OPTIMIZING YOUR DIET

Best Foods for Specific Vitamins

 

Vitamins: Fat Soluble and Water Soluble

The fat soluble vitamins A,D, E and K are best absorbed when taken with food containing a little fat or oil. Vitamins are absorbed through the small intestines. They are stored in the body's fatty tissues and do not need to be consumed on a daily basis. Excess levels of vitamins can be toxic or harmful to the body. One should take them only according to prescribed dosages.

Water soluble vitamins C, the B Vitamins: thiamin (B1), B12, B6, riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), folic acid, pantothenic acid (B5) and biotin are dissolved in water. As a result of being water soluable, they are not stored in the body.

Precursor: a compound that is not a nutrient that the body turns into a nutrient, a vitamin. Precursors are called provitamins.

Antioxidant: protects cell membranes (which are partially composed of fat) from free radicals throughout the body by intercepting them before they can do damage to the membrane. Also keeps the fat in lipoproteins from being oxidized which can lead to cardiovascular disease. Once it is used it becomes neutralized but may be regenerated by Vitamin C.

To check the nutrient composition of any food go to the USDA data base: http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search/

 

VITAMIN A (Retinol & Beta-Carotene):

Vitamin A is considered an antioxidant which helps prevent damage from free radicals. Vitamin A helps protect the skin and all mucous membranes, is essential for healthy eyes, helps fight inflammatory conditions like arthritis, helps the immune system, delays signs of aging, and is needed for embryo developmental.

Most accessible food sources for students are in bold font.

Food Sources:

Retinol (the animal sources): cod and halibut liver oils, beef, calf, lamb and chicken livers, butter, cheddar cheese, eggs, milk, mackerel, beef, canned sardines.

Beta-Carotene (pro-Vitamin A, the plant sources): kale, regular carrots, parsley, spinach, sweet potato, dried apricots, watercress, broccoli, mango, tomatoes, cabbage, frozen peas.

Example:

1/2 medium cantelope contains 466 µg or 1,555 IU of Vitamin A

1/2 cup cooked spinach contains 472 µg or 1,572 IU of Vitamin A

1/2 cup chopped carrots contains 385 µg or 1,283 IU of Vitamin A

RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance):

Males 19-30 years of age = 900 µg (mcg or micrograms) or 3000 IUs (International units)

Females 19-30 years of age = 700 µg or 2333 IUs.

UL (Tolerable Upper Intake Level): Amounts taken above this level may be toxic or unsafe.

Males and females 19 years of age and older = 3,000 mcg/day or 10,000 IU

In order to avoid toxicity, high potency vitamin A supplements should not be taken without medical supervision. Enough vitamin A can easily be obtained from the proper foods.

 

VITAMIN D

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin. It is essential for calcium metabolism. It can be produced by the skin of the body after UVB sun exposure (5-15 minutes on sunscreen-free light skin three times per week between 11 am & 2 pm), or by eating foods containing it. Dark skinned people don't synthesize the vitamin as easily due to increased pigmentation in the skin thereby decreasing UVB absorption. In the winter above 40 latitude, UVB rays are insufficient for the skin to produce vitamin D adequately. The body can store vitamin D to get through the winter months if the skin has been exposed adequately during the spring, summer and fall. Calcium is necessary for proper nerve function, bone growth and maintenance.

Food Sources:

Pink salmon, sardines, mackerel, kippers, herring, tuna, Quaker Nutrition for Women Instant Oatmeal (fortified oatmeal), fortified cow's milk, fortified orange juice, fortified cereal, egg yolks, margarine, and some yogurts.

Example:

Canned pink salmon, 3 oz. = 530 IU or 13.3 µg

Orange juice, fortified with vitamin D, 8 oz. = 100 IU or 2.5 µg

RDA:

Adults 19 years and older = 5µg/day or 200 IU

UL:

Adults 19 years and older = 50 mcg/day or 2000 IU

Some medications interfere with vitamin D metabolism. Do not take vitamin D supplements without medical supervision.

 

VITAMIN E

The primary function of alpha-tocopherol, one of eight forms in the nutrient, is as an antioxidant and, as a result, protects cell membranes. It is actually part of the cell membrane. By protecting the cell membrane it also protects the immune system during oxidative stress. Therefore, it may serve to protect the body from heart disease, some cancers, stroke, viral illnesses, Alzheimer's disease, other types of neurodegenerative diseases and prevent long-term complications associated with diabetes. There is still much research pending on the effects of vitamin E. It must be taken with food in order to be absorbed.

Food Sources:

Wheat germ oil, sunflower seeds, fresh almonds and hazelnuts, mayonnaise, wheat germ, raw peanuts with skins, fresh brazil nuts, soy oil, turnip greens, blackberries, cooked oatmeal, all sweet potatoes, whole grain rye, butter, asparagus, spinach, avocado, corn oil, canola oil, safflower oil, sunflower oil, and broccoli.

Example:

1 oz. almonds = 7.3 mg

1 Tablespoon (Tbs) olive oil = 1.9 mg

1/2 cup raw spinach = 1.8 mg

1/4 cup cooked and salted sunflower seeds = 8.35 mg

RDA:

All adults 19 years of age or older = 15 mg/day (miligrams) or 22.5 IU

UL:

Adults 19 and older years of age = 1,000 mg/day or 1,500 IU

Individuals with certain medical conditions should not take vitamin E supplements without close medical supervision. Some medications may affect the absorption of vitamin E. If unsure, do not take vitamin E supplements without checking with your health care provider.

 

VITAMIN K

Vitamin K is a fat soluble vitamin which aids the function of proteins through calcium binding in blood clotting/coagulation. There are two forms of vitamin K, K2 (MK-n) and MK-4. Vitamin K is not stored well in the body but vitamin K can recycle itself so very little is actually needed in the diet. Bacteria in the intestines produce vitamin K2. Many foods contain vitamin K so it is easily obtained in the diet.

Food Sources:

Raw cauliflower, raw brussels sprouts, raw kale, green tea, turnip greens, spinach, tomatoes, raw parsley, raw swiss chard, runner beans, cooked broccoli, cooked soybeans, vegetable oils such as olive, cottonseed, soybean, and canola. Hydrogenation of oils may decrease the absorption and effect of vitamin K.

Example:

1 Tbs olive oil = 6.6 mcg

1 cup cooked broccoli = 420 mcg

1 Tbs mayonnaise = 11.9 mcg

1 cup raw parsley = 324 mcg

RDA:

Males, 19 years and older = 120 mcg/day

Females, 19 years and older = 90 mcg/day

UL:

All ages: No data available. Food sources alone should be source of vitamin K acquisition.

Some medications may reduce or interfere with the absorption of vitamin K including large doses of vitamins A and E. Always consult with your health care provider before taking any supplements.

 

VITAMIN C

Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin. It has many functions in the body: as an antioxidant fighting free radicals, it has a role in the synthesis of collagen which forms muscles, tendons, ligaments, bone, and blood vessels (therefore contributes to wound healing and tissue repair), it has a role in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, the oxidation of the amino acid tyrosine, the synthesis of the amino acid carnitine which helps fat get transported to the mitochondria, and in the metabolism of cholesterol to bile acids. It increases the absorption of iron, decreases the absorption of copper, and interracts with other antioxidants like vitamin E. Vitamin C is important in the formation of antibodies, as a natural antihistamine, in the metabolism of folic acid, in the stimulation of white blood cells, in the formation of corticosteroid hormones (stress hormones), and maintains healthy blood vessels, skin, gums, bones and teeth.

Vitamin C loses its strength in foods the longer those foods have been picked, when exposed to air, processed, boiled or stored for long periods. Oxygen, metals, heat, light and alkalis destroy vitamin C. Foods containing vitamin C should be eaten as soon as possible when fresh.

Food Sources:

Guavas, blackcurrants, red bell peppers, kale, parsley, green sweet peppers, broccoli, brussels sprouts, mustard greens, mango, watercress, cauliflower, red cabbage, strawberries, papayas, green and white cabbage, spinach, oranges and orange juice, lemon juice, grapefruit and grapefruit juice, elderberries, calf liver, turnips, peaches, asparagus, cantaloupe, green onions, tangerines, oysters, new lima beans, black-eye peas, soybeans, green peas, radishes, raspberries, yellow summer squash, sweet potatoes, loganberries, tomatoes, new potatoes, lettuce, bananas, kiwi, honeydew, canned pineapple, cranberry juice, vegetable juice, tomato juice, rutabaga, kohlrabi, and limes.

Example:

1 medium orange = 70 mg

1 cup cranberry juice = 90 mg

1 whole guava, 3 oz. = 165 mg

1/2 cup fresh strawberries = 43 mg

RDA:

Males: 19 years and older (non-smoker) = 90 mg/day

Females: 19 years and older (non-smoker) = 75 mg/day

UL:

Males: 19 years and older (non-smoker) = 2000 mg/day

Females: 19 years and older (non-smoker) = 2000 mg/day

Excessive doses of Vitamin C are not recommended. Medications such as birth control pills and aspirin taken frequently can lower vitamin C levels. Vitamin C may also interfere with blood thinning medications as well as certain laboratory tests. Tell your health care provider if you are taking a vitamin C supplement if you are getting a lab test done.

 

THE B VITAMINS

Vitamin B1 or thiamin, Vitamin B2 or riboflavin,Vitamin B3 or niacin, Vitamin B6, biotin, Vitamin B12, and pantothenic acid or B5 are all water soluble vitamins and have many important functions as coenzymes or constituents of coenzymes. In combination they all help the body function in the following ways: as an antioxidant, metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins, fat synthesis, protein synthesis, amino acid metabolism, glucose metabolism, energy production, metabolize some drugs and toxins, energy metabolism, removal of carbon dioxide, nucleic acid metabolism, nervous tissue function and more.

 

THIAMIN (B1)

Easily destroyed by caffeine, alcohol, coffee and tea in large amounts, food additives like sulphites, exposure to air, water, food processing, overcooking, antacids, tannins, excess sugar and estrogen. Stress can also reduce absorption. Thiamin functions in carbohydrate metabolism, aids in efficient digestion, maintains the nervous system, assists with energy production, promotes healthy brain activity and memory.

Food Sources

Fortified breakfast cereal or wheat germ breakfast cereal, soybeans, peanuts, sunflower seeds, peanuts, brazil nuts, whole grains, pork, oatmeal, whole wheat, hazelnuts, brown rice, rye, pinto beans, red beans, millet, buckwheat, frozen peas, walnuts, garlic, pumpkin seeds, potatoes, chicken. Magnesium is necessary for thiamin activation. Some foods interfere with thiamin metabolism such as large quantities of raw fish, tea, coffee (including decaffeinated), ferns, black currants and red cabbage.

Example:

1 cup fortified breakfast cereal = .5-2.0 mg

1 cup long grain fortified white rice = .26 mg

1- 3 oz. serving of lean cooked pork = .74 mg

RDA

Males age 18 and older = 1.2 mg/day

Females age14-18 = 1.1 mg/day

Females age 19 and older = 1.1 mg/day

UL

No known toxic effects up to 200 mg/day. Always consult your health care provider when considering taking a supplement.

 

RIBOFLAVIN (B2)

Riboflavin is water soluble and very light sensitive. Its primary function is as flavin coenzymes. Flavins are important for fat, protein and carbohydrate metabolism (energy production), the metabolism of drugs and toxins, as an antioxidant, may protect against cataract formation, maintains the integrity of mucous membranes, activates vitamin B6, promotes nail, skin and hair health, deficiency may impair iron absorption and if not corrected can lead to anemia.

Food Sources

Fortified cereal, yeast extract, organ meats, almonds, wheat germ, cheddar cheese, skim milk, cooked eggs, cooked beef, boiled or steamed broccoli, asparagus, and spinach, chicken, broiled halibut or salmon, sunflower seeds, kale, parsley, soy flour, millet, enriched breads, and whole wheat bread.

Example:

1 cup fortified cereal = .59 to 2.27 mg

1 oz. almonds = .24 mg

1 large cooked egg = .27 mg

1 oz. cheddar cheese = .11

RDA

Male adolescents 14-18 years of age = 1.3 mg/day

Male adults 19 years and older = 1.3 mg/day

Female adolescents 14-18 years of age = 1.0 mg/day

Female adults 19 years and older = 1.1 mg/day

UL

No toxic or adverse side effects are currently known.

 

NIACIN (B3)

A water soluble vitamin which gets its name from nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. These are used to form coenzymes in the body, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), and are not related to the nicotine found in tobacco. Its primary function is to assist other enzymes for oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions. NAD functions in the degradation of carbohydrates, fats, proteins and alcohol while NADP functions in the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol. Niacin helps maintain the nervous system, regulate blood sugar, maintain integrity of the skin, helps in the synthesis of various hormones, is essential for metabolism for energy production, assists in efficient blood flow, and works as an antioxidant. Nicotinic acid only is helpful in lowering cholesterol while niacinamide only is helpful in the treatment of osteoarthritis & rheumatoid arthritis. Separate supplements of nicotinic acid or niacinamide should not be taken without consultation with a certified health care provider.

Food Sources

Yeast, chicken (light meat), turkey (light meat), lean beef, salmon, tuna packed in water, whole wheat bread, cereals, especially fortified cereals, enriched pasta, lentils, lima beans, peanuts-raw with skins, chicken, eggs, pork chop, wild rice, cheddar cheese, white fish, sesame and sunflower seeds, cheddar cheese, mung beans, wild rice, frozen peas, brown rice, wheat germ, whole grain buckwheat, avocados, barley, almonds, peas, and potatoes. Some niacin is also found in tea, milk, leafy green vegetables, and coffee.

Example:

3 oz. tuna packed in water = 11.3 mg

1 cup fortified cereal = 20-27 mg

1 cup cooked enriched pasta = 2.3 mg

1 cup brewed coffee = .5 mg

RDA

Male adolescents 14-18 years of age = 16 mg/day

Male adults 19 years and older = 16 mg/day

Female adolescents 14-18 years of age = 14 mg/day

Female adults 19 years and older = 14 mg/day

The RDA for niacin can easily be accomplished for most of the population by eating a varied diet.

UL

Male and female adolescents 14-18 years of age = 30 mg/day

Male and female adults 19 years of age and older = 35 mg/day

No adverse affects are known regarding niacin in foods. Absorption of niacin can be affected by certain medications and health conditions including oral contraceptives and treatment for high cholesterol. Always check with your health care provider before taking any supplement.

 

PANTOTHENIC ACID (B5)

Pantothenic acid (B5) is a water soluble vitamin. It can also come in the supplement form of calcium pantothenate. Essentially they are considered the same thing. It is one of the safest of all vitamins. It forms a part of coenzyme A (CoA) and acyl carrier protein (ACP) which are required for chemical reactions that create energy from carbohydrates, fats and proteins as well as other various and essential chemical reactions in the body. Pantothenic acid is destroyed by heat, acids (like vinegar), alkali (bicarbonate), canning, freezing,and food processing.

Food Sources

Yeast, liver, kidney and other organ meats, peanuts, nuts in general, wheat germ, soybean flour, split peas, egg yolks, oatmeal, sunflower seeds, split peas, legumes, chicken, yogurt, mushrooms, sweet potatoes, milk, broccoli, brown rice, avocados, cauliflower, kale, blackeye peas, whole wheat bread, fish, tuna, and lobster.

Example:

1 whole avocado = 1.68 mg

3 oz. of cooked cod = .15 mg

8 oz. yogurt = 1.35 mg

l large egg = .61 mg

RDA

Male and female adolescents 14 - 18 years of age = 5mg/day

Male and female adults 19 years of age and older = 5 mg/day

UL

Pantothenic acid is not known to cause toxicity in humans. Chemicals such as caffeine, sulfur drugs,and alcohol and some medications such as sleeping pills, oral contraceptives, certain heart medications and blood lipid lowering medications, may affect the concentration and requirement of panthothenic acid. Note: Pantethine is not a vitamin. Pantethine is a derivative of pantothenic acid and is used as a cholesterol lowering treatment. Pantethine should not be used as a supplement without the advice of a qualified health care provider. A daily multivitamin/mineral supplement and a varied diet should provide the RDA of pantothenic acid (B5).

 

FOLIC ACID

Folic acid is a numberless B complex vitamin. Folic acid and folate are used interchangeably. Folic acid is most frequently used as a food supplement but rarely occurs naturally in foods. Folates are found in food and in the human body. Folate is critical for cell division/nucleic acid metabolism (DNA synthesis), and the metabolism of amino acids methionine and glycine. It works in conjuction with B6 and B12 in metabolizing homocysteine. (Increased build up of homocysteine levels in the blood may be an indicator of heart disease.) Folic acid also helps maintain mucous membrane integrity and healthy skin, helps the immune system, is necessary for red blood cell production and various other functions. Folic acid is extremely important for the developing fetus and preventing neural tube defects as well as other pregnancy problems.

Folic acid is easily destroyed by food processing, heat and light. Many chemicals and medications such as antacids, excess alcohol, aspirin and ibuprofen (NSAIDS), drugs or medications used for cancer, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, anticonvulsants, cholesterol lowering, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, some antibiotics, and some high blood pressure medications may affect its absorption or status. People deficient in vitamin B12 or zinc may also be deficient in folic acid.

Food Sources

Yeast, fortified cereal, orange juice from concentrate, cooked spinach, cooked asparagus, cooked lentils, cooked garbanzo beans, cooked lima beans, whole wheat bread, cooked pasta, cooked rice, black-eye peas, rice germ, soy flour, wheat-germ, beef liver, wheat bran, kidney beans, mung beans, walnuts, kale, beet greens, mustard greens, salad greens, peanut butter, broccoli, barley, brussels sprouts, almonds, oatmeal, cabbage, eggs, avocado, green beans, oily fish, dates, bananas, blackberries, and potatoes.

Example:

1/2 cup cooked asparagus (approximately 6 spears) = 131 mcg

1 cup fortified cooked rice = 60 mcg

1 cup fortified cereal = 200-400 mcg

6 oz. orange juice from concentrate = 82 mcg

RDA in DFE

Male and female adolescents ages 14-18 and male and female adults over 19 years of age = 400 mcg/day

Pregnant women require 600 mcg/day

DFE means Dietary Folate Equivalents another type of unit of measure for folate in foods, particularly since foods have been fortified. DFE reflects a higher bioavailability of folic acid in fortified foods or supplements compared to naturally occurring folate in foods.

UL

Male and Female adolescents 14 - 18 years of age = 800 mcg/day

Male and Female adults 19 years of age and older = 1,000 mcg/day

No adverse affects from excessive folate intake are known, however it is recommended that 1,000 mcg/day be the upper limit. Too much folic acid may interfere with zinc absorption. Folic acid works with other B vitamins so it is important to include other B vitamins if supplementation is necessary. B12 deficiencies may be masked by large doses of folic acid supplementation. Vitamin B complex vitamins are available over-the-counter. Always consult with your certified health care provider when considering vitamin supplementation.

 

BIOTIN

Biotin is water soluble and is considered part of the B vitamins complex. It functions in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fat, and proteins and works with vitamins B2, B3 and B6 to accomplish this. It also functions in the manufacture of glycogen, fat and detoxification. It is found in food and is manufactured by the bacteria in the intestines in the body. It is essential in cell growth as in the developing fetus. Chronic eating of raw egg whites limits biotin absorption. Cooked egg whites provide no limitation to absorption.

Food Sources

Yeast, soy flour, whole brown rice, peanut butter, walnuts, kidney, liver, barley, pecans, oatmeal, black-eye peas, almonds, cauliflower, mushrooms, wheat bran, lentils, cooked eggs, wheat germ, chicken, pork, lamb, whole wheat bread, oily fish like salmon, milk, cheese, avocado, raspberries, and artichoke.

Example:

1 packet (7 grams) active baker's yeast = 14 mcg

3 oz. cooked liver = 27 mcg

1 large cooked egg = 25 mcg

1 cup raw cauliflower = 4 mcg

RDA

It is reported that there is currently not enough scientific information to establish an RDA.

AI (Adequate Intake)

Adequate Intake is based on current average intakes by scientific based nutrition groups.

Male and female adolescents 14 - 18 years of age = 25 mcg/day

Male and female adults 19 years and older = 30 mcg/day

UL

There is no known level of toxicity for biotin. Some drugs and medications may affect the blood levels of biotin, such as anticonvulsants, sulfa drugs and other antiobiotics, and large doses of pantothenic acid, sometimes subscribed as a cholesterol lowering agent. Always consult with your certified health care provider when considering taking a vitamin/mineral supplement. Biotin can easily be obtained for most people through a varied diet.

 

VITAMIN B6

A water soluble vitamin, it must be used in combination with vitamin B12 for B12 to be absorbed. It is important in the function of the nervous system, it is involved in the function of 100 enzymes, for red blood cell formation and function, in the formation of niacin, in hormone function, nucleic acid synthesis and the immune system, helps in forming proteins and in protein and fat metabolism. Increased protein intake increases the need for vitamin B6.

Food Sources

Sunflower seeds, wheat germ, soybeans, walnuts, soybean flour, lentils, fortified cereals, bananas, lima beans, buckwheat flour, blackeye peas, brown rice, hazelnuts, chickpeas, salmon, skinless turkey, skinless chicken light meat, potatoes, spinach, vegetable juice, avocados, kale, rye flour, white fish, brussels sprouts, beef stewing steak, prunes, sweet potatoes, wholemeal bread, baked beans, frozen peas, and oranges.

Example:

1 cup fortified cereal = .5-2.5 mg

1 medium banana = .68 mg

1 cup cooked spinach = .44 mg

1 oz. english walnuts, plain = .537 mg

 

RDA

Male and female adolescents 14-18 years of age = 1.3mg/day

Male and female adults 19-50 years of age = 1.3 mg/day

UL

Male and female adolescents 14 - 18 years of age = 80 mg/day

Male and female adults 19 years of age and older = 100 mg/day

No toxicity has been shown from ingesting foods with vitamin B6 but has occurred in individuals taking high doses of vitamin B6 supplements (which come in the form of pyridoxine hydrochloride) for long periods of time. Do not take any supplements without consulting a certified health care provider.

 

VITAMIN B12

Vitamin B12 is a water soluble vitamin which contains the mineral, cobalt. Vitamin B12 functions with folic acid in the production of DNA, red blood cells and the fatty lining of nerve cells. It also helps in the production of energy from fats, carbohydrates and proteins. The stomach secretes intrinsic factor (IF) which enables it to be more readily absorbed in the small intestine. Calcium must also be present for B12 to be used by the body. It is easily destroyed in cooking, and is sensitive to light, strong acid, alkali, alcohol, sleeping pills and oral contraceptives.

Food Sources

Fresh fish, lobster, fortified cereals, oysters, steamed clams and mussels, steamed crab, lamb and pork liver, sardines, trout, salmon, tuna, lamb, eggs, lean beef, rockfish, edam cheese, chicken and turkey, steamed crab, brie cheese, haddock, flounder, cheddar cheese, cottage sheese, mozarella cheese, halibut, swordfish, yeast extract, shiitake mushrooms, fermented foods like miso, tempeh, milk or soy milk.

Examples:

Steamed clams, 3 oz. = 84 mcg

Salmon, baked, 3 oz. = 2.4 mcg

Beef, lean, cooked, 3 oz. = 2.1 mcg

1 Egg, large, poached, = .4 mcg

RDA

Male and female adolescents 14 - 18 years of age = 2.4 mcg/day

Male and female adults 19 years of age and older = 2.4 mcg/day

Individuals over 51 may need to take supplements and eat fortified foods based on decreased absorption from food that may accompany aging which is called food bound malabsorption.

UL

There is no known toxicity from vitamin B12 from food or supplements so there is no set UL. Vegans and individuals who do not absorb B12 well may need to take an OTC supplement. Medications may reduce the absorption of vitamin B12 such as proton pump inhibitors, drugs for acid reflux disease (GERD), gastric acid inhibitors, high cholesterol treatments, antibiotics, medication for gout, type 2 diabetes, anaesthetics such as nitrous oxide, and large doses of folic acid supplements may hide vitamin B12 deficiency. A varied diet used by people 50 years of age and younger should satisfy the RDA for vitamin B12. Vegetarians may have difficulty getting enough vitamin B12 from their diet. Always consult with your certified health care provider before taking any supplement.

 

References

Christian, JL, Greger, JL. Nutrition for Living (4th Ed.) Reading, MA: The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc. 1994.

McArdle WD, Katch FI, Katch VL. Sports and Exercise Nutrition (2nd Ed.) Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 2005.

Natow, AB, Heslin, J-A. The Vitamin and Mineral Food Counter. New York: Pocketbooks. 2004.

Linus Pauling Institute's Micronutrient Information Center. Available at: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/index.html. Accessed January 3, 2006, January 10, 2006, January 13, 2006, January 30, 2006, February 1, 2006, February 3, 2006, February 11, 2006.

USDA Nutrient Database for National Reference. Available at: http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search. Accessed April 13, 2006.

USDA Food and Nutrition Products and Services. Available at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=7783. Accessed April 17, 2006.

 

 

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Last updated 11/7/2006 by MIT Sports Medicine: K Davis


Copyright 2005 by MIT