my purest thoughts, the nurse,	
The guide, the guardian of my heart, and soul	
Of all my moral being.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- William Wordsworth, from "Lines Composed a  Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey"
The people I love the best
jump into work head first
without dallying in the shallows
and swim off with sure strokes almost out of sight.
They seem to become natives of that element,
the black sleek heads of seals
bouncing like half-submerged balls.

I love people who harness themselves, an ox to a heavy cart,
who pull like water buffalo, with massive patience,
who strain in the mud and the muck to move things forward,
who do what has to be done, again and again.

I want to be with people who submerge
in the task, who go into the fields to harvest
and work in a row and pass the bags along,
who are not parlor generals and field deserters
but move in a common rhythm
when the food must come in or the fire be put out.

The work of the world is common as mud.
Botched, it smears the hands, crumbles to dust.
But the thing worth doing well done
has a shape that satisfies, clean and evident.
Greek amphoras for wine or oil,
Hopi vases that held corn, are put in museums
but you know they were made to be used.
The pitcher cries for water to carry
and a person for work that is real.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Marge Piercy
There is a pleasure in the pathless woods,
There is a rapture on the lonely shore,
There is society, where none intrudes,
By the deep sea, and music in its roar:
I love not man the less, but Nature more,
From these our interviews, in which I steal
From all I may be, or have been before,
To mingle with the Universe, and feel
What I can ne'er express, yet cannot all conceal.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- George Gordon, Lord Byron, from //Childe Harold's Pilgrimage,// Canto iv, Verse 178
>Through his mask Heinrich said, "Did you ever really look at your eye?"
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]]"What do you mean?" Denise said, showing immediate interest, as though we were lazing away a midsummer day on the front porch.
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]]"Your own eye.  Do you know which part is which?"
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]]"You mean like the iris, the pupil?"
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]]"Those are the published parts. What about the vitreous body? What about the lens? The lens is tricky. How many people even know they have a lens? They think 'lens' must be 'camera.' "
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]]"What about the ear?" Denise said in a muffled voice.
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]]"If the eye is a mystery, totally forget the ear. Just say 'cochlea' to somebody, they look at you like, //Who's this guy?//  There's this whole world right inside your own body."
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]]"Nobody even cares," she said.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Don Delillo, //White Noise//
[img[MoHDL|http://www.mechanicsofhearing.org/moh2011/images/MoHDL.png][http://www.mechanicsofhearing.org/mohdl.html]]
''Mechanics of Hearing Digital Library''
Curated by [[HCE|Head Chief Earwigger]] and [[Elizabeth Olson|http://www.columbia.edu/cu/fowlerlab/index.html]]
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[img[Landsat 7, 1999|http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/images/vortex-street.jpg]]
van Karman vortex street visible in the clouds flowing past Alejandro Selkirk Island off the Chilean coast.
I had walked since dawn and lay down to rest on a bare hillside
Above the ocean. I saw through half-shut eyelids a vulture wheeling high up in heaven,
And presently it passed again, but lower and nearer, its orbit narrowing, I understood then
That I was under inspection. I lay death-still and heard the flight-feathers
Whistle above me and make their circle and come nearer.
I could see the naked red head between the great wings
Bear downward staring. I said, "My dear bird, we are wasting time here.
These old bones will still work; they are not for you." But how beautiful he looked, gliding down
On those great sails; how beautiful he looked, veering away in the sea-light over the precipice. I tell you solemnly
That I was sorry to have disappointed him.
To be eaten by that beak and become part of him, to share those wings and those eyes--
What a sublime end of one's body, what an enskyment; what a life after death.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Robinson Jeffers
>In the marshes the buckbean has lifted its feathery mist of flower spikes above the bed of trefoil leaves. The fimbriated flowers are a miracle of workmanship and every blossom exhibits an exquisite disorder of ragged petals finer than lace. But one needs a lens to judge of their beauty: it lies hidden from the power of our eyes, and menyanthes must have bloomed and passed a million times before there came any to perceive and salute her loveliness. The universe is full of magical things patiently waiting for our wits to grow sharper.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Eden Phillpotts, //A Shadow Passes//, 1919
[img[Cartoon, 1738|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/jenkins-ear.jpg]]
Prime Minister Robert Walpole swoons when confronted with earrefutable evidence of Spanish barberism. Captain Robert Jenkins' earreparably pickled pinna incited the English to challenge Spanish power in the New World, provoking the [[War of Jenkins' Ear|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_of_Jenkins%27_Ear]] in 1739.
[img[Thomas Young, from "On the Nature of Light and Colours," 1805|http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/YoungsDiagram1.jpg][On Wave Interference]]
>Through his mask Heinrich said, "Did you ever really look at your eye?"
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]]"What do you mean?" Denise said, showing immediate interest, as though we were lazing away a midsummer day on the front porch.
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]]"Your own eye.  Do you know which part is which?"
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]]"You mean like the iris, the pupil?"
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]]"Those are the published parts. What about the vitreous body? What about the lens? The lens is tricky. How many people even know they have a lens? They think 'lens' must be 'camera.' "
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]]"What about the ear?" Denise said in a muffled voice.
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]]"If the eye is a mystery, totally forget the ear. Just say 'cochlea' to somebody, they look at you like, //Who's this guy?//  There's this whole world right inside your own body."
>[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]]"Nobody even cares," she said.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Don Delillo, //White Noise//

[>img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/cochleaL.jpg]][img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/cochleaR.jpg]]

>A true revelation, it seems to me, will only emerge from stubborn concentration on a solitary problem. The surest &mdash; also the quickest &mdash; way to awake the sense of wonder in ourselves is to look intently, undeterred, at a single object. Suddenly, miraculously, it will reveal itself as something we have never seen before
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- Cesare Pavese, //Dialoghi con Leuc&ograve;,//
>... wonder lurketh in men's ears
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Shakespeare, //Henry V//
You do not have to be good.
You do not have to walk on your knees
for a hundred miles through the desert, repenting.
You only have to let the soft animal of your body
love what it loves.
Tell me about despair, yours, and I will tell you mine.
Meanwhile the world goes on.
Meanwhile the sun and the clear pebbles of the rain
are moving across the landscapes,
over the prairies and the deep trees,
the mountains and the rivers.
Meanwhile the wild geese, high in the clean blue air,
are heading home again.
Whoever you are, no matter how lonely,
the world offers itself to your imagination,
calls to you like the wild geese, harsh and exciting--
over and over announcing your place
in the family of things.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Mary Oliver
What needs to be done?
Fill out the application
and enclose the resume.

Regardless of the length of life,
a resume is best kept short.

Concise, well-chosen facts are de rigueur.
Landscapes are replaced by addresses,
shaky memories give way to unshakable dates.

Of all your loves, mention only the marriage;
of all your children, only those who were born.

Who knows you matters more than whom you know.
Trips only if taken abroad.
Memberships in what but without why.
Honors, but not how they were earned.

Write as if you'd never talked to yourself
and always kept yourself at arm's length.

Pass over in silence your dogs, cats, birds,
dusty keepsakes, friends, and dreams.

Price, not worth,
and title, not what's inside.
His shoe size, not where he's off to,
that one you pass off as yourself.
In addition, a photograph with one ear showing.
What matters is its shape, not what it hears.
What is there to hear, anyway?
The clatter of paper shredders.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Wislawa Szymborska
[img[David Hillis|http://web.mit.edu/~shera/www/images/tree.gif]]
You begin this way:
this is your hand,
this is your eye,
this is a fish, blue and flat
on the paper, almost
the shape of an eye
This is your mouth, this is an O
or a moon, whichever
you like.  This is yellow.

Outside the window
is the rain, green
because it is summer, and beyond that
the trees and then the world,
which is round and has only
the colors of these nine crayons.

This is the world, which is fuller
and more difficult to learn than I have said.
You are right to smudge it that way
with the red and then
the orange: the world burns.

Once you have learned these words
you will learn that there are more
words than you can ever learn.
The word //hand// floats above your hand
like a small cloud over a lake.
The word //hand// anchors
your hand to this table
your hand is a warm stone
I hold between two words.

This is your hand, these are my hands, this is the world,
which is round but not flat and has more colors
than we can see.
It begins, it has an end,
this is what you will
come back to, this is your hand.

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- Margaret Atwood
>the last time I was there a squad of them falling over one another and bawling you couldnt hear your ear supposed to be healthy
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]-- James Joyce, //Ulysses// (episode 18, Penelope)
pity this busy monster,manunkind,

not. Progress is a comfortable disease:
your victim(death and life safely beyond)

plays with the bigness of his littleness
 -- electrons deify one razorblade
into a mountainrange;lenses extend

unwish through curving wherewhen till unwish
returns on its unself.
[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space20x11.gif]][<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]]A world of made
is not a world of born -- pity poor flesh

and trees,poor stars and stones,but never this
fine specimen of hypermagical
ultraomnipotence. We doctors know

a hopeless case if -- listen: there's a hell
of a good universe next door;let's go

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- e.e. cummings
somewhere i have never traveled, gladly beyond
any experience, your eyes have their silence:
in your most frail gesture are things which enclose me,
or which i cannot touch because they are too near

your slightest look easily will unclose me
though i have closed myself as fingers,
you open always petal by petal myself as Spring opens
(touching skillfully, mysteriously) her first rose

or if your wish be to close me, i and
my life will shut very beautifully, suddenly,
as when the heart of this flower imagines
the snow carefully everywhere descending;

nothing which we are to perceive in this world equals
the power of your intense fragility: whose texture
compels me with this color of its countries,
rendering death and forever with each breathing

(i do not know what it is about you that closes
and opens; only something in me understands
the voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses)
nobody, not even the rain, has such small hands

[<img[ |http://web.mit.edu/apg/images/space88x11.gif]] -- e.e. cummings