General Structure of Entry
An APA reference-list entry has four elements: author(s); date (in
parentheses); title; and publication information. Separate the elements with a period and a single space. In some cases, such as online materials and articles in an edited
book, a fifth element is included.
- Author or authors: List all authors, regardless of the number, in the
order in which they are listed on the title page of the document. List all authors by
last name, a comma and a space, first initial, and
if included, middle initial, placing an ampersand (&) before the name of the last
author. Separate initials with a period followed by a space. If a work produced by
an organization lists no individual author, give the full name of the organization as
author. If no author or organization is listed, move the title of the work into the
- Date format: The year of the entry always follows one space after the
period concluding the author element. It is enclosed in parentheses and is followed by a period and a space.
If two or more works by the same author were published in the same year, arrange
them alphabetically by title and attach to the year of each work a lowercase letter,
starting with a.
In some cases, the month or the month and day are included as part of the date; then
the year is followed by a comma, a space and the month (spelled out completely),
and, sometimes, the day in arabic numerals.
- Title: Give the full name of the work, including subtitles, which are
separated from the title by a colon and a single space.
Capitalize only the first word of the title, the first
word after a colon, and all proper nouns. If the
source is not a book or an article, include a description of the source's form (for
example, Brochure, Specifications, Map) in brackets
immediately following the title but before the period.
- Publication information--page numbers: If giving a range, write out the
second number in full: 222-227. Use the abbreviations p. and pp.
only for articles in books and newspapers and when listing discontinuous pages: pp.
## APA Entry General Structure ##
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