1.   Director, International Scientific Networks Project, Policy Science Center 127 Wall St., Room 314, New Haven, CT. 06520. Internet). Paper prepared for a panel sponsored by the Communications Forum at MIT and the Markle Foundation. Cambridge, MA, May 10, 1997.  back          
2.   And he had a secret edge - at least in the eight years I knew him as a member of the MIT faculty, Ithiel was blessed with the most remarkably efficient secretarial staffs I have ever seen in universities.  back          
3.   Deutsch, Karl W., Platt, J. & Senghaas, D., "Conditions Favoring Major Advances in Social Science." Science, 171 (1971): 450 - 459.  back          
4.   Pool, Ithiel de Sola, "The Kaiser, the Tsar, and the Computer: Information Processing in a Crisis." American Behavioral Scientist 8, no. 9 (May, 1965): 31-39; Abelson, Robert; Pool, Ithiel de Sola; Popkin, Samuel, Candidates, Issues, and Strategies: A Computer Simulation of the 1960 and 1964 Elections. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1965).  back          
5.   Kochen, Manfred, (Ed.), The Small World: A Volume of Recent Research Commemorating Ithiel de Sola Pool, Stanley Milgram, and Theodore Newcomb. (Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Company, 1989.)  back          
6.   Harvard University Press, 1983; Etheredge, Lloyd S. (Ed.), Politics in Wired Nations: Selected Papers of Ithiel de Sola Pool. (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, in press).  back          
7. review for the GBN Book Club, August, 1989.  back          
8.   In Aida (Ed.), op. cit.  back          
9.   The URL is The subject concerns emerging infectious diseases, a problem that has both scientific and organizational challenges. An early source of inspiration was Ithiel Pool's work concerning the potential contribution of satellite technology to the creative process in international agricultural research. See, for example, Pool, Ithiel de Sola and Corte, A. B. "International Data Communication Capabilities and Information Revolution." Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science 12 (1975): 1-2; Pool, Ithiel de Sola, Freedman, Elliott H., and Warren, Colin John, "Low Cost Data and Text Communication for the Less Developed Countries: A Study With Special Reference to the Needs of the International Agricultural Research Centers." A study completed for the US Agency for International Development. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Research Program on Communications Policy and others, 1976).  back          
10.   Once a lecture series is organized, the added cost to Yale to make it available globally also is remarkably small: after a lecture is recorded by conventional means, it requires about 1.5 hours of a technician's time to digitize one hour of audio, and about 0.5 hours to digitize 20-30 slides, at $65/hour (Yale Medical School rates).  back          
11.   Pool, Ithiel de Sola, "The Art of the Social Science Soothsayer" in Nazli Choucri and Thomas W. Robinson (Eds.), Forecasting in International Relations: Theory, Methods, Problems, Prospects (San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1978), pp. 23 - 34.  back          
12.   E.g., Pool, Ithiel de Sola, "Political Communication" in David Sills (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Vol. 3 (New York: Macmillan-Free Press, 1968), pp. 90-96.  back          
13.   Bauer, Raymond; Pool, Ithiel de Sola; Dexter, Lewis A., American Business and Public Policy: The Politics of Foreign Trade. (New York: Atherton Press of Prentice-Hall, 1963).  back          
14.   Pool, Ithiel de Sola; Schramm, Wilbur; with others, (Eds.) Handbook of Communication. (Chicago: IL: Rand McNally, 1973).  back          
15.   Pool, Ithiel de Sola; Inose, H.; Takasaki, N.; Hurwitz, R., Communication Flows: A Census in the United States and Japan. (Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1984).  back          
16.   E.g., Etheredge, Lloyd S., Can Governments Learn? American Foreign Policy and Central American Revolutions (NY: Pergamon Press, 1984); idem., "Government Learning: An Overview" in Samuel Long (Ed.), Handbook of Political Behavior, vol, 2 (NY: Plenum Press, 1981), pp. 73 - 181.  back          
17.   While the World Bank has not made a formal announcement, I met earlier this month with Ismail Serageldin, Vice President for Sustainable Development. He has agreed to begin a global Internet colloquium to accelerate agricultural research (including biotechnology). Especially, I want to mention his decision at this forum because the groundwork for it reflects inspiration from the work of Ithiel and his associates.  back          
18.   The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1996).  back          
19.   Operational Code of the Politburo (NY: McGraw-Hill, 1951) and Study of Bolshevism (Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1953).  back          
20.   Pool, Ithiel de Sola, "Trends in Content Analysis Today: A Summary" in Ithiel de Sola Pool, (Ed.), Trends in Content Analysis; Papers. Chapter 7, 189-233. (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1959), p. 233.  back          
21.   Just to suggest a couple of elements: Baywatch is the most popular television series in the world and this (coupled with the prominence of X-rated Web sites) suggests a cross-cultural universal (one of the questions that engage social scientists). And Aladdin was a charming Islamic folktale until it was transformed by Hollywood and the Disney Studios into a planetary mega-hit. Not all interactions among cultures are clashes, in other words. Although even if Huntington is wrong generally, he may be right about the simple dramatic stories of zero-sum clashes that power-oriented national security elites begin to tell one another - and, if so, it may be especially important to have a more complex and refined picture, with an empirical base, available as a counterweight.  back          
22.   Also, Ithiel would not be doing experimental studies involving undergraduates. He worked with distinguished scientists, like Robert Abelson, who used much of their professional lives to build what they viewed as the foundation of social science by careful experimental studies. Ithiel, by contrast, viewed the real world and the laboratory as two distinct social contexts. He always was delighted by happy convergences of results between the two settings, but in his view you would never really know what was happening in the real world unless you studied behavior in the real world. For him, field work was the priority.  back          
23.   Pool, Ithiel de Sola, "The Public and the Polity" in Ithiel de Sola Pool (Ed.), Contemporary Political Science: Toward Empirical Theory. (NY: McGraw-Hill, 1967), pp. 22 - 52, pp. 23 -24.  back          
24.   E.g., Lloyd Etheredge, "Commentary: The Scientific Scandal of the 1980s" Political Psychology, 15:3 (1994), pp. 531 - 539 and "Problems of Scientific Integrity that Affect Unfunded Research." Testimony to the US Commission on Research Integrity, April 10, 1995. Harvard Medical School. Boston, MA. Xerox.  back          
25.   E.g., Pool, Ithiel de Sola, "Human Subjects Regulations on the Social Sciences." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 403 (26 May 1981)" 101-110.  back          
26.   Letter from on behalf of Norman Augustine from Angela Phillips Diaz, Executive Secretary, October 26, 1995. Three votes on PCAST are by members of the MIT faculty: President Charles Vest, and Profs. Mario Molina and Philip Sharp.  back          
27.   I.e., reducing dependency and increasing achievement motivation by cutting back the size and subjective prominence of government, a backward linkage between events in the public sphere and individual personality that is not measured by standard macroeconomic models that deny hierarchical group psychology and assume autonomous individuals with fixed motivation. See Etheredge, Lloyd S., "President Reagan's Counseling," Political Psychology, 5:4 (1984), pp. 737 - 740.  back          
28.   Pool, Ithiel de Sola; Shulman, Irwin, "Newsmen's Fantasies, Audiences and Newswriting." Public Opinion Quarterly 23, no. 2 (Summer, 1959): 145-158.  back          
29.   Speier, Hans et al., "A Plan . . .", op. cit.  back          
30.   E.g., Pool, Ithiel de Sola "Approaches to Intelligence and Social Science" in Robert Pfaltzgraff Jr. et al. (Eds.), Intelligence Policy and the National Security (Hamden, CT: Archon Press, 1981), chapter 3.  back          
31.   Pool, Ithiel de Sola, "The International System in the Next Half Century" in Daniel Bell (Ed.), Toward the Year 2000: Work in Progress (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1968), pp. 318 - 323. Originally published in Daedalus, vol. 96. (1967): 930 - 935. See also his "The Changing Soviet Union: The Mass Media as Catalyst" excerpted in Current 67 (January 1966): 12 - 17.  back


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