History 102– Urbanization and the Rural Population

 

Growth of the Urban Population and Levels of Urbanization in Europe (except Russia):[1]

Year

Total pop. (Millions)

Urban pop.

(millions)

Annual variation %

Urbanization

% of total pop.

Urbanization

Annual variation %

1700

102

12.6

-

12.3

-

1750

120

14.7

0.3

12.2

0.0

1800

154

18.6

0.5

12.1

0.0

1850

203

38.3

1.5

18.9

0.9

1880

243

71.4

2.1

29.3

1.5

1900

285

108.3

2.1

37.9

1.3

1910

312

127.1

1.6

40.8

0.7

1930

333

159.7

1.1

47.9

0.8

1950

367

186.0

0.8

50.7

0.3

1970

427

271.8

1.9

63.7

1.2

1980

453

301.0

1.0

66.5

0.4

 


 

Rural vs. Urban Population in Europe (except Russia):[2]

Year

Total pop.

(Millions)

Rural pop. (millions)

Urban  pop.

(millions)

Rural pop. as % of total

Urban pop.

% of total

1700

102

89.4

12.6

87.7

12.3

1750

120

105.3

14.7

87.8

12.2

1800

154

135.4

18.6

87.9

12.1

1850

203

164.7

38.3

81.1

18.9

1880

243

171.6

71.4

70.7

29.3

1900

285

176.7

108.3

62.1

37.9

1910

312

184.9

127.1

59.2

40.8

1930

333

173.3

159.7

52.1

47.9

1950

367

181.0

186.0

49.3

50.7

1970

427

155.2

271.8

36.3

63.7

1980

453

152.0

301.0

33.5

66.5

 



History 102 – Peasants and Serfdom:

Dates of Emancipation in various European countries

 

Initial Decrees of Emancipation[3]

Savoy

19 December 1771

Baden

23 July 1783

Denmark

20 June 1788

France

3 November 1789

Switzerland

4 May 1798

Schleswig-Holstein

19 December 1804

Grand Duchy of Warsaw (Poland)

22 July 1807

Prussia

9 October 1807

Bavaria

31 August 1808

Nassau

1 September 1812

Estonia

23 March 1816

Courland

25 August 1817

Livonia

26 March 1819

Saxony

17 March 1832

Austria

7 September 1848

Hungary

2 March 1853

Russia

19 February 1861

Danubian Principalities (Romania)

14 August 1864

 



Industrialization and the world

 

PER CAPITA LEVELS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION, 1750-1913[4]

 

 

Date/country

1750

1800

1830

1860

1880

1900

1913

Britain

10

16

25

64

87

100

115

Belgium

9

10

14

28

43

56

88

U.S.A.

4

9

14

21

38

69

126

France

9

9

12

20

28

39

59

Germany

8

8

9

15

25

52

85

Austria

7

7

8

11

15

23

32

Italy

8

8

8

10

12

17

26

Russia

6

6

7

8

10

15

20

China

8

6

6

4

4

3

3

India

7

6

6

3

2

1

2

 

 

N.B. All entries are based on an index of 100, equal to the per capita level of industrialization in Great Britain in 1900.

 

1)    All equal in 1750, with Britain edging away

2)    By 1800 Britain had opened up a lead, on which it built over century

3)    Variations in timing of industrialization across countries, from Belgium to Germany

4)    By 1900 USA and Germany closing on Britain; USA passes it by 1913

5)    All European countries, even Russia, did very well relative to rest.

 



[1] Taken from Bairoch, Cities and Economic Development, Table 13.2, p. 216.

[2] My calculations based on Bairoch, Cities and Economic Development, Table 13.2, p. 216.

[3] Adapted from Jerome Blum, The End of the Old Order in Rural Europe (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978), p. 356.

[4] Adapted from P. Bairoch, “International Industrialization Levels from 1750-1890,” Journal of European Economic History 11 (Fall 1982), p. 294.  Data for Britain is actually for the United Kingdom, including Ireland with England, Wales and Scotland.