Examples of Structured Abstracts


From:   Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (IOVS)


A structured abstract of less than 250 words is required for articles and should be arranged under the following headings:

Purpose, Methods, Results, Conclusions. Define abbreviations at first mention, and do not include references.

The abstract must be included as part of the main manuscript file.


From: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine


Abstract. Provide a structured abstract (150 words maximum) in which the following sections are delineated:

Background and Objective: Gives brief overview of the topic and in this context states the main objective of the study;

Study Design/Materials and Methods: Describes the basic design, subjects, and scientific methods (for case reports, section title is Study Design/Patients and Methods);

Results: Gives main results of the study including confidence intervals and exact level of statistical significance, whenever appropriate;

Conclusion: States only those conclusions supported by the data obtained, and, whenever appropriate, the direct clinical application of the findings (avoid speculation).

Include the headings Background and Objective, Study Design/Materials and Methods, Results, and Conclusions in the text of the abstract.


From: Cancer Research, which does not require a structured abstract:


Abstract. The abstract, to appear at the beginning of the paper, should be concise, yet indicative of the content of the paper.

Because abstracts are often copied directly by the secondary services, they should recapitulate in abbreviated form the purpose of

the study and the experimental technique, results, and interpretations of the data. Data such as the number of test subjects and controls,

strains of animals or viruses, drug dosages and routes of administration, tumor yields and latent periods, length of observation period, and

magnitude of activity should be included. Vague, general statements such as "The significance of the results is discussed," or

"Some physical properties were studied," are uninformative and not acceptable. All important terms relevant to the content of the paper

should be incorporated into the abstract to assist indexers in the derivation of key words. Abbreviations should be kept to an absolute minimum;

however, if they are needed, they must be properly identified so as to make the abstract independent of the text.