Status Quo Side: Upper Volta
Non-Status Quo Side: Ghana
Conflict Type: Interstate
Issues in Dispute: Territory
Under President Kwame Nkrumah, Ghana early in 1963 allegedly built a school, with a lead-in road, in an area claimed by Upper Volta. Each side appointed commissioners to resolve the dispute. Ghana added a police post. The customs union between the two collapsed, and in July 1964 Upper Volta complained to the OAU. Ghana was conciliatory and further commission meetings ensued.
It was apparent at the OAU that the border complaint masked a broader dispute arising from Nkrumah's suspected expansionist ambitions and neighboring states' suspicion of his support (including military training) of their political opposition. At OCAM's founding in February 1965 these charges led to a strong condemnation of Ghanian support for subversion and a decision of members neighboring Ghana to boycott the forthcoming OAU summit meeting in the Ghanain capital, Accra. Upper Volta also spoke of cutting off Volta River waters feeding Ghana's new industrial complex. Ghana withdrew from the disputed area.
After Nkrumah's downfall, the new Ghanaian regime ended the training of refugees for subversion.
A border agreement in principle with Upper Volta was reached in June 1966, and a commercial accord followed in 1967.
Copyright © 1999 Lincoln P. Bloomfield and Allen Moulton