[An early version of this paper was presented at the Media in
Transition Conference at MIT on October 8, 1999. This revised
version was completed in 2001.]
have proclaimed the Internet to be the future of communication.
Katz, for example, believed that the future of journalism
is found on the Internet and that online news will one day
become mainstream journalism. "The [World Wide] Web is
transforming culture, it is transforming language, transforming
information, and we're seeing this in very dramatic and measurable
ways, which some liken to the invention of movable type"
(Katz 1999, 14-15). He noted that the old model of a few people
providing information to many is "breaking down"
in favor of many providing to many. Rules are being rewritten
and the news media are being transformed. The way in which
news organizations relate and interact with their audiences
is also in transition (Pavlik 1999).
this fundamental shift in communication mean to journalism?
How are journalists using these new network tools to reach
audiences? In recent years, news media have flocked to the
Web. The number of newspapers in the United States offering
online editions has grown rapidly. One study reported online
editions had increased from 745 in July 1996 to 2,059 a year
later (Li 1998). The amount of change that has occurred in
online newspapers has been significant. One observable shift
has been toward increasing original news reporting by online
news site staffs. Journalists are less likely to serve as
traditional information gatekeepers. Users have larger amounts
of information and a wider range of sources upon which to
draw (Anonymous 1999a).
of many online newspapers has yet to be defined. In some cases,
online editions are not much more than electronic versions
of the parent newspaper. Some others are a hybrid of printed
newspaper and original content. Some online news sites contain
large amounts of original content created by separate staffs.
Sources of news and information are being widened to meet
the needs. At least one journalist at the Evansville, Ind.,
Courier & Press has argued that online newspapers
should think of themselves as full-service independent Web
sites. He argued that sites should work with 24-hour deadlines
and update content on a frequent and regular basis (Derk 1999).
content issue has been whether newspaper Web sites are considered
part of the print edition or a separate and competing medium
(Stone 1999a; Stone 1999b). Similar questions about the role
of the print news medium arose when newspapers competed against
and developed their own radio stations in the 1920s and again
with television stations in the 1950s. While the heart of
the competition is advertising dollars, news content is also
a concern in the face of any new developing medium (Shaw 1998).
Commercial media influences, such as those by online newspapers,
point to a "colonization" metaphor describing the
Internet instead of the commonly described "community"
(Riley, Keough, Christensen, Meilich & Pierson 1998).
The ideals of democratic community building on the Internet,
they offered, are resisted by online newspapers as they "stake
out" territories by discouraging access to other sites.
Peng, Tham & Xiaoming found differing online objectives
in online newspapers, but online newspapers were similar in
the goals of seeking additional readers, increasing revenue,
and promotion of the print edition (Peng, Tham & Xiaoming
1999). South recently observed that online newspaper staffs
often must urge their print colleagues to think about the
needs of online sites (South 1999). For example, print reporters
and editors do not usually gather audio or video for the print
editions, but will assist their online counterparts.
with Web sites have not found the right online model. Some,
including large publications such as The Buffalo News,
Jackson Clarion-Ledger, and Honolulu Advertiser,
did not have Web sites with daily news content as recently
as summer 1999 (Dotinga 1999). The rapidly evolving state
of online news media can be characterized by considerable
experimentation with content, technologies, and distribution.
Furthermore, the result is frequent changes and often-radical
site redesigns. Online newspapers are at an important stage
of media convergence. Online newspapers still had many ties
to traditional print newspapers, but they also have the potential
to utilize many new features from the world of mixed-media
digital communication. These included audio, video, animation,
and increased user control. The Internet2, when available
to the general public and commercial news companies, is expected
to have a significant content- and process-changing influence
(Phipps 1999a). Experts have already speculated that gathering
and distributing news as well as public consumption will be
quite different (Phipps 1999a).
these evolving technologies change news? That question remains
unanswered in the literature. This study explores one aspect
of the problem by focusing on use of available Web technologies
in online news. This study compares use on the basis of newspaper
market type and explores whether there are differences between
the market types of online newspapers.
to news on the Internet has not been simple. Critics have
pointed out that newspapers are not using new technologies
to full potential (Outing 1998). They argue that daily newspapers
have not made necessary changes in the way they collect and
distribute news (Lasica 1997a). Some authorities have said
that newspapers are following the old model of presenting
news every 24 hours instead providing of continuous updates
and that they are just creating "shovelware"- the
process of taking the content of a print edition and reproducing
it on a Web site (Cochran 1995; Marlatt 1999). Experts have
also argued that newspapers are not taking advantage of interactivity,
hypertext, and multimedia (Cochran 1995; Marlatt 1999).
suggested four theoretical foundations for study of online
journalism and online journalists (Singer 1998; Singer 1999).
She pointed to gatekeeping theory, diffusion of innovation
theory, sociology of news work, and the role of journalism
as a cohesive force in a fragmenting society. Other recent
new technologies research has focused on uses and gratifications
theory as the foundation for study (Leung & Wei 2000).
Analysis of technological devices used for online news delivery
is, however, may be best seen within the diffusion of innovation
context (Meier 2000; Garrison 2001; Rogers 1995).
Used for Online News
Research shows increased use of newspaper Web sites. Many
users are seeking local news at the sites (Strupp 1999). Increasing
numbers of women are reading online news (Flagg 1999). While
audiences that use the Web are growing, a technology gap has
evolved. A recent federal study determined that, while the
Internet has become a major communication force, it has done
so at the expense of some elements of American society. The
study concluded that there was a "digital divide"
between technology haves and have-nots. Some of the gap is
based on economic levels, but race and geography are also
factors (Irving 1999). Another study concluded that Internet
news audiences were becoming more "ordinary" in
addition to becoming larger. Among its findings were that
weather was the most popular online news attraction in 1999,
replacing technology news and information that had been the
top subject two years earlier. The report noted that users
were less well educated than two years ago, included more
females, and more users with modest incomes. These demographics
indicate changing news interests. Weather and entertainment
news are growing in popularity much faster than politics and
international news (Anonymous 1999b). Despite the growing
interest in online news, many news organizations do not emphasize
it nor satisfy demand for it. Web editors admitted that they
are still learning how to use the Web (Strupp 1999). Because
of their nature, usability of Web sites is a focal point of
some research. van Oostendorp and van Nimwegen studied scrolling
and use of hypertext links for reading and finding information
contained in an online newspaper and concluded that site designers
should "avoid presenting information on deeper hypertextual
levels for which scrolling is necessary" (van Oostendorp
& van Nimwegen 1998, n.p.).
use a handful of interactive tools to enhance their products.
These options include links to other stories, electronic mail
contact with journalists, chat rooms, forums, animations,
photographs and biographical information about reporters and
columnists, related coverage, and searchable databases. The
tools also include, of course, multimedia capability such
as providing archived or live audio and video. Archived news
and other information are also available.
to Outing, "It's a no-brainer that newspapers' archives
are of interest to readers, and a potential revenue stream"
(Outing 1998, n.p.).Yet, he found that the majority of sites
had yet to make their archives available online. He determined
that a number of sites either included no names of staff members
or included staff listings but no electronic mail addresses,
offering no way for readers to interact with the staff. He
also found a frequent absence of obituaries, birth notices,
and other matters of interest to local readers, especially
for small-town newspaper Web sites. Few sites operated online
discussion forums (Outing 1998).
noted that the San Jose Mercury Center is one of the
best examples of sites using interactivity (Cochran 1995).
It incorporates ways to send electronic mail to groups related
to the topic of the article, links to related sites, and connections
to sites that offer more information. Cochran said these features
were used so, "if the reader were so inclined, she could
have (a) learned about an important issue, (b) gathered additional
information not provided by the newspapers, (c) seen what
other folks were saying about the proposal, and (d) taken
steps to register her position on the issue with lawmakers"
(Cochran 1995, 36). Cochran said The Wall Street Journal's
personalized version of the newspaper that contained news
on just the topics the reader selects was another positive
use of available technologies (Cochran 1995). Massey and Levy
used a five-dimensional conceptualization of interactivity
(Massey& Levy 1999). They looked at complexity of content
choice, responsiveness, ease of adding information, facilitation
of interpersonal communication, and immediacy. The analysis
found a relatively complex choice of content, but the sites
did not rate highly on the remaining four dimensions.
Design, Deadlines, and Distribution
of an online news site requires more than the effort of one
individual, just as traditional newspapers require numerous
teams of specialists with a wide range of newsgathering, editing,
production, and distribution talents (Stone 1999a; Stone 1999b).
A major characteristic of online news that differentiates
it from traditional newspaper news, however, is the nonlinear
nature of writing and reporting. Analysis of online news sites
has shown that nonlinear storytelling is increasing. Newspaper
Web sites use fewer links than broadcast news station Web
links but, in general, both types of news sites were increasing
in their use of hypertext links. With links and other writing
devices sites can offer users additional depth, background
information, graphics, and references to previous coverage
authorities feel newspapers should offer more breaking news.
Companies like Marimba, PointCast, and Starwave made push
news software popular. Multiple deadlines are necessary for
newspapers to keep up with other news Web sites. "If
you look at newspaper deadlines, that's an artificial deadline
based on distribution needs," observed Scott Woelfel,
editor-in-chief of CNN Interactive (Lasica 1997b). "In
a way, it's a throwback to the old days when newspapers had
three or four editions a day. It will require newsrooms to
recruit staff members with an entirely different set of skills,"
added Valerie Hyman, a professor at the Poynter Institute
(Lasica 1997b, n.p.).
critics feel that online news sites often depend too much
on wire service content, such as that from Associated Press
or Reuters, even though there is no substantial limit to the
volume of information that can be provided (Welch 1999). This
is attributed to small budgets, few staff members, and other
limits to resources. Another criticism of online news is that
it often is too fast in passing along information to readers.
Some observers feel Web publications are often careless in
posting unconfirmed information during breaking stories as
well as during other less deadline-intensive circumstances
(Lasica 1997b). When the Los Angeles Times first launched
its Web site, its goal was to offer the most comprehensive
guide to California. It offered calendar events, archived
reviews, community databases and minimal discussion forums
and live chat sessions (Outing 1996a). Users of news Web sites
seek local news from local news sites (Phipps 1999b). Local
news content (72%) was more valued than weather information
(40%), national news (39%), and classified advertising (38%),
among other types of content. Even users (58%) of newspapers
Web sites with circulation over 250,000 sought local news.
For newspapers with less than 250,000 circulations, the figure
who direct or manage newspaper Web sites feel content should
drive the site's design, not technology nor appearance (Lowrey
1999). While traditional print design concerns and principles
apply to the Web, there are differences. Many of these involve
use of technologies, such as links or multimedia features,
available to Web designers but not to print designers. One
recent study focused on online newspapers' errors and corrections
policies, noting that news organizations did not use the technologies
of the Web, such as archiving and hyperlinking, to do a more
effective job to influence the flow of accurate information
to the public (Nadarajan & Ang 1999).
and High Tech Resources
of the Web demands technical skills to maximize its communication
potential. Neuberger and colleagues found that about half
of the newspapers' staff members they studied had journalistic
duties, the authors stated that technical responsibilities
were "growing" and that editorial decisions were
often left to print editors (Neuberger, Tonnemacher, Biebl
& Duck 1998). Stepp observed that distribution of online
news requires different, additional skills to those of traditional
journalists (Stepp 1996). While most of those skills involved
using computers and associated software, Stepp observed that
there must also be an ability to look at the profession in
an innovative manner. Expertise and versatility were characteristic
of these journalists who are able to work in a wide spectrum
of news media and use a broad base of technologies.
are learning include "don't go it alone" on the
Internet (Outing 1996b). Outing stated "newspaper companies
generally do not have all the skills and resources necessary
to succeed in new media" (Outing 1996b, n.p.).
Some examples of online newspapers that have teamed with other
groups include The Washington Post, which teamed with
Newsweek and ABC-TV News to operate the ElectionLine site.
Boston.com is an effort of all competing New England media,
including The Boston Globe (Outing 1996b). Many of
the resources available for online news distribution involve
interactivity. For many years prior to widespread development
and use of the Web, bulletin boards provided a virtual space
for community discussion and distribution of information.
One popular form, used for a number of years through commercial
online services such as America Online, is the chat room.
Perlman observed that online newspapers do not use chat rooms
or bulletin boards (Perlman 1999). The potential is there,
Perlman noted, citing the increased volume of chat room use
that occurred on AOL immediately after the Columbine school
shootings in spring 1999.
news sites are moving into the realm of electronic commerce
(Noack 1999). One study found that 65% of online newspaper
users were involved in some type of electronic commerce. While
it is not yet as popular as electronic mail, reading news
online, and searching for information, online news users are
also involved in online shopping and making purchases (Noack
1999). BarnesandNoble.com started on "Affiliate Network"
that created co-branded marketing and book selling opportunities.
Newspapers involved in the affiliate program included the
Chicago Tribune, USA Today Online and the LATimes.com.
Other newspapers, such as the Hartford Courant Online,
have launched online auctions. The SunOne Web site of the
Gainesville Sun launched a sports boutique. Tampa Bay
Online offers CD-ROMs. The Star Tribune Online has
developed a project called Gift Generator to connect buyers
and sellers (Anonymous 1997).
discussed the quantity and revenues of using syndicated materials
on newspaper sites (Astor 1996). Newspapers have had difficulty
publishing their syndicated and supplemental news service
material on their Web sites for legal and other reasons. The
Minneapolis Star Tribune's online service was one of the first
online newspapers to offer syndicated general-interest columns.
But, since newspapers have started to generate more revenue,
the extra cost of using syndicated materials has become less
of a problem.
Newspaper Market Models
newspaper markets have been divided into categories based
on circulation size- such as small, medium, and large. Outing
looked at small and medium size newspaper Web sites although
he did not directly define these classifications (Outing 1998).
Garrison defined large newspapers as those with a circulation
larger than 50,000 and small newspapers as those with a circulation
smaller than 50,000 (Garrison 1998). Chyi and Sylvie noted
differences in the print newspaper's traditional local focus
and the boundary-transcending capacity of the Internet (Chyi
& Sylvie 1999). They offered an "umbrella" model
of online newspaper economic markets that focused emphasis
on the ability of online news to seek markets at a variety
of different levels. Their model included a five-layer approach
that was described as community, metro, regional, national,
and international. This differs, they noted, from the conventional
community, metro, and national levels most often used to describe
print newspapers. Chyi and Sylvie concluded that geography
is not relevant for online newspapers, but that online news
media do have market boundaries. They also concluded that
newspapers must cease "thinking 'local' when it comes
to online markets," especially for advertising. They
concluded that "the larger the print market, the larger
the online product's long-distance market" (Chyi &
Sylvie 1999, 31).
of this study was to determine how different types of U.S.
daily newspapers use the Web. More specifically, this study
compared the approaches of three different market types of
1. Are U.S. daily newspapers using technologies
available for development of World Wide Web sites? If so,
to what extent?
2. How do local, regional, and national online newspapers
vary in their use of the technological features commonly found
in the design of a Web site?
3. How much change in these technology use patterns
has occurred within the past year?
major market types were studied, a modification of the Chyi
and Sylvie (1999) approach. Market types were chosen in relation
to the audience they cater to, which, in some ways, is based
on circulation and market served. USA Today and The
New York Times were selected as the national publications.
The Boston Globe and The Orlando Sentinel were
the regional newspapers chosen. The Naples Daily News,
in Naples, Fla., and The Macon Telegraph, in Macon,
Ga., were the local publications used. These six newspapers
were chosen because they fit the market types analyzed and
because of their journalistic reputations for quality. Each
had maintained Web sites for several years. Many other newspapers
fit into the three market types and could have been used,
but for the needs of this study, only two newspapers for each
category were selected.
design was used to determine change in technology use. Eleven
consecutive days (November 5 to 15, 1998) of home pages and
top news story pages of the above six electronic newspapers
were content analyzed for the t1 content analysis. A second
set of eleven days (July 12 to July 22, 1999) was also studied
for the t2 content analysis. Li (1998) used the eleven-day
time frame of analysis. These dates were selected because
it was believed that there were no significant scheduled news
events that could skew routine coverage practices.
page was defined as the initial page of the newspaper's Web
site. Top news story page was defined as the story link on
the home page that is given the most prominence, either by
position, size of type or use of art, on the page. The top
news story link was found on the home page as the first news
story link that also had a large type size (point size 14
or higher as an image or font size 4 or higher in HTML) or
was accompanied by art (photograph or graph) or both. For
analysis purposes, the data collected from each of these pages
were combined for a total number of use occurrences per day,
per site. The units of analysis were the pages of the Web
technology variables included forums, chat rooms, related
information for stories, video, audio, flash, other plug-in
based technologies, Java applets, other language use outside
of the basic HTML 4.0 standard, electronic mail, polls with
instantaneous results, search tools, consumer services (electronic
commerce functions including searchable classifieds, home
finders, job finders, and merchandise sales), sign-up for
electronic delivery of a personalized newspaper and instantaneous
updates of information (including stocks, sports scores, and
weather) that are located on the home page and top news article
page (see Appendix 1), and links to the above uses of the
new technology. Each instance of the above features, as well
as links to one of the features, was counted on both the home
page and the top news article page by two trained coders.
The inter-coder reliability coefficient was 0.96 for the first
analysis and 0.99 for the second analysis, using the R=(2(C12))
/ (C1+C2) (Budd, Thorp & Donohew 1967; Riffe, Lacy &
extent are U.S. daily newspapers using technologies available
for development of Web sites? Data in Table 1 show that a
majority of pages had forums by summer 1999 (31.9% in 1998
and 53.0% in 1999), related information (53% in 1998 and 65.9%
in 1999), electronic mail (59.8% in 1998 and 69.7% in 1999),
site searches (79.5% in 1998 and 88.6%), and consumer services
(95.5% in 1998 and broken up in 1999 with 100% use of consumer
services and 96.9% of electronic commerce). Very little use
of chat rooms (2.3% in 1998 and 7.6% in 1999), other languages
(6.1% in 1998 and 10.63% in 1999), polls with instantaneous
updates (9.1% in 1998 and 25% in 1999), and sign-up for personal
delivery (2.3% in 1998 and 25% in 1999) was found. No instances
of other plug-in based technologies were found on any of the
sites studied. Flash was not found in 1998, but appeared on
a small percentage of pages (0.8%) in 1999. Java applets saw
little use in 1998 (15.2%), but dropped to no use in 1999.
This was the only decline found among the 15 technology variables.
Instantaneous updates (25.8% in 1998 and 37.9% in 1999), audio
(12.1% in 1998 and 27.3% in 1999), and video (10.6% in 1998
and 30.3% in 1999) were used on certain sites, but had not
taken hold on the majority of newspaper sites.
of the technologies used by each newspaper in November 1998
shows dominance by the two regional newspapers. The Orlando
Sentinel had more occurrences per day in links to related
information, audio, video and polls with instantaneous results.
The Boston Globe had the most occurrences of search
engines, consumer services, sign-up for personal delivery
and instantaneous updates. The Naples Daily News had
the most occurrences of chat rooms and electronic mail, The
Macon Telegraph had the most occurrences of Java applets,
and The New York Times had the most occurrences of
forums, but none lead by a very large margin, as shown in
a year later, the regional dominance still held. The Orlando
Sentinel had more occurrences per day in forums, audio,
video, other language use and polls with instantaneous results.
The Boston Globe had the most occurrences of links
to related information, chat rooms, and electronic mail. Local
newspapers' domination disappeared in July. National newspapers
grew in dominance in some areas. USA Today had the
most occurrences of Flash, search engines and consumer services.
The New York Times had more occurrences per day of
sign-up for personal delivery and instantaneous updates.
the three market types vary in their use of the technological
features commonly found in the design of a Web site? Data
show that the market types vary greatly in the technologies
they offer readers. National online newspapers showed a considerably
higher adaptation of forums in 1998. Local online newspapers
showed a notably higher adaptation of Java applets, and electronic
mail use in 1998. Regional online newspapers showed a remarkably
higher adaptation of polls with instantaneous updates, related
information, video, audio, polls, search, consumer services,
and instantaneous updates in 1998, as shown in Table 3. Scheffe
post hoc analyses for 1998 showed most significant differences
were between regional-local (ten) and national-regional (seven)
market newspapers, but not as often for national-local (four)
out less than a year later. National online newspapers showed
the highest adoption of search engines, sign-up for personal
delivery, and instantaneous updates. Regional online newspapers
showed the highest adoption of forums, chat rooms, other language
use, and polls with instantaneous updates. Local online newspapers
showed the highest adoption of links to related information,
audio, video, and electronic mail. But, none of these were
overwhelming. Scheffe post hoc analyses for 1998 showed many
of the differences the most significant differences between
regional and local market newspapers (nine) and national-regional
(six), but not as many for national-local markets (four).
than a year, there was growth in almost all areas. July 1999
data show significantly higher occurrences per day in forums,
chat rooms, links to related information, video, electronic
mail, polls with instantaneous updates, consumer services,
and sign-up for personal delivery. The use of Java applets
dropped to nothing in July 1999, as shown in Table 4. National
online newspapers showed significant growth from November
to July in most areas, including forums, links to related
information, video, audio, electronic mail, search engines,
consumer services, sign-up for personal delivery, and instantaneous
updates, as indicated in Table 5. Regional online newspapers
showed a decline in the use of search engines, and a growth
in forums, video, other language use, and consumer services.
Local online newspapers showed a decline in the use of Java
applets and a growth in audio, electronic mail, search engines
and consumer services.
innovations change routines and processes. Development of
the technology of the Internet and World Wide Web in itself
may become the most significant change in world communication
in a half-century or longer. It continues to create change
in all aspects of life. When technology is so rapidly evolving
as the devices and processes of communicating on the Internet
have been during this decade, businesses and institutions
are required to redefine old rules and create new ones (Ebo
has been considered by some social scientists to be an equalizer.
It has the potential to bring communication to equal terms
for social and economic groups as well as for businesses and
industries. In one way, this study analyzed whether the Internet
was a technology equalizer for newspapers that have used the
World Wide Web to extend their news distribution reach and
contact with audiences. Should small newspapers be different
from large ones? Their financial, human, and other resources
certainly vary. But this difference has not been found to
be the case in terms of social classes using the Internet
(Wolf 1998). There are differences in how newspapers are using
the Web and their use of technologies to distribute information
to audiences. This study has determined some of the differences.
prominent technology used by all three categories of online
newspaper was consumer services. This is a potentially interactive
component that any person with browser software and online
service can utilize. Consumer services usually allow a person
to insert a value of something that is desired and it returns
what is available in the database. In can be used for automobile
sales, home rental and sales, dating services, and many other
classified related services. The area for the greatest growth,
perhaps one of the most significant findings, is electronic
commerce. Newspapers are using this tool to increase interaction
with site visitors for a variety of purposes and growth of
use is occurring at all three levels of service.
technologies that were not used or had very limited use were
both plug-in based technologies. These technologies require
readers to have extra software on their computers to utilize
the technologies. The disappearance of the use of the Java
applet can possibly be explained by the inability of the computer
industry to standardize this technology in browsers. Java
applets cause some readers problems (including computer crashes),
so newspapers discontinued use as to not upset readers.
their creation, online newspapers have experienced change.
For example, The Orlando Sentinel added new services
that offer readers e-mail. Some of the newer services were
still in testing mode on some sites in late 1998, and so,
although they are offered, they may not have shown up very
prominently. With time, it is expected that more of the technologies
will appear with more prominence on the sites. Since this
is still a very new medium and the technology is still being
developed, changes occur every day. With this growth, it will
be interesting to see how the popularity of online newspapers
will grow along with it. The regional newspapers, with a large
base of technological use will steadily grow in popularity.
Unless national and local online newspapers catch up in the
use of technologies, regional newspapers will take their readership.
not probable that any online newspapers will take up use of
plug-in based technologies, such as Flash and Shockwave, unless
they are made easier for the consumer. To do this, browser
software must be standardized. Integration of these technologies
into browsers in the future, for instance, would be one way
to increase use. Further study should be conducted to measure
this change. Also, other online newspapers should be studied
to extend the test of differences in the market types.
sites may have been slow to get into the technologies of the
Web, but they seem to be making up for it. The most change
that occurred was within the national sites. Of the fifteen
categories of technology, more than half (eight) increased
in a statistically significant manner. In comparison, regional
sites experienced five statistically significant technology
category increases and one statistically significant decrease
(search tools). And for local sites, there was less change.
Local sites experienced only four statistically significant
increases in technology use categories and one significant
decline (Java applets). There are numerous reasons for this-
such as increased staff talent on staff for production, budget
increases, shifts in management priorities, changing perceptions
of audiences and their needs- but the data do not point to
any specific one.
revealed that the most widely used technology categories must
be studied beyond the limits of this project. It appears one
approach would be to further divide categories such as consumer
services, electronic mail, and related information into subdivisions.
This was done, in part, when electronic commerce was split
from consumer services for the second stage of this study
and suggests considerable growth in use of electronic commerce.
There are also different applications of electronic mail and
use of related information devices such as pop-up boxes, for
example, that require further investigation. As new technologies
are developed, these will also require study for understanding
of their contributions to the uses and effects of online news.
SITE PAGES WITH AT LEAST ONE INSTANCE OF TECHNOLOGY
are areas on Web pages that allow posting of continuous
discussions by readers about any topic.
rooms are areas on Web pages that allow real-time
discussions by readers.
information for stories is links or pullouts of information
from other Web sources.
on a Web page is a moving image in the movie format. This
does not include animated gifs. Video is usually found in
the RealVideo or QuickTime format.
is any sound that loads on from a Web page. This includes
is a plug-in based product that allows for moving graphics
and interactivity. Flash can be recognized because it loads
the Flash Plug-in before the images load.
plug-in based technologies include Shockwave, QuickTime,
IPIX, or any other technology that loads a plug-in before
loading the image or information.
applets are scripts added to a Web page to add extra
functionality and interactivity. It is usually spotted when
the browser prompts "Loading Java" on the status
bar. Java applets can be image or text based.
language use outside of the basic HTML 4.0 standard
C. The most common uses of other languages are the image mouse-overs
and scrolling text on the status bar. These are not easily
spotted due to the variety of functions. The best way to pick
out another language is by viewing the source of the page
and searching for the .pl or .c file extensions.
mail is any link that allows users to send electronic
mail to anyone, including the reporters, editors and people
included in a story.
with instantaneous results are a spot on a Web page
that allows the reader to answer a question and pushes on
the next page the results, including all participants up to
and including the user.
tool is the ability to enter keywords to find articles
or other information on the Web site.
services include searchable classifieds, home finders,
job finders, merchandise sales, and any other service that
makes it easier for the reader to find things apart from news
stories and information. This category also included electronic
commerce, which allows users to purchase goods or services
on the newspaper's Web pages.
for electronic delivery of a personalized newspaper
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