Many plant materials, including wood, cork, plant parenchyma, leaves and stems, as well as animal tissues, such as trabecular bone and lung alveoli, have a cellular structure. Their mechanical behaviour can be understood in terms of the models for engineering honeycombs and foams. New projects being developed include: the use of nanofibrillar cellulose, which has exceptional mechanical properties for its weight, in composites and foams; and structural bamboo composites, similar to wood products such as oriented strand board and glue laminated beams.

Cellular Solids in Nature
Top left: cork, top right: balsa, next down left: sponge, next down right: trabecular bone,
next down left: coral, next down right: cuttlefish bone, bottom left: leaf tissue, bottom right: plant stem.