Action Plans are plans or systems that indicate how the team has broken down goals into sub goals and then into tasks. Action plans then further define the steps to accomplising the goals and time estimates for completion of each task. Milestones are created in action plans to help teams check their progress.
Agendas are documents sent out to team members before a meeting. Agendas state issues to be discussed about planning a project, team issues, ideas to be brainstormed, and problems to be solved. Properly constructed agendas allow time for dialogue amongst the team members.
Anger Action Model SOLVE is an exercise to help to define and identify the problems associated with conflict. The exercise helps people to communicate emotions and understand the underlying causes of the disagreement or conflict.
BATNA is the best alternative to a negotiated agreement. (from Roger Fisher, William Ury and Bruce Patton, Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In) BATNAS protect people from making an agreement that should be rejected. BATNAS help people to make the most of their assets so that any agreement reached will satisfy their interests.
Coaching or the Supportive Style is a style of managing others used by team leaders that displays concern for team members well-being and provides emotional support. This style is used when team members exhibit some competence but low commitment to a task. The style is highly directive and highly supportive. Emphasis is placed on developing mutually satisfying relationships and enhancing morale when team members work on dissatisfying, stressful or frustrating tasks. Team members who are shy or unsure of themselves appreciate this style
Completion List is a list used in the fifth stage of the team life cycle the completion stage. Usually a list of completion activities includes - changes team would make when the process is repeated, how to close down the communications system used by the team and how to store archival materials and give them to proper authorities.
Conflict Management Systems are an important part of the collaborative process. The system includes the use of a combination of tools for self-assessment by team members of their conflict style and their ability to manage emotions, as well as an analysis of how these individual styles and abilities interact amongst team members. The assessment tools have been used individually for years to assess the ability of a person or team to deal with conflict. They can be more effective when used jointly. To ameliorate conflict if it does occur, a conflict resolution tool named Solve can be used that encourages team members to discuss and implement new strategies for dealing with the conflict. This model consists of administering and coordinating the results from these assessments and how to utilize the conflict resolution tool. The tools are as follows:
The Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Team Report correlates the scores on the individual team members MBTI results to provide an overall team type. The report will assist the team members in understanding how to use their energy, how to think and analyze during problem solving, how to make decisions and perceive themselves in a team situation, and how to identify situations where they need to work in a way that is different from their natural preferences. The team report globally analyses how the team will react during conflict and supplies a framework in which team members can better understand conflict.
Concrete Goals - A goal is a desired and valued circumstance toward which people are working (Katzenbach and Smith, 1994). In a team there are two strata of goal setting, personal goals and the team goals.
Conflict Management Styles are individuals natural preferences to use one or more of the five conflict handling modes more frequently than others. The five conflict styles are collaborating, competing, accommodating, compromising, and avoiding. A persons predisposition and the requirements of the situation affect which mode(s) a person chooses to use during conflict. An assessment tool called the Thomas Killman Conflict Mode Inventory is used to create awareness of how team members use conflict styles in different situations, both amongst themselves and dealing with others outside the team.
Create Ground Rules To create ground rules is to create a support system that is used to create rules and boundaries for the team throughout the life of the team. Ground rules help individuals to get to know each other through conversation and structured informational sessions. Ground rules support the team members in understanding the framework or structure of the team. Ground rules help to establish, clearly define, and develop mutual understanding about the team's culture.
Criticism Stage is the second stage in the team life cycle and is identified by the following; near panic sets in over the realization of how much work lies ahead, there is resistance to the task, sharp fluctuations in attitude about the team, skepticism about the projects chance for success, arguments begin amongst team members although there is agreement on the real issues, defensiveness and competition, doubt over the competence of superiors who chose the project, and ground rules are ignored.
Directive is a leadership style that places an emphasis on formal activities such as planning, organizing, and controlling, and is, similar to being task-motivated or autocratic. This style is used when there is high commitment with a high competency level. Characteristics of this style are when a leader gives the team specific guidelines, rules, and regulations and carefully tells the team what is expected of them. The directive style improves morale when the task is unclear. In a team this style is used during the first stages of team development when the other team members need support in defining their goals and are reticent to participate. This style is also used when team members are resistant to change or there is conflict within the team and guidance during meetings is needed to keep the team on task.
Emotional Intelligence is defined as a system of intelligence that is used to support a person in learning how to self-evaluate and accurately understand his/her own behavior, how other people perceive them, to recognize how individuals respond to others, to become aware of attitudes, feelings, intents, emotions, and communication styles, and to promote these disclosures of awareness to others. (i.e. aware of negative thinking or frustration).
Formation Stage is the initial stage of team development. In this stage team members think it is the Honeymoon period where team members a excited, are full of anticipation and optimism, with an initial, tentative commitment to the team. Team members also experience suspicion, fear and anxiety about ability to accomplish the task, skepticism about what role they will play on team. Team members have idealistic discussion of concepts and issues, are impatient about having to discuss the process and complain about barriers to the task. There is resistance to building the team because they want to focus on task. Team members strengths and weaknesses are discussed but not accepted and ground rules are established in this tage of team development.
Ground Rules are a support system that is used to create rules and boundaries for the team throughout the life of the team. Ground rules help individuals to get to know each other through conversation and structured informational sessions. Ground rules support the team members in understanding the framework or structure of the team. Ground rules help to establish, clearly define, and develop mutual understanding about the team's culture.
Intercultural Behavior is behavior exhibited by a person when they are confronted by cultural differences in their own environment or in a culturally diverse environment. The behavior may be different from their usual behavior and be context specific to the culture they are living in or visiting. It is a learned behavior developed through experience and knowledge of the different cultural habits and norms.
Journal is a document written by individual team members used to record thoughts about the team process. The journal is used to bring attention to the team process while absorbed in the task process. The journals are confidential and are kept for personal use and may be submitted to an instructor.
Leadership Styles are five different management styles that are context specific. The situational leadership model determines the relative amount of the task and the relationship behavior the leader will engage in.
Meetings are times when the team gets together to formalize their activities and establish topics and objectives to be discussed during the project. Only people who have an interest in the project attend. Agendas are sent to the participants twenty-four hours in advance.
Milestones for the Project are intermediate points that are placed on the schedule as benchmarks to show the team that the project is being accomplished. A milestone is achieved when the milestone activity is finished.
Mission Statements define the vision, purpose and commitment of the team. The statements acknowledge team purpose and clarify any misunderstandings about the purpose. The statements further provide specific detailed directions and help the team to engage in brainstorming to prevent one way communication. The statements also help the team to assign and delegate task according to assessment of competencies. The mission statement provides the team with ways to use self- assessments to orient team members to each other and create a dialogue for the establishment of ground rules to guide behavior. They further help to develop a team structure and establishes boundaries of operation for the team in regard to outside forces. Creating missions statements support initiation of problem solving and decision-making (what, how, when, and why). The statements also provide a system to announce solutions and decisions and begin the development of systems to supervise and evaluate the team members work. The statements are also the nascent system for developing action plans.
Negotiation Skills are skills a person develops to get what they want from others. It is a back-and-forth communication designed to reach an agreement when the other side has some interests that are shared and others that are opposed. Negotiation serves two primary purposes for a team: (1) a method of resolving conflict within the team and (2) an integral part of the team decision-making process. The Four Points of Principled Negotiation are: (1) separate the people from the problem, (2) focus on interests, not positions, (3) invent options for mutual gain, and (4) insist on objective criteria (Fisher, R., Ury, W. & Patton, B., 1991).
Polite Conversation to Skillful Discussion is part of the dialogue model created by Senge and Isaacs (1994). A team's communication process has levels. The process is adapted from the shared meaning model of communication, which includes a sender and a receiver. The model is a stage model on a continuum: Raw Debate -------- Polite Conversation --------- Skilful Conversation ----------- Dialogue You can pass through one stage or go back to an earlier stage.
Recorder is a team role. The recorders duties usually entail keeping track of discussions, preparing and sending minutes to team members, and recording daily and weekly task assignments, lab sessions, and team meetings on the team calendar.
Rotation of Team Roles are roles in learning environments, which are sometimes rotated to allow all students to learn to direct task delegation, organize meetings, and take responsibility for the teams progress.
Strategic Model of Project Development also know as the SPM is a model for instructing students how to plan a project when working in a team. The Strategic Project Management Model (SPM) explicates the important elements that are key for developing strategic leadership project management in a team. Learning about project management includes learning new terminology and key concepts in project manage-ment. The underlying theoretical concept is that environment and cultural orientation impact upon task performance in a team.
Supportive Style or Coaching is a style of managing others used by team leaders that displays concern for team members well-being and creates emotional support. This style is used when team members exhibit some competence but low commitment. The style is highly directive and highly supportive. Emphasis is placed on developing mutually satisfying relationships and enhancing morale when team members work on dissatisfying, stressful or frustrating tasks. Team members who are shy or unsure of themselves appreciate this style.
Synthesis is the third stage of team life cycle development where team members begin to learn to work together successfully, collaborative efforts are initiated, team members begin to give positive criticism, to reestablish the teams culture and realistically plan and commit to the task, conflict management is established and agreed upon, the teams mission is beginning to be realized, team and personal goals are instituted, ground rules are discussed and maintenance begins to be established, discussions begin on how to maintain the team culture, beliefs, assumptions and values are established, and progress on the task is significant.
Team Leader is a designated person who influences individuals and teams within an organization, helps them establish goals, and guides them toward achievement of those goals, thereby allowing the team to become effective.
Team Leader Transition Report is a short report that lists the teams strengths and weaknesses as well as suggestion for developing the team further. The present team leader fills out the report before turning over their duties to the next team leader. The report allows the new team leader to use the suggestions to further the development of the team.
Team Self Assessment is an assessment tool that helps individual team members to become adept in the skills necessary for organizing teams, negotiating, mediating conflict, building consensus and thinking about exchanging information on a meaningful level. This assessment allows the team to monitor changes in team attitude, behavior, and culture. The assessment starts out being subjective but as the skill level increases it is a viable objective measure and tool to use to attain high performance and maintain the team.
Team Life Cycle Assessment is a comparative assessment measuring the team's overall performance. Each team member fills out the questionnaire. The questionnaire is scored and the team members compare their scores.
Technical Skills are skills needed to perform the project. The team discusses each individual team member technical strengths and weaknesses that will impact upon the tasks they will perform during the project.
Theory of Dialogue is a theory that describes a team's communication process, which has levels. The process is adapted from the shared meaning model of communication, which includes a sender and a receiver. The stages are on a continuum; you can pass through one stage or go back to an earlier stage.
Thinking Styles show you how you consciously direct your mental processes to find a thoughtful solution to a problem. Your thinking style is your preferred way of thinking. Two or more people at the same level of ability may have very different styles of thinking and use different styles in different situations. There are five thinking styles pragmatist, idealist, realist, synthesist, and analyst (Sternberg, R. L., 1992). A person utilizes all five of the thinking styles spontaneously but when problem solving one style usually dominates over another. The Thinking Style Assessment evaluates which style is dominant.
Time Management is a system that allows individuals and teams to organize their time. In teams, each team member brings their own unique perspective of time management to the team. A time management system coordinates each persons individual agenda with the teams activities.