Cascon Case IWI: Indonesian Independence 1945-49

Status Quo Side: Netherlands

Non-Status Quo Side: Indonesian nationalists

Region: Pacific, East Asia & SE Asia

Conflict Type: Colonial

Issues in Dispute: Independence, Resources

Indonesia_sm99.jpg (236379 bytes)

Phase 1: 1942

Japanese wartime occupation of the oil-and rubber-rich strategically-located Dutch East Indies generated a nationalist movement including armed native militia, which proclaimed an independent Republic at war's end.

Phase 2: 8/17/1945

The Republicans determined to resist Dutch attempted reassertion of control.

Phase 3: 10/1945

Clashes with British and Dutch forces which had accepted the Japanese surrender began. Under US pressure, the Dutch agreed in principle to a federal partnership with the Republic, but then landed in force on Java after improved logistics permitted reestablishing control over the outer islands. A new liberal Dutch government changed policy in October 1946.

Phase 4: 10/14/1946

A ceasefire was concluded and a month later the Linggadjati Agreement recognized de facto Republican control over Java and Sumatra within a federal state. Disagreement over interpretation ensued.

Phase 3-2: 7/21/1947

The Dutch attacked, took control of productive areas of Java and Sumatra, and enforced an economic blockade elsewhere. Incomplete Dutch compliance with a UNSC cease-fire call prompted creation of a UN Good Offices Committee which negotiated the January 19 1948 Renville Agreement on a cease-fire.

Phase 4-2: 1/19/1948

Conflicting interpretations of Renville coincided with Dutch formation of a federal government excluding the Republic, a conservative victory at the Hague, and a Communist-inspired intra-Republican upheaval from which moderate leadership emerged. Talks continued.

Phase 3-3: 12/19/1948

The Dutch broke the Renville Agreement and captured the Republican capital airport at Jakarta plus half the Cabinet. World pressure and Republican successes in Java finally prompted unofficial [Van-Rojen--Roen] negotiations, which led the way to liberation of the capital, agreement on a United States of Indonesia and a cease-fire.

Settled: 12/27/1949

Independence followed a Round Table Conference in the Hague.

Cascon Home Copyright 1999 Lincoln P. Bloomfield and Allen Moulton