[Square & Compasses]

This is a somewhat out-dated but reasonably-useful version of the USENET Freemasonry FAQ.

Masonry FAQ

Article: 6865 of alt.freemasonry
From: gordon@ll.mit.edu (Gordon Matheson)
Newsgroups: alt.freemasonry
Subject: The FAQ for alt.freemasonry
Date: 6 Aug 1995 03:56:38 GMT
Organization: MIT Lincoln Laboratory
Lines: 1785
Message-ID: <401ehm$3a9@llnews.ll.mit.edu>

                            T H E

                         U S E N E T

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                                                    -_-   

                            FAQ

                         Version 1.2a1
                        September 8, 1995

0. IMPORTANT NOTE, ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, INTRODUCTION, REVISIONS, 
   A NOTE ON WORLD-WIDE MASONRY, AND TABLE OF CONTENTS


Changes made to Version 1.2a1 for my web-site "A Page About Freemasonry" -- GLD Fri Sep 08 1995: -- fixed my own web-site address Mon Nov 26 2001: -- corrected use of angle-brackets as punctuation (in "[fill in]" clauses, causing "invisible" text problems. -- changed references of "Mormon Church" to "Church of Latter Day Saints (Mormon)" or similarly as appropriate.

(1) Important Note

I have made some minor corrections to World Wide Web pages and other minor changes. I changed the version to 1.2a since these changes are deemed minor.

Roger Ingersoll

I compiled/authored versions of this FAQ up to this version (1.2). Unfortunately, I no longer have the time available to maintain it. Someone (singular or plural) will either step forward to maintain this FAQ or it will be frozen at this version. I propose that a version 1.3 be issued giving information on how to contact whoever will be maintaining this FAQ. In the meantime, asking on alt.freemasonry should elicit response. Please do not e-mail me with corrections or additions. If there is some major error of fact in this version, I will correct it, but only if it is truly serious.

(2) Acknowledgements.

Since undertaking this project, my mailbox has literally overflowed (even overquota'd!) with helpful letters from Brothers offering to write, revise, and provide information. Many sections of this FAQ were written by brothers (and sisters) whose wisdom, experience, and knowledge is a truly wonderful resource. Thanks to ALL who've written me. I tried to acknowledge everyone personally, but if I missed you, it wasn't intentional.

Honor Roll: Peter T. Arnold, Ron Boutwell, Denis Constales, Steven Cranmer, Earl K. Dille, Bob Dixon, Hans Prag Enator, Ed Greenberg, Bill Hickey, Roger Ingersoll, Joy Leavy, Paul Leger, Steve Lubetkin, Trevor W. McKeown, Bill Menees, Henry Miller, Stephen Morris, Roderick Morrison, Nick Oliver, Tony Olivero, Bruce Perrussel, Charles Plater, Mark Saunders, Tom Schnorrenberg, Michael Shelby, Robert H. Starr, Dave Stites, David R. B. Walker, Don Williams, Catherine Yronwode, Jeffrey Zeth, and a few others whose names I couldn't discern from their e-mail addresses.

Special thanks to Roger Ingersoll, whose Masonic FTP archives provided substantial portions of this FAQ. Where possible, I have included specific credits to the authors of those files, though several are anonymous. Note that one of the sources credited here is FMBITS.TXT, which has the following disclaimer as its preface: "With apologies, the original source for the following information has been lost. It probably came from either the Philatethes or the Southern California Research Lodge. The file has been stored in my Computer for a couple of years. Enjoy! William N. Wine (Sysop) #72435,1512 [ Masonry Forum Compuserve 07/11/93]".

Special thanks to Steve Lubetkin, who dug up the list of US Grand Lodges.

Finally, thanks to the Grand Lodge of Michigan, whose lectures provided the basis of the "Famous Freemasons" list, and to many research lodges, whose work over the years has provided much of the information contained here.

(3) Introduction

This FAQ is version 1.2, which includes a number of revisions, suggestions, and reactions to version 1.1. Part (4) of this part details the changes and additions in this section.

Any question you see marked with an asterisk should be considered incomplete.

Finally, it should be stated without fail that no Mason, no Master, no Grand Master can speak for all of Masonry. The answers provided herein are not "authoritative" in the sense that they are universally true for all Masons everywhere and reflect the beliefs of all Masons. There are differences between each jurisdiction, and in general there are differences between US Grand Lodges and Grand Lodges in other countries. Of course, the high ideals and noble principles of Masonry remain the same the world over, but some of the fine points and details may vary.

So remember: nothing here is "gospel". This FAQ is intended to provide a summation of commonly-given answers to commonly-asked questions on the net.

Andrew Fabbro
afabbro@umich.edu

(4) Revisions in This Edition

In no particular order:

  • Major reorganization of contents, as per many suggestions
  • What was Section III in version 1.1 has been removed. This section contained the "common flames and trolls" responses. The rationale was that (1) this section was large, and (2) it was an over-response to a problem that has (in the main) abated. Additionally, some of the statements in this section would have required better documentation and I didn't have time to provide proper sources.
  • Note on the American slant of this FAQ added
  • Information on Co-Masonry added...I went with a very minimalist section, mainly because I'm short on time. More information is available and perhaps should be added.
  • OES material corrected (regarding Pennsylvania)
  • Prince Hall section revised to include UGLE's recognition
  • More Famous Masons added, and some minor editing was done to the list (Wally Schirra was previously listed twice, for instance)
  • Presidents' list revised to include note on Reagan, changing Madison to Monroe (oops!), Andrew Johnson added, and note on McKinley
  • York Rite information corrected (one sentence had previously stated that the Consistory was part of the York Rite)
  • Information on America On-Line added
  • Information on other Masonic groups added
  • FidoNet information added, as well as mention of David Stites' FTP site.
  • mailing list subscription request address changed
  • clarification made on the AASR (that the FAQ refers to it only, not the European Rectified Scottish Rite)
  • The question "Can Catholics Be Masons" has been changed to "Do Masons accept Catholics", primarily because I didn't want to get into an overlong discussion on the issue. This is a Masonic FAQ, not a Catholic FAQ, so I provided the answer from Masonry's side of things, leaving discussion from the Catholic side to Catholic FAQs.
  • innumerable little errors in dates, etc.
  • various spelling and grammatical errors corrected
  • various spelling and grammatical errors added (hey, that's entropy for you)

(5) A Note on World-Wide Masonry

This FAQ was written by an American and the majority of those who've contributed material are also Americans. This unfortunately lends a very American flavor to the material. While the tenets and noble principles of Masonry are the same everwhere, there is some difference in organizational structure, ritual work, policies, procedures, etc. in non-US GLs (and even among US GLs). I am always more than happy to include material on Masonry outside of the US and examples of how Masonry differs in non-US jurisdictions, and what I've received I've included. This is simply a disclaimer that the material herein is derived from primarily American sources and when in doubt, check with the Grand Lodge in your jurisdiction.


(6) Table of Contents

I.  MASONRY ON USENET AND THE INTERNET
(1) Where is this FAQ available?
(2) Is there a mailing list?
(3) Are there any FTP sites?
(4) Are there any Wide World Web Masonic resources?

*(5)* What about CompuServe, AOL, Prodigy, GEnie, Delphi, and
      other commercial services?

(6) What is alt.freemasonry for?
(7) What is alt.masonic.members for?
(8) What is alt.masonic.demolay for?
(9) Hey!  Somebody just posted some nonsense about how Masons
    worship Satan and sell their soul to the Reverend Moon!  What
    should I do about it?

II. WHO/WHAT ARE MASONS?
(1) What is Freemasonry?
(2) What is the Scottish Rite?
(3) What is the York Rite?
(4) What is the Shrine?
(5) What is the Eastern Star?
(6) What is DeMolay?
*(7)* What is Rainbow?
(8) What are some other Masonic organizations?
(9) What is Co-Masonry?
*(10)* What is Prince Hall Masonry?
(11) What is a 33rd degree Mason?
(12) Are there any Masonic functions that I can attend as a
     non-Mason?
(13) Who is the head of the Masons?
(14) Are there dues, fees, etc. associated with being a Mason?
(15) I hear Masons refer to an "apron".  What is that?
(16) What is a "Masonic Funeral"?

III. PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS & MYTHS
(1) Are Masons just a bunch of old men?  Isn't Masonry dying out?
(2) Aren't Masons racist/elitist?
(3) Isn't Masonry just a place where businessmen make deals?
(4) I see titles like "Worshipful Master" and "Senior Deacon"-- is
    this some kind of cult?
(5) Masonry is a secret society, right?
(6) Masonry is a religion, right?
(7) Are Masons really controlling the world/meeting with the
    Bavarian Illuminati/members of the Trilateralist
    Commission/etc?
(8) Masons are anti-Catholic, right?
(9) Masonic rituals are demeaning or embarrassing to the candidate,
    right?
(10) I heard/read a Mason talking about a "Masonic Bible".  Do
     Masons have their own Bible? 
(11) I see that Masonic buildings are called Temples.  Does that
     mean that Masons worship there?

IV. HOW DO I BECOME A MASON?
(1) What are the requirements for becoming a Mason?
(2) Can [fill in an ethnic group]s be Masons?
(3) Can homosexuals be Masons?
(4) I have a physical disability.  Can I be a Mason?
(5) Can [fill in the name of the religion] be a Mason?
(6) Do Masons accept Catholics?
(7) Can Wiccans be Masons?
(8) What if my religion does not allow the swearing of oaths?
(9) Do I have to be invited?
(10) OK, I'm interested-- how do I proceed?

V. HISTORY
(1) Where did Masons come from?
(2) What US Presidents have been Masons?
(3) Was Thomas Jefferson a Mason?  Patrick Henry?  Abraham Lincoln?
(4) What famous people have been Masons?
(5) What famous buildings in the US have been laid Masonically?
*(6)* What's the difference between AF&AM and F&AM?
(7) Was Joseph Smith, founder of the Church of Latter Day Saints
    (Mormon), a Mason?
(8) What is the oldest Lodge Room in the world?  In the US?
(9) Is it true that all of George Washington's generals during the 
    Revolutionary War were Masons?
(10) Is it true that all the signers of the Declaration of
     Independence were Masons?  The Articles of Confederation?  The
     Constitution?
(11) George Washington turned down the title of "Grand Master of
     the United States"-- true?
(12) Why do some Lodges meet on a certain day of the week
     "following the full moon"?  Are Masons some kind of moon
     worshippers?
(13) Did Masons suffer at the hands of the Nazis?
*(14)* Are Masons connected to Greek-letter college fraternities?
*(15)* I want information on Masonic history.  What books would be
       good introductions? 
(16) My local Library doesn't have any books on Freemasonry,
     where can I find them?
*(17)* What movies/books feature Masonry?


I.  MASONRY ON USENET AND THE INTERNET
(1) Where is this FAQ available?
(2) Is there a mailing list?
(3) Are there any FTP sites?
(4) Are there any Wide World Web Masonic resources?
*(5)* What about CompuServe, AOL, Prodigy, GEnie, Delphi, and
      other commercial services?
(6) What is alt.freemasonry for?
(7) What is alt.masonic.members for?
(8) What is alt.masonic.demolay for?
(9) Hey!  Somebody just posted some nonsense about how Masons
    worship Satan and sell their soul to the Reverend Moon!  What
    should I do about it?

(1) Where is this FAQ available?

This FAQ is available by e-mail request via Roger Ingersoll's
automated e-mail system.  Send mail to rogeri@netcom.com with a
subject of SEND FAQ.

This FAQ is also available by FTP from Roger Ingersoll's FTP
archives (see question 3 of this section).

It is available on the AFS file system, in the
/afs/umich.edu/users/a/f/afabbro/Public directory.

This FAQ can also be read on the Web.  Look on
ftp://ftp.netcom.com/pub/ds/dstites/home/masfaq/masfaq_0.html.
This may not necessarily be the most current version (HTMLizing
takes time!)

The latest version of this FAQ may also be obtained on Fidonet
by FREQ-ing the "magic" name MASFAQ from 1:202/106, (Hiram's
Valley BBS).

It is posted monthly to alt.freemasonry, alt.masonic.demolay,
and alt.masonic.members.

If all of the above fail, and only as a last resort, send e-mail
to Andrew Fabbro (afabbro@umich.edu).

(2) Is there a mailing list?

Yes.  Send e-mail to freemasonry-list-request@sacto.mp.usbr.gov
with a message asking to be subscribed (e.g., "Please subscribe
me.  My name is Benjamin Franklin and my e-mail address is
bfranklin@cont.congress.gov").  The exact syntax of your request
is not important, as it will be read by a human.

(3) Are there any FTP sites?

Yes.  Roger Ingersoll maintains a large collection of Masonic
material at ftp.netcom.com, in the /pub/ro/rogeri/freemasonry
directory.

While you're there, take a look in Dave Stites' site (say that
three times fast, I dare you), which is
/pub/ds/dstites/freemasonry

(4) Are there any Wide World Web Masonic resources?

Yes.  Try http://web.mit.edu/dryfoo/www/Masonry/
or Roger Ingersoll's Masonic page at URL
FTP://ftp.netcom.com/pub/ro/rogeri/freemasonry/home/home.html

*(5)* What about CompuServe, AOL, Prodigy, GEnie, Delphi, and
      other commercial services?

On CompuServe, type GO MASONRY to reach the Masonry forum.  The CIS 
Masonry forum has an excellent library of files on Masonry, and the
forum contains very good discussion.

On America On-Line: There are four Masonic discussion folders in two 
different areas.  Each area has a Masonic Youth Groups section and a 
Freemasonry section.  To get to the first area use keyword: Exchange, 
then press the Communities Center button, then go to the Organizations 
Board.  In that folder are the discussion groups called Freemasonry 
Online and Masonic Youth Organizations.  To get to the second, use 
keyword: Religion, then go to Other Religions, and then select Other 
Religions again in the new list.  Masonic Youth Groups and Freemasonry 
should be in there somewhere (commercial providers have a habit of 
incorrectly placing Masonry in the "religion" section-- GEnie used to 
do this).  The first area is probably the better of the two.

You can also search the software libraries on AOL using the keyword
"Mason".  Also, searching the member directory using the keyword
"Mason" will give you a list of many other Masons on AOL.

AOL also has a "CyberLodge".  E-mail Fronefield@aol.com for a copy
of the trestleboard.  The "CyberLodge" meets in the "Public Chat Room" 
by the name of "Freemasonry."  Meetings are held at 9:00PM Eastern on 
the second Wednesday and 8:00PM Eastern on the fourth Sunday of each 
month.  (Thanks to Bill Menees for the information on AOL)

(6) What is alt.freemasonry for?  

Alt.freemasonry is intended for general discussion of Masonry
and related topics.  Almost any question regarding Masonry is
welcome there.  Both Masons and non-Masons are welcome.

(7) What is alt.masonic.members for?
    
Alt.masonic.members is intended to be a home for USENET Masons
to talk about the Craft, though non-Masons are welcome to
participate.  The focus in a.m.m., however, is on discussion
among people already familiar with Masonry or people who are
Masons, so questions about becoming a Mason or what the York
Rite is would be inappropriate (feel free to post such questions
in alt.freemasonry instead).

Of course, neither newsgroup (or the mailing list) is considered
Tiled and non-Masons read both regularly, so Brothers should not
post anything that they would not normally discuss with
non-Masons.

Discussion on Co-Masonry (a form of Masonry which includes both
men and women) is welcome in either a.f or a.m.m.

(8) What is alt.masonic.demolay for?

A.m.d. is for discussion regarding DeMolay (shocker, huh?)  See
III, 6 if you don't know what DeMolay is.

(9) Hey!  Somebody just posted some nonsense about how Masons
worship Satan and sell their soul to the Reverend Moon!  What
should I do about it?

Periodically, someone will post obvious flame-bait on one of the
Masonic newsgroups.  Masons who read the newsgroup obviously
want to post and rebut these false claims.  However, keep in
mind that a single bit of bait that takes 30 seconds to write
("Masons are all KKK members!") can consume hours of time in
rebuttal.  Half-a-dozen flame-bait posts can drown the newsgroup
in meaningless flame-wars that asphyxiate any serious
conversation.  On the other hand, if the poster finds that his
ramblings are simply being ignored, he will likely become bored
and go off to alt.get-a-life and mingle with his own kind.

Some readers feel that these claims must be addressed, otherwise
USENET readers will get the wrong impression about Masonry.
There is some truth in this, though to be frank, if someone is
willing to get his information from someone who posts
unsubstantiated one-line attacks with half-a-dozen misspelled
words, there is probably little hope.  However, this FAQ has
been created to provide an answer to these nonsense posts, so
that Masons can simply say "read the FAQ" rather than having to
recreate its answers every time.

Still, some people will want to reply.  In descending order of
desirability, here is a hierarchy of possible responses:

(a) Ignore it.  The person involved obviously is trying to stir
up a flame-war, or bait Masons into saying something nasty in
return so he can point and say "See!  Masons are name-callers!"

(b) Respond via e-mail.  Point the poster to this FAQ, or write
your own response.

(c) Post a followup designed to entertain newsgroup readers.
For example, if someone posts claiming that Masons are part of a
global conspiracy, a gag post about channelling Adam Weishaupt
of the Bavarian Illuminati or stating that Masons receive their
daily to-do lists from root@universe.org would show the folly of
the poster's ideas while still contributing something enjoyable
to the newsgroup's readers.

(d) If the poster's flame-bait is something not covered in this
FAQ and you feel that you just can't hold back from responding,
please:

  (1) remove any cross-posts (in both the posting and the followups).
  Some trollers will post a bit of bait in alt.freemasonry and cross-
  post it to a half-dozen different groups, thus assuring that they
  receive at least some response somewhere, which will be echoed to
  all the other groups...can you say snowball?

  (2) If it not covered in this FAQ, please send a copy of the 
  original post and your reply to afabbro@umich.edu, so it may be
  included future editions.  No one has yet claimed that Masonry 
  is really a secret martial art or that Master Masons have a 
  special power to buy real estate no-money-down, but if someone 
  does, a Q&A just for them will be added.

Finally, remember that there are people who have genuine
questions or misconceptions about Masonry and are not trying to
flame anyone but rather simply want answers.  Just because they
have misconceptions does not mean they are trying to provoke
anyone.  You can usually tell the difference by the tone of the
post:

Honest Question: "I read in the Weekly World News that Masons have
                  ties to the KKK and are prejudiced and don't allow 
                  blacks to be members.  Is this true?"

Flame-Bait:      "You Masons are all Klansmen and bigots, aren't you?
                  How do you live with yourselves?  Do you enjoy 
                  harassing ethnic minorities?"

Honest Question: "I've heard that Catholics can't be Masons.  Is this
                  true?  Are there any Catholic Masons?  What is the
                  issue here?"

Flame-Bait:      "How can you Masons lie about Catholics, saying they
                  can be Masons?  Why are you trying to deceive
                  everyone?  What is your hidden agenda?"

Honest Question: "I thought Masonry was a fraternity, but I read that
                  you have to profess some kind of faith in God, or that
                  people pray in Lodge.  Is Masonry a religion?"

Flame-Bait:      "Masonry is a religion, and you have to give up your
                  religion to be a Mason!  Don't believe what Masons
                  tell you!"

Etcetera.  Those asking honest questions will usually respond with a
thanks and consider the information given.  Those seeking to sow the
seeds of a flame-war will simply switch subjects endlessly and ignore
any responses.


II. WHO/WHAT ARE MASONS?
(1) What is Freemasonry?
(2) What is the Scottish Rite?
(3) What is the York Rite?
(4) What is the Shrine?
(5) What is the Eastern Star?
(6) What is DeMolay?
*(7)* What is Rainbow?
(8) What are some other Masonic organizations?
*(9)* What is Co-Masonry?
*(10)* What is Prince Hall Masonry?
(11) What is a 33rd degree Mason?
(12) Are there any Masonic functions that I can attend as a
     non-Mason?
(13) Who is the head of the Masons?
(14) Are there dues, fees, etc. associated with being a Mason?
(15) I hear Masons refer to an "apron".  What is that?
(16) What is a "Masonic Funeral"?

(1) What is Freemasonry?

     Freemasonry (or simply, Masonry) is a fraternal order whose basic tenets
     are brotherly love, relief (philanthropy), and truth.  We strive to enjoy 
     the company of our brother Masons, assist them in times of personal 
     trouble, and reinforce essential moral values.  There is an old adage 
     that Masonry "takes good men and makes them better", which is our goal.  
 
    It has often been observed that men are the products of everything they 
     come into contact with during their lifetime.  Masonry offers a man an 
     opportunity to come into regular, enjoyable contact with men of good 
     character, thus reinforcing his own personal moral development.  Of 
     course, Masonry is also meant to be enjoyed by its membership, so the 
     order should not be viewed simply as a philosophical club, but rather a 
     vibrant fellowship of men who seek to enjoy each other's company, a 
     fraternity.

     To maintain this fraternity, discussion of religion and politics within 
     the Lodge is forbidden, as these subjects are those that have often 
     divided men in the past.  Masons cover the spectrum of both religious 
     and political beliefs and encourages a man to be religious without 
     advocating a particular religion, and to be active in his community 
     without advocating a particular medium of political expression.

     While there probably are some actual stone-workers who are Masons,
     Masonry does not teach is membership the literal techniques of stonework.
     Rather, it takes the actual "operative" work of Medieval Masons and uses 
     it as an allegory for moral development.  Thus, the symbols of Masonry 
     are the common tools that were used by medieval stonemasons: the gavel, 
     the rule, the compass, the square, the level, etc.  Each of these has a 
     symbolic meaning in Masonry.  For example, Masons are said to meet 
     "on the level", meaning that all Masons are brothers, regardless of 
     social status, personal wealth, or office within the Lodge or in the 
     world at large.  Similar symbolism exists for other tools.

     Masonry is distinguished from other fraternal orders by its emphasis on 
     moral character, its ornate rituals, and its long tradition and history, 
     which dates back to at least the 17th century in modern form, the 14th 
     century (c. 1350-1390) in the written evidence of its precursors, and back
     to the mists of antiquity in its origin.  Masonry has a continuously 
     documented paper history (i.e., Lodge to Lodge) since 1717, though 
     historical analysis shows Masonry to be much older.

     There are also a great many things that Masonry is NOT: a religion, a 
     secret society, etc., and these will be covered later in this FAQ.

     There are three degrees in Masonry.  Other appendant bodies confer
     additional degrees, up to the 32nd (or the honorary 33rd) of the Scottish
     Rite, but in symbolic Masonry (or Blue Lodge Masonry) proper, there are 
     only three.  At the Blue Lodge, Masons receive the degrees of Entered
     Apprentice (first degree), Fellowcraft (second degree), and Master Mason
     (third degree).  Promotion generally requires the mastery of a small body
     of memorized material, the contents of which varies from jurisdiction to 
     jurisdiction.  In some jurisdictions, only the signs, tokens, and grips of
     each degree must be learned; in others, a longer amount of material.

     Of course, no Mason would ever look down upon a Brother simply because
     he was of a lower degree-- the degrees do not exist to create a pecking
     order or to confer rank.  Rather, they are a system of initiation that
     allows men to become familiar with the august and ancient history and
     principles of Masonry at a comfortable pace.  Proceeding from Entered
     Apprentice to Master Mason in the US can take as little as three months,
     while in England, the degrees are spaced apart by a year's interval.

     Most Lodges have regular communications (meetings) once a month, that are
     also referred to as "business meetings".  In the US, these are typically
     only open to Master Masons.  In England, these meetings are usually opened
     in the first degree, and EAs may attend).  Conferring of degrees is 
     usually done at other meetings during the month.

     While conferral of degrees and mundane business do take up a lot of a
     Lodge's time, there are a host of other activities that Masons engage 
     in within the fraternity.  Charitable work is often done, in the form 
     of fundraisers, community volunteer work, etc.  And there are also a 
     great many things done for the simple pleasure of company: monthly 
     breakfasts or dinners, picnics, card/chess matches, lecturers on Masonic 
     history, you name it.  Masonry is a fraternity, and its membership seeks
     to have fun.

     Local Masonic Lodges are organized under Grand Lodges.  In the United 
     States, each state has its own Grand Lodge, which is a peer with every 
     other Grand Lodge.  There is not "Grandest Lodge"-- each Grand Lodge is 
     supreme in its jurisdiction (e.g., in the US, in its state) but has no 
     authority elsewhere.  Of course, this does not mean that Masonry in New 
     York is radically different than Masonry in Scotland or New Mexico.  
     Masons are very traditional and the differences between Grand Lodges are 
     usually minor.

     The head of a Lodge is given the title Worshipful Master.  This, of 
     course, does not imply that Masons worship him; it is merely a stylish 
     title.  Masonic Lodges can be found in many cities, of all sizes, around 
     the world.  There are presently approximately 5 million Masons, half of 
     which are in the United States.

(2)  What is the Scottish Rite?  

     The Scottish Rite is an appendant body of Masonry, meaning that it is 
     not part of the Blue Lodge per se, but closely associated with Masonry.
     It requires that a man be a Master Mason before joining the Scottish
     Rite.  The Scottish Rite confers the 4th through 32nd degrees.  The
     degree work may be, but is not necessarily, completed at one time.
     Any Master Mason is eligible to join the Scottish Rite.  The degrees
     of the Scottish Rite continue the symbolism of the first three Masonic
     degrees.  For a discussion of the 33rd degree, see question 9 of this
     section.

     The above refers to the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite (AASR), not the
     Rectified Scottish Rite , which exists both in UGLE-recognised and
     non-recognised Masonic bodies in the Europe.  

(3) What is the York Rite?

     The York Rite, like the Scottish Rite, is an appendant body of Masonry,
     and confers degrees beyond the Blue Lodge's three degrees.  It consists 
     of nine degrees additional degrees: Mark Master, Past Master, Most 
     Excellent Master, and Royal Arch Mason; the Cryptic Degrees of the 
     Royal Master, Select Master, and Super Excellent Master; and the 
     Chivalric Orders of the Order of the Red Cross, Order of the Knights of 
     Malta and the Order of Knights Templar.

     The Temple degrees, which comprise the top degrees of the York Rite
     are specifically Christian.  Or at least, it can be stated that the oath
     is: in some Grand Lodges in the US and abroad, one need not be a 
     Christian, but rather only be willing to take a Christian OATH.  The 
     difference here is that there are some who would willingly swear to 
     defend the Christian faith on the grounds that they would defend any 
     man's faith.  The Chapter (or Royal Arch) and Council Of Royal And Select
     Masters (Cryptic Rite), which comprise the first two sections of the 
     York Rite, are not specifically Christian.

     As with most things Masonic, discuss any concerns with your local
     York Rite, who can advise you regarding your eligibility.

(4) What is the Shrine?

     The Shrine is not an appendant body of Masonry, though the distinction
     would escape many.  The Shrine confers no additional degrees.  It was
     founded in 1872 (the Mecca Temple in New York City) and an Arabic 
     theme was chosen.  Hence, the distinctive red fez that Shriners wear at
     official functions.  

     Members of the Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles the Mystic Shrine for
     North America (AASONM is an anagram for "A MASON") are members of the
     Scottish Rite's 32nd degree, and/or Knights Templer of the York Rite.  The
     Shrine is most noted for its emphasis on philanthropy and its jolly 
     outlook on life-- it has been called "the playground of Masonry".  This
     is expressed as "Pleasure without intemperance, hospitality without 
     rudeness, and jollity without coarseness."

     The Royal Order of Jesters is a group drawn from Shrine membership,
     by invitation only.

(5) What is the Eastern Star?

     The Order of the Eastern Star is an adoptive rite of Freemasonry with
     teachings based on the Bible and objectives that are charitable and 
     benevolent.  The founder of OES  was Dr. Robert Morris, a lawyer and 
     educator from Boston, Massachusetts, who was a Master Mason and Past 
     Grand Master of Kentucky.  Dr. Morris intended his creation to become a 
     female branch of Freemasonry, but he failed to overcome the great 
     opposition this idea engendered.  After his first published ritual in 
     1849-50, he became associated with Robert Macoy who wrote and published 
     a ritual based on Morris' in 1867.  The first Grand Chapter was
     organized in Michigan in the same year.  (There is evidence for an 
     organization of the same name founded variously in 1788 or 1793, but 
     this group was defunct by 1867.)  Subordinate (local) chapters operate 
     under charter from state level grand chapters which are responsible to 
     the General Grand Chapter at the International Eastern Star temple in 
     Washington, D.C.

     Members must be eighteen years or older and either Master Masons in good
     standing or properly related to a Master Mason in good standing.  The 
     latter category includes wives; widows; sisters; daughters; mothers; 
     granddaughters; step-mothers; step daughters; step-sisters; and 
     half-sisters.  In 1994 this was expanded to include nieces, daughters-in-
     law, and grandmothers.

     Each chapter has eighteen officers, some elected and others appointed.
     Two offices are specifically male (Patron and Associate Patron) while nine
     offices are specifically female (including Matron and Associate Matron).
     While the Worthy Matron is considered to be the presiding officer of the 
     chapter, the degrees cannot be conferred without a presiding brother in
     good standing (hence the Patron and Associate Patron).

     Each chapter retains the right to decide who shall be a member of the
     organization.  Election to the degrees must be unanimous, without debate, 
     and secret.  The successful candidate must profess a belief in a Supreme 
     Being and is initiated in five degrees, which are conferred in one 
     ceremony. (When Eastern Star was created, it was intended to be the first 
     of a three degree series.  The second and third degrees were Queen of the 
     South and the Order of the Amaranth, respectively.)

     Interestingly enough, OES requires only the belief in a Supreme Being
     even though the degrees are based in both the Old and New Testaments.  
     While non-Christians are not specifically barred from membership, 
     it would seem to be difficult to be other than Christian and belong to 
     the Order.  (Thanks to Joy Leavy for this section)

(6) What is DeMolay?

     The International Order of DeMolay is the world's largest 
     fraternal organization for young men between the ages of 13 and 21.  The 
     Order was founded in Kansas City, Missouri on March 24, 1919 by Frank 
     Sherman Land.  DeMolay Chapters are sponsored by Masonic Lodges, and some 
     members of the sponsoring body also serve as Advisors on the Chapter's 
     Advisory Council. Structurally, it is similar to Masonry. The officers of 
     a Chapter are the Master Councilor, Senior Councilor, Junior Councilor, 
     Senior Deacon, Junior Deacon, Senior Steward, Junior Steward, Orator, 
     Scribe, Marshal, Chaplain, Standard Bearer, Sentinel, Almoner, and seven 
     Preceptors.

     DeMolay Chapters hold monthly or bi-weekly meetings with Masonic-like 
     Ritual. Other activities include athletic tournaments and events, social 
     functions (joint activities with Rainbow are encouraged), fund-raising 
     activities, Masonic service activities, and civic and philanthropic 
     activities.

     DeMolays are taught the seven cardinal virtues of the Order-- 
     filial love, reverence for sacred things, courtesy, comradeship, 
     fidelity, cleanness, and patriotism-- and the importance of practicing 
     them in their daily lives.

     The Order's namesake is Jacques DeMolay, who was the last Grand Master of 
     the Knights Templar and who was executed by the Inquisition on March 18, 
     1314. Louis Lower, the first DeMolay, and his group of friends, when 
     asked by Dad Land to choose a name for their group, believed that his 
     heroic fidelity and loyalty to his fellow Templars were qualities with 
     which they wanted their group to be identified. Mind you, Dad Land 
     explained this to them before they chose their name.

     A fascinating book about the history of the Order and the life of
     Frank S. Land (1890-1959), titled "Hi! Dad," is available from the 
     DeMolay and More Store or practically any member of the Order. The 
     phone number of the DeMolay and More Store is 1-800-DEMOLAY.
                         (thanks to Tom Schnorrenberg)

*(7)* What is Rainbow?

     Rainbow is the complement to DeMolay, enrolling girls between the 
     age of 13 and 20 if they are related to members of a Masonic Lodge 
     or the Eastern Star.  It confers two degrees, the Initiatory and the
     Grand Cross of Color.

     (More information for this section is needed)

(8) What are some other Masonic organizations?

     Acacia:  A college fraternity for Master Masons, the sons of Masons, and 
     young men recommended by two Masons one of whom is an Acacian 
     himself.  The national governing board is composed exclusively of 
     32nd and 33rd degree Masons.

     Order of Amaranth:  Open to Masons and their wives, mothers, daughters, 
     widows, and sisters.  At least one Master Mason must be present at 
     every initiation.  It confers only one degree.

     Daughters of Mokanna:  An auxiliary organization of the Grotto comprised 
     of the wives, mothers, daughters, widows, and sisters of the 
     Master Masons in the Grotto.

     Daughters of the Nile:  An auxiliary organization for the wives, 
     mothers, daughters, widows, and sisters of members of the Shrine.

     Desoms:  An organization for deaf Masons.

     Grotto:  A fun organization open to Master Masons.  It imitates the 
     Shrine to a large degree, but requires only that a member be a 
     Master Mason rather than a 32nd degree Mason or Knight Templar.  
     Officially known as The Mystic Order of Veiled Prophets of the 
     Enchanted Realm (MOVPER).

     High Twelve International:  An organization of Master Masons that
     usually meet for lunch, enjoy fellowship, and support Masonic
     causes, with special emphasis on youth and patriotic endeavors.

     Job's Daughters:  Enrolls girls between the ages of 13 and 20 that have 
     some Masonic relative.  They must profess a belief in God, the Ten 
     Commandments, and the Lord's prayer.

     L.O.S. of N.A.:  The Ladies' Oriental Shrine of North America.  Another 
     auxiliary for the wives, mothers, daughters, widows, and sisters 
     of Shrine members.

     National Sojourners, Inc.:  Open to Master Masons which are U.S. 
     citizens and who have served or are serving as a commissioned or 
     warrant officer in the United States military or in any armed service of 
     a nation allied with the US in time of war.

     Philalethes:  A group for Masons interested in Masonic philosophy and
     history.

     Royal Order of Scotland:  An organization for Christian Masons who have
     been 32nd degree Masons or Knights Templar for five or more years.

     Tall Cedars of Lebanon:  A fun organization for Master Masons similar to 
     the Grotto.  It confers the two degrees of the Royal Court and the 
     Sidonian.

     White Shrine of Jerusalem:  For Master Masons and their wives, mothers, 
     daughters, widows, and sisters.  Members must profess a belief in 
     the defense of the Christian religion.  

     (thanks to Bill Menees for providing this section)

(9) What is Co-Masonry?

     Co-Masonry refers to Masonic Lodges that admit both men and women.
     Co-Masonry traces its heritage back to the 19th century.

     There are two Grand Lodges of Co-Masonry with jurisdiction in 
     America: Le Droit Humain, a GL based in Paris, France and the original
     Co-Masonic organization in the US, and the American Federation of 
     Human Rights (aka American Co-Masonry), which is based in Larkspur,
     Colorado.  

     The degree structure differs slightly from standard Blue Lodge 
     structure (i.e., the Scottish Rite is worked as part of the 
     regular Lodge, not a separate organization), but in most things
     Co-Masonic lodges function as regular Masonic lodges.

*(10)* What is Prince Hall Masonry?

     NOTE: This section is excerpted from the Grand Lodge of New Brunswick's
     annual communication.  I wish there were some Prince Hall
     Masons who could provide better information.

     "There are some schools of thought that Prince Hall (his name not 
     a title) was born in Barbados to a free black woman and a 
     Scottish father. He emigrated to the Colony of Boston, Mass. and 
     acquired real estate, making him eligible to vote. It was also 
     documented that he was a devout Christian and a leather-worker by 
     trade.  On March 6, 1775, during the American War of 
     Independence, Prince Hall along with fourteen men of color were 
     made Masons in Army Lodge #441 of the Irish Constitution. When 
     Army Lodge moved on, the aforesaid brethren were issued a permit 
     authorizing them to appear publicly as a Masonic body for the 
     purpose of celebrating the feast of St. John and to bury their 
     dead.

     On March 2, 1784, these same brethren applied to the Grand Lodge 
     of England for a charter, which was subsequently issued to them 
     on September 29, 1784. They were warranted under the name of 
     African Lodge, No. 459 on the register of the Grand Lodge of 
     England by authority of then Grand Master, the Duke of 
     Cumberland. Prince Hall was the first Master. That charter, which 
     is authenticated and in safekeeping, is believed to be the only 
     original charter issued from the Grand Lodge of England still in 
     the possession of any Lodge in the United States.

     African Lodge allowed itself to slip into arrears in the late 
     1790's and was stricken from the rolls after the Union of 1813, 
     although it had attempted correspondence in 1802 and 1806. In 
     1827, after other unreplied-to attempts at communication, it 
     declared its independence of any external authority and began to 
     call itself African Grand Lodge No. 1.
     
     It is interesting to note that when the Massachusetts lodges 
     which were acting as a Provincial Grand Lodge declared themselves 
     an independent Grand Lodge, and even when the present Grand Lodge 
     of Massachusetts was formed by the amalgamation of two separate 
     Grand Lodges, African Lodge was not invited to take part, even 
     though it held a warrant every bit as valid as those others. This 
     may be explained in part by this 1795 quote from John Eliot, who 
     later became Grand Chaplain of the Gr. Lodge of Mass. He wrote, 
     "White Masons, who are not more skilled in geometry than their 
     black brethren, will not acknowledge them... .the truth is they 
     are ashamed of being on an equality with blacks."

     Today there are 45 Grand Lodges (the latest being the just 
     formed "Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge of the 
     Caribbean") that trace their origin back to African Lodge #459. 
     There are more than 5000 Prince Hall Lodges and over 300,000 
     members. So far as it is known, their ritual, their secrets, 
     their procedures, their requirements, their beliefs, their tenets 
     or fundamental principles, are all either identical with ours, or 
     recognizably similar." (by.. W Bro. Roy Cassidy)

     To add to this:

     The United Grand Lodge of England has now officially recognized
     Prince Hall Lodges.  Many US Grand Lodges have recognized PH
     GLs within their jurisdictions, and it has been or is being discussed 
     in other jurisdictions.  Since every Grand Lodge is autonomous and 
     the supreme authority in its jurisdiction, this issue must be 
     approached on a state-by-state basis.

     Some have criticized Masonry as "segregated" due to the Prince Hall
     Lodges, but this is a ridiculous claim, since there are many black
     Masons in non-PH Lodges and white members in PH Lodges, and displays 
     a fundamental ignorance of Masonic history.

(11) What is a 33rd degree Mason?

     The Scottish Rite awards a special honorary degree, the 33rd, to 
     those it feels has made an outstanding contribution to Masonry, 
     the community as a whole, and to mankind.  There is no way to "achieve"
     this degree or "take" it, in the sense that one takes the 4th through
     32nd degrees in the Scottish Rite.  It is a singular honor, rarely
     bestowed, and greatly admired.

(12) Are there any Masonic functions that I can attend as a non-Mason?

     Yes.  Many Lodges open their installation of officers to the public.
     Once a year, a new Worshipful Master takes office.  The ceremony 
     performed during his inauguration is public.  It is not the same ceremony 
     as would be performed in a regular Masonic ritual or degree, but it does 
     have the flavoring of Masonic symbolism and allows the public to "get a 
     feel for Masonry" without being Masons.  NOTE: Not all jurisdictions 
     have public installations.  Call or write your local lodge for details.

     In addition, many Lodges sponsor public functions throughout the year, 
     such as dinners or charity functions, designed to allow non-Masons who 
     are interested in Masonry the chance to talk with Masons and ask
     questions.  For information, call your local Lodge.

(13) Who is the head of the Masons?

     No one.  Each Grand Lodge has its own jurisdiction and is the supreme
     authority within that jurisdiction.  Obviously, many Grand Lodges have
     regular communication with each other, but official policy in one
     has no effect in another.

(14) Are there dues, fees, etc. associated with being a Mason?

     Yes.  Like all organizations, Lodges must be able to pay their light
     bills.  Typically, there is a one-time fee for the three degrees of
     Masonry, as well as regular annual dues.  But these vary widely
     depending on the number of members, cost of living (rent in Manhattan
     is higher than it is in rural Oklahoma), the actual physical facilities
     of the Lodge, etc.  The fees and dues, however, are not prohibitively
     expensive (the author is a college student and has no problem with
     them).  Rather than give a single figure which may be very different
     than your local Lodge charges, or publishing an extended table of costs,
     it is easiest to simply refer the interested to their local Lodge.

     Incidentally, many Grand Lodge jurisdictions provide for "life
     membership" after a Mason has paid dues for a long period.  For 
     example, in Michigan a Mason is no longer asked to pay dues after
     he has been a Mason for forty years.  Other jurisdictions allow 
     members to pay a lump sum for life membership.  As with almost
     everything in Masonry, check with your local Grand Lodge or Lodge 
     for more information.

(15) I hear Masons refer to an "apron".  What is that?

     "During the ceremonies of his initiation, each Mason is
     presented with a white apron. It is, to him, an emblem of
     innocence and the badge of a Mason. It has, in all ages, been
     cherished by the rich, the poor, the high and the low. It is his
     for life. He will never receive another one and has, therefore,
     been cautioned to take it home and instructed in its care. While
     perfectly satisfactory for him to do so if he desires, he need not
     bring it to Lodge, as linen aprons are provided for his use
     meetings." (From a pamphlet, "To the Lady and Family of a Mason")

     The above applies to the US.  In many other countries, the Master
     Mason owns his regalia and brings it to the Lodge.

(16) What is a "Masonic Funeral"?

     "Any member who was in good standing at the time of his
     death is entitled to a Masonic funeral if he or his family requests
     it.  Such a request should be made to the Master of his Lodge who
     will make the necessary arrangements with the family, the mortuary,
     and the minister.   A service is authorized by the jurisdiction in which 
     you are located, and consists of participation at the mortuary, the
     beginning at the mortuary and the closing at the graveside, or
     graveside only. Pallbearers will be furnished at the request of the
     family.  In general, the Lodge will do as much or as little as the
     nearest relative wishes it to do." (From a pamphlet, "To the Lady and 
     Family of a Mason")


III. PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS & MYTHS
(1) Are Masons just a bunch of old men?  Isn't Masonry dying out?
(2) Aren't Masons racist/elitist?
(3) Isn't Masonry just a place where businessmen make deals?
(4) I see titles like "Worshipful Master" and "Senior Deacon"-- is
    this some kind of cult?
(5) Masonry is a secret society, right?
(6) Masonry is a religion, right?
(7) Are Masons really controlling the world/meeting with the
    Bavarian Illuminati/members of the Trilateralist
    Commission/etc?
(8) Masons are anti-Catholic, right?
(9) Masonic rituals are demeaning or embarrassing to the candidate,
    right?
(10) I heard/read a Mason talking about a "Masonic Bible".  Do
     Masons have their own Bible? 
(11) I see that Masonic buildings are called Temples.  Does that
     mean that Masons worship there?


(1) Are Masons just a bunch of old men?  Isn't Masonry dying out?

     As regards the United States:

     There is no doubt that the population of Masons is aging.  There
     was a huge increase in membership in almost all fraternal orders
     after World War II, including Masonry.  This peaked at sometime
     in the late 50s.  During the social turbulence and generational
     strains of the 60s and 70s, new membership fell off, with the
     result that by the 1980s, total membership was in sharp decline.

     However, there are signs that membership has leveled out, or is
     gaining in some areas.  In many lodges, there are a great number of
     50-and-up members, and a number of 30-and-under members, with a
     gulf in between, representing where Baby Boomers would have been.
     Of course, we are speaking in broad generalities here-- there is no
     way to know the demographics of your local Lodge without asking one
     of its members.

     The overall point is that Masonic membership, when talking on a 
     national scale, has probably hit a stable membership base, after a 
     huge surge and then fall in membership.

     (Please submit information on other parts of the world)

(2) Aren't Masons racist/elitist?

     Regarding racism: Masonry explicitly states the equality of men, 
     regardless of race, creed, or color.  But there are some Masons 
     who are prejudiced, and this is unfortunate, saddening, and 
     unMasonic.  However, it is not representative of Masonry as a 
     whole, or representative of anything except a tiny minority of 
     Masons.  There are Masons of all ethnic backgrounds.

     "Elitism" is harder to define.  If you mean that Masons are highly
     selective in their membership, then yes, Masons are elitists.  But
     just criteria is used: men of good character, of good report, who
     believe in God.  Does the majority of the population fit that
     criteria?  If you think not, then you could say that Masons are 
     elitists.

     The idea that Masonry is only open to the patrician class, the landed
     gentry, and the wealthy is incorrect.  There are Masons of all
     economic backgrounds.  Indeed, there are Lodges which are mostly
     or wholly made up of blue-collar workers due to local demographics.

(3) Isn't Masonry just a place where businessmen make deals?

     No.  In fact, most Masons believe that to trade with a Brother Mason
     only because he is a Mason is unMasonic.  Even more importantly, 
     anyone who attempts to join a Lodge solely for business reasons will
     not be given a petition.

     Masons, however, are friends, and it is not surprising that many 
     Masons do trade with Brothers.  For one thing, they are dealing with
     people that are of good character and can be trusted, which is no
     small statement in the modern marketplace.

     But Masonry is not a "place to network".  Yes, some men do view 
     one of the benefits of membership as an additional source of 
     customers or partners, but few would say that is the only reason they
     became Masons.  The work involved in the degrees alone would make this
     a poor investment-- better to join the Rotary Club or other business
     group.

(4) I see titles like "Worshipful Master" and "Senior Deacon"-- is this some 
    kind of cult?

     No.  The titles are simply colorful, stylish, and full of ancient 
     symbolism.  No Mason worships the Master of the Lodge, nor does a Senior 
     (or Junior) Deacon engage in religious actions, as a Deacon of a church 
     might.

(5) Masonry is a secret society, right?

     Wrong.  Secret societies are generally defined as organizations which
     are unknown to the public and whose existence is denied.  The Bavarian
     Illuminati and the Mafia would be examples of secret societies.

     Masonry, on the other hand, is well-known and proudly displays its
     existence.  Masonic Temples are clearly marked as such, and many Lodges
     are listed in the yellow pages (usually under "Fraternal Orders").  
     Members often wear rings or tie-clips that identify themselves as Masons,
     and Masons often participate in community charity work.  Finally, some
     Masonic functions are open to the public.

     Masonry is not a secret society, but rather a society with a few secrets.
     These are mainly modes of recognition-- the signals, grips, signs, and
     phrases by which Masons recognize each other.  The actual degree rituals
     are considered secret as well, not because there is anything that would 
     harm Masonry by their revelation, but rather because they are more 
     meaningful if the candidate does not know what is going to go on during 
     them beforehand (see question 9 of this section if that makes you 
     nervous).

     It should be pointed out that many other organizations have a similar 
     class of secrets.  College fraternities (a.k.a. "Greek letter 
     organizations") often have small secrets known only to their members,
     allowing them to travel from house to house and still be known.

(6) Masonry is a religion, right?

     Wrong.

     Masonry is not a religion "by the definitions most people use.  Religion, 
     as the term is commonly used, implies several things: a plan for salvation
     or path by which one reaches the after-life; a theology which attempts to
     describe the nature of God; and the description of ways or practices by 
     which a man or woman may seek to communicate with God.  Masonry does none 
     of those things.  We offer no plan of salvation. With the exception of 
     saying that He is a loving Father who desires only good for His children, 
     we make no effort to describe the nature of God.  And while we open and 
     close our meetings with prayer, and we teach that no man should ever begin
     any important undertaking without first seeking the guidance of God, we 
     never tell a man how he should pray or for what he should pray.  Instead, 
     we tell him that he must find the answers to these great questions in his 
     own faith, in his church or synagogue or other house of worship.  We urge 
     men not to neglect their spiritual development and to be faithful in the 
     practice of their religion.  As the Grand Lodge of England wrote in 
     'Freemasonry and Religion', 'Freemasonry is far from indifferent to 
     religion.  Without interfering in religious practice, it expects each 
     member to follow his own faith, and to place above all other duties his 
     duty to God by whatever name He is known.'  Masonry itself makes only a 
     simple religious demand on a man--he must believe that he has an immortal 
     soul and he must believe in God.  No atheist can be a Mason." (Dr. Jim
     Tresner, 33rd degree)

     "Freemasonry has no dogma or theology.  It teaches that it is important 
     for every man to have a religion of his choice and to be faithful to it. 
     A good Mason is made even more faithful to the tenets of his faith by 
     membership." (Rev. Norman Vincent Peale, who was also a Mason)
     
(7) Are Masons really controlling the world/meeting with the Bavarian 
    Illuminati/members of the Trilateralist Commission/etc?

     Yes, not to mention the International Jewish Conspiracy, the Elders of
     Zion, Inver Brass, S.P.E.C.T.R.E., and the minions of Cthulhu.

       Anyone who believes that Masons are the Master Puppeteers
     of the globe either is pulling your leg, has read too much Robert Anton
     Wilson, or is in need of serious psychotherapy.

(8) Masons are anti-Catholic, right?
     
     Wrong.  There is nothing anti-Catholic in Masonry, in its traditions,
     its rituals, or its beliefs.

(9) Masonic rituals are demeaning or embarrassing to the candidate, right?
     
     Nothing could be further from the truth.  The rituals (degrees) are 
     designed to reinforce virtues that the Craft finds desirable, such as 
     Justice, Brotherly Love, Truth, and the like.  The rituals are actually 
     quite beautiful and filled with ancient language and much symbolism.  
     At no point, however, is the candidate asked to do anything that would 
     embarrass or demean him, nor anything that would violate his obligations 
     to his faith, country, or the law.

(10) I heard/read a Mason talking about a "Masonic Bible".  Do Masons
     have their own Bible?  

     "No.  The Bibles sometimes called 'Masonic Bibles' are just Bibles
     to which a concordance, giving the Biblical citations on which the 
     Masonic Ritual is based, has been added.  Sometimes reference material 
     on Masonic history is included.  Anyone is welcome to read one." (Dr. 
     Jim Tresner, 33rd degree)  Masonic Bibles are usually the King James
     version.

(11) I see that Masonic buildings are called Temples.  Does that mean that
     Masons worship there?

     No.  "Webster's New Twentieth Century Dictionary provides a definition for
     the word 'temple' which is as good an explanation as any: 'a building,
     usually of imposing size, serving the public or an organization in some
     special way; as, a temple of art, a Masonic temple'".  (Dr. Jim Tresner.
     33rd degree)


IV. HOW DO I BECOME A MASON?
(1) What are the requirements for becoming a Mason?
(2) Can [fill in an ethnic group]s be Masons?
(3) Can homosexuals be Masons?
(4) I have a physical disability.  Can I be a Mason?
(5) Can [fill in the name of the religion] be a Mason?
(6) Do Masons accept Catholics?
(7) Can Wiccans be Masons?
(8) What if my religion does not allow the swearing of oaths?
(9) Do I have to be invited?
(10) OK, I'm interested-- how do I proceed?


(1) What are the requirements for becoming a Mason?

     Candidates must be male, at least 21 years of age, able to profess a 
     belief in God, and of good character.  

     For information on mixed-sex Masonry, see the discussion on Co-Masonry
     in II, 7.

     Some Grand Lodges also have a residency requirement; for example, 
     the Grand Lodge of Michigan requires candidates to have lived in its 
     jurisdiction (Michigan) for a minimum of one year.

     There are some exceptions to the age requirement.  For example, in
     England and Virginia, the direct relatives of Master Masons in good
     standing are eligible to join at the age of 18.  In some
     jurisdictions, DeMolays may join upon reaching their 18th birthday.

(2) Can [fill in an ethnic group]s be Masons?

     Any human who meets the requirements listed in question (1) of this 
     section is eligible, regardless of race or color.

     Some have speculated that while there is no official prohibition 
     against, say, blacks or Asians from becoming Masons, there is a de facto
     prohibition because they would never be voted into a lodge.  This is
     false.  There are Masons of all ethnic backgrounds.

     However, it is fair to state that Masons, as humans, are prone to 
     the kinds of prejudices that all humans may succumb to.  Since the
     vote to admit a candidate is anonymous and must be unanimous, one man's 
     unspoken prejudice is sufficient to deny entry to a man (except, of
     course, in those jurisdictions which require more than one 'no' vote
     to deny entrance, but you get the idea).  Prejudice is inexcusable and 
     irreconcilable with Masonry, but then, it is also irreconcilable with 
     Christianity, Judaism, and Islam, and there are certainly Christians, 
     Jews, and Muslims who harbor prejudices.  

     So it is possible that a Mason, acting unMasonically, could act to
     keep a member out without due cause.  But this is not common, nor is 
     it representative of Masonry in general, nor does it conform to the
     high ideals of Masonry.

(3) Can homosexuals be Masons?

     Yes, and there are homosexual Masons.  Everything said in question (2)
     of this section holds true in this case as well.  There is the
     consideration that some men may view homosexuality as being immoral,
     i.e., that homosexuals are not men of "good character".  This is
     generally not due to any specific prejudice but rather due to religious
     belief (depending on how one interprets St. Paul, for example).  However,
     judging by conversation on alt.freemasonry, it is safe to say that Masons
     generally would not regard homosexuality as a barrier to membership.

(4) I have a physical disability.  Can I be a Mason?

     The answer is almost certainly yes, provided you can attend Lodge (and 
     meet the non-physical criteria in question (1) of this section).  
     Paraplegics have been made Masons, as have the blind, the deaf, and 
     others with a variety of physical handicaps.  Minor modifications may 
     need to be done to the rituals (e.g., employing sign language, modifying 
     points where the candidate stands if the candidate is in a wheelchair, 
     etc.) but most Lodges are willing to accommodate candidates.

     In medieval times, the requirement to have a sound body free of physical
     defect was a serious one, since the work of stonemasonry was physically
     difficult.  Some Grand Lodges did carry this requirement into 
     symbolic (i.e., non-operative) Masonry.  However, in recent times 
     this has all but been eliminated.  Talk to your local Lodge if you have
     any questions.

(5) Can [fill in the name of the religion] be a Mason?

     The only religious requirement is that candidates believe in the
     Supreme Being.  If you can in good faith profess a belief in the
     Supreme Being, you are eligible to be a Mason.  No atheists will
     ever knowingly be made a Mason.

     There are Christian (Catholic, Protestant, Mormon), Jewish, and 
     Muslim Masons.  It would be tedious and pointless to go into a 
     religion-by-religion (and then denomination-by-denomination) 
     discussion.  The key points to remember are the requirement of belief 
     in the supreme being and the fact that Masonry is a fraternity, not a 
     religion.

(6) Do Masons accept Catholics?

     Catholicism is only mentioned specifically because it has generated
     a lot of traffic in the past on the Masonic newsgroups.  There is no 
     prohibition in any Grand Lodge jurisdiction against Catholics being made
     Masons.  

     Please bear in mind that discussion of this subject on the Masonic
     newsgroups invariably generates a very high noise-to-signal ratio.

(7) Can Wiccans be Masons?

     This religion is specifically mentioned only because it has been
     often debated on alt.freemasonry.  It is possible to get into very 
     involved discussions on the nature of Wiccan beliefs and their
     compatibility with Masonry, but the only possible arbitrator is your
     Grand Lodge.  To that end, it is suggested that if you have more specific
     questions, contact your local Lodge.

     Again, the same could be said about a number of religions, and Wicca
     is only mentioned specifically because it has been brought up repeatedly
     on the Masonic newsgroups.  Please bear in mind that discussion of this
     subject on the USENET Masonic newsgroups invariably generates more heat
     than light.

(8) What if my religion does not allow the swearing of oaths?

     Some Grand Lodges allow affirmations to be used instead of the
     traditional Masonic oath.  This is more common in Europe than in
     the United States.  In all cases, it is best to check with the Grand 
     Lodge in your jurisdiction (or your local Lodge) for more specific 
     information.

(9) Do I have to be invited?

     Don't wait to be invited-- you will die waiting.  Masons are 
     prohibited from actively recruiting or asking non-Masons to join 
     the fraternity, to insure that candidates come of their own free will.

     As with many things Masonic, there are some exceptions to this rule.
     Some Grand Lodges allow solicitation, provided it is low-key and
     with the strict provision that no pressure be applied.  Still, you
     don't *need* to be invited in any jurisdiction, and if you're 
     interested, act.

(10) OK, I'm interested-- how do I proceed?

     If you know a Mason, ask him about membership.  He will be glad to 
     tell you all about the Craft and the local lodge, and give you a petition
     if you wish to join.

     If you do not know a Mason, drop a letter to the local lodge, and one
     of the officers will call you (or call the lodge, though you may not
     get an answer unless someone is actually there).

     Typically, the process is as follows:

     (a) the applicant fills out a petition.  The petition asks for two
     sponsors, though if you meet and talk with the officers, they can
     usually find sponsors or act as sponsors themselves if you do not know
     anyone in the lodge.

     (b) the petition is read at the lodge during the next business meeting,
     which for many lodges is during the first week of the month.  A 
     committee is formed to investigate the candidate.  The petition also
     asks for two character references.

     (c) the committee meets with the candidate to answer questions,
     ascertain that he meets the criteria for membership, and find out a
     little about him.  This is not a "grilling session", but rather a
     friendly and casual chat to make certain that the candidate has
     been properly informed about Masonry and that was not improperly
     solicited.  The committee also contacts the character references
     listed on the petition (typically asking if they know any reason
     why the candidate should not be accepted, etc.)

     (d) The committee reports back to the lodge during the next business
     meeting and the candidate is voted on.  If accepted, someone from the
     lodge (often the Secretary) contacts the candidate and informs him that
     he has been accepted and schedules a date for the Entered Apprentice
     degree.

     NOTE: This is based on the summation of several experiences in the U.S.
     Your mileage may vary.


V. HISTORY
(1) Where did Masons come from?
(2) What US Presidents have been Masons?
(3) Was Thomas Jefferson a Mason?  Patrick Henry?  Abraham Lincoln?
(4) What famous people have been Masons?
(5) What famous buildings in the US have been laid Masonically?
*(6)* What's the difference between AF&AM and F&AM?
(7) Was Joseph Smith, founder of the Church of Latter Day Saints
    (Mormon), a Mason?
(8) What is the oldest Lodge Room in the world?  In the US?
(9) Is it true that all of George Washington's generals during the 
    Revolutionary War were Masons?
(10) Is it true that all the signers of the Declaration of
     Independence were Masons?  The Articles of Confederation?  The
     Constitution?
(11) George Washington turned down the title of "Grand Master of
     the United States"-- true?
(12) Why do some Lodges meet on a certain day of the week
     "following the full moon"?  Are Masons some kind of moon
     worshippers?
(13) Did Masons suffer at the hands of the Nazis?
*(14)* Are Masons connected to Greek-letter college fraternities?
*(15)* I want information on Masonic history.  What books would be
       good introductions? 
(16) My local Library doesn't have any books on Freemasonry,
     where can I find them?
*(17)* What movies/books feature Masonry?


(1) Where did Masons come from?
  
     A fascinating question!  And, alas, impossible to answer
     within the confines of this FAQ.  There are a number of theories, 
     a lot of debate, and a lot of musty history books.  Some of the books
     listed in question 15 of this section should be of help.  As a 
     *very* brief overview, here is part of an essay by Henry C. Clausen, 
     a noted Masonic author.  This is, of course, just one point of view-- 
     many other theories exist, but Cluasen nicely covers the basics:

     "Our Masonic antiquity is demonstrated by a so-called Regius 
     Manuscript written around the year 1390, when King Richard II reigned 
     in England, a century before Columbus.  It was part of the King's 
     Library that George II presented to the British Museum in 1757.  
     Rediscovered by James O. Halliwell, a non-Mason, and rebound in 
     its present form in 1838, it consists of 794 lines of rhymed 
     English verse and claims there was an introduction of Masonry 
     into England during the reign of Athelstan, who ascended the 
     throne in A.D. 925.  It sets forth regulations for the Society, 
     fifteen articles and fifteen points and rules of behavior at 
     church, teaching duties to God and Church and Country, and 
     inculcating brotherhood.  While the real roots of Masonry are 
     lost in faraway mists, these items show that our recorded history 
     goes back well over 600 years.  Further proof is furnished 
     through English statutes as, for example, one of 1350 (25 Edward 
     III, Cap. III) which regulated wages of a "Master...Mason at 4 
     pence per day."  The Fabric Role of the 12th century Exeter 
     Cathedral referred to "Freemasons."

     The historical advance of science also treats of our 
     operative ancient brethren who were architects and stonemasons of 
     geometry.  It is apparent from this portrayal that they had a 
     very real and personal identification with the Deity and that 
     this fervent devotion provided energy to build cathedrals.  They 
     embraced the teachings of Plato and understood and applied 
     Pythagorean relationships.  Just as there is a beauty of harmony 
     credited to mathematical relationships on which music is based, 
     in precisely the same way these master geometricians treated 
     architecture.  The architects and stonemasons became the 
     personification of geometry, performing extraordinary feats with 
     squares and compasses.  Geometrical proportion, not measurement, 
     was the rule.  Their marks as stonemasons were derived from 
     geometric constructions.  The mighty works they wrought, 
     cathedrals with Gothic spires pointing toward the heavens, and 
     especially their "association," were not without danger and 
     opposition, bearing in mind the Inquisition established in 1229, 
     the Saint Bartholomew's Eve Massacre of 1572, and the revocation 
     of the Edict of Nantes in 1685.  These historical points remind 
     us of the need for our cautions against cowans and eavesdroppers.

     Our operative Brethren of the Middle Ages thus were the 
     builders of mighty cathedrals throughout the British Isles and 
     continental Europe, many of which still stand.  These skilled 
     craftsmen wrote in enduring stone impressive stories of 
     achievement, frequently chiseled with symbolic markings.  With 
     these architectural structures of these master builders there was 
     a companion moral code.  These grew up together.  Out of this 
     background modern Freemasonry was born.

     Although "Lodges" had existed for centuries, four of the 
     "old" Lodges met in London on St. John the Baptist's Day, June 
     24, 1717, and formed the first Grand Lodge of England, thereafter 
     known as the Premier Grand Lodge of the world.  No longer 
     operative as of old, the Masons carried on the traditions and 
     used the tools of the craft as emblems to symbolize principles of 
     conduct in a continued effort to build a better world.

     The American colonial Masonic organizations stemmed from 
     this Grand Lodge of England and were formed soon after 1717.  Its 
     then Grand Master appointed Colonel Daniel Coxe as Provincial 
     Grand Master of New York, New Jersy and Pennsylvania on June 5, 
     1730, and Henry Price of Boston as Provincial Grand Master of New 
     England in April 1733."   -- Henry C. Clausen

(2) What US Presidents have been Masons?

     George Washington
     James Monroe
     Andrew Jackson
     James Polk
     James Buchanan
     Andrew Johnson
     James Garfield
     William McKinley
     Theodore Roosevelt
     William Howard Taft
     Warren G. Harding
     Franklin D. Roosevelt
     Harry S. Truman
     (Lyndon B. Johnson)
     Gerald R. Ford

     Notes (in chronological order):

     William McKinley's Masonic membership has not been confirmed 100%, 
     though his name does appear on several lists.  Hopefully, someone 
     will be able to provide a definitive yes or no.

     William Howard Taft was made a Mason At Sight by the Grand Master
     of Ohio and later raised to Grand Master of Ohio in 1909.

     Harry S. Truman was also Grand Master of his home state, Missouri.   

     Lyndon Johnson was an Entered Apprentice, but never progressed
     beyond that degree.

     Ronald Reagan is not a craft Mason.  He was made an honorary 33rd
     degree Mason by the Southern Jurisdiction of the AASR and an honorary
     member of the Imperial Council of the Shrine, but he was never entered, 
     passed, and raised as a Mason, nor was he ever made a Mason at sight.
     (Source: Robinson's _Born in Blood_)

     Bill Clinton is not a Mason, though he was involved in DeMolay for 
     a time.

     Many other leaders in government have been Masons:  "They have included 
     fourteen Presidents and eighteen Vice Presidents of the United States; 
     a majority of the Justices of the United States Supreme Court, of the 
     Governors of States, of the members of the Senate, and a large percentage 
     of the Congressmen.  Five Chief Justices of the United States were Masons 
     and two were Grand Masters.  The five were Oliver Ellsworth, John Marshall
     (also Grand Master of Masons in Virginia), William Howard Taft, Frederick 
     M. Vinson and Earl Warren (also Grand Master of Masons in California.)"
                                                       -- Henry C. Clausen

(3) Was Thomas Jefferson a Mason?  Patrick Henry?  Abraham Lincoln?

     No, no, and no.  As for the first two, "an exhaustive search of Masonic 
     records in Virginia, and elsewhere, offers no iota of evidence to make 
     them Freemasons. Jefferson participated in the cornerstone laying of his 
     University at Charlottesville, which was done Masonically. He praised 
     Freemasonry and his own words proved he had never been a member of the 
     Craft." (FMBITS.TXT)

     There is some evidence that Abraham Lincoln intended to become a Mason
     when he returned to Springfield after his second term in office, had he 
     not been assassinated in 1865.

(4) What famous people have been Masons?

     This is by no means a complete list.  This list also includes 
     Prince Hall Masons.

     FROM THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION (other than Presidents): Benjamin Franklin, 
     John Hancock, Paul Revere, John Paul Jones, LaFayette, Rufus King, 
     James Otis, Baron von Steuben, Joseph Warren, Benedict Arnold (well, you
     can't win them all)

     POLITICAL LEADERS: Winston Churchill, Simon Bolivar, Edmund Burke,
     Benito Juarez, Edward VII, George VI, Bernardo O'Higgins, Jose' de
     San Martin, Francisco de Paula Santander, Jose'Rizal, Jose' Marti,  
     Pandit Nehru,  Lajos Kossuth, Jonas Furrer, Guiseppe Mazzini,  
     Eduard Benes, John A. MacDonald, Aaron Burr, George McGovern, Barry
     Goldwater, Estes Kefauver, Adlai Stevenson (not the governor of Illinois,
     but his father who was Vice President in 1892), Thomas E. Dewey, Alf
     Landon, Hubert H. Humphrey, Wendell Wilke, W.E.B. DuBois, William 
     Jennings Bryant

     MILITARY LEADERS: Omar Bradley, John J. Pershing, Douglas McArthur,
     General Winfield Scott, Captain Eddie Rickenbacker, Jimmy Doolittle,
     General Mark Clark, General George C. Marshall

     REPUBLIC OF TEXAS: Sam Houston, Stephen Austin, Davy Crockett, Jim Bowie,
     William B. Travis (and, it should be added, General Santa Ana)

     FINE ARTS: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (and his father, Leopold), Ludwig von 
     Beethoven, Jean Sibelius, Franz Liszt, Josef Haydn, Irving Berlin, 
     Gutzon Borglum, Charles W. Peale, Alfons M. Mucha, John Philip Sousa, 
     both Gilbert & Sullivan, George Gershwin, George M. Cohen, Count Basie, 
     Nat King Cole, Giacomo Meyerbeer, Signmund Romberg

     ACTORS: John Wayne, Red Skelton, Clark Gable, W.C. Fields, Will Rogers,
     Burl Ives, Roy Rogers, Danny Thomas, Ernest Borgnine, Oliver Hardy,
     Tom Mix, Audie Murphy, Gene Autry, Wallace Beery, Eddie Cantor

     INDUSTRY & LABOR: Henry Ford, Samuel Gompers, Walter P. Chrysler, 
     John Wanamaker, S.S. Kresge, J.C. Penney, John Jacob Astor, John L. Lewis

     ADVENTURERS: Lewis & Clark, Charles A. Lindberg, Kit Carson, Roald 
     Amundsen, Adm. Richard Byrd, Commodore Robert Peary

     PHILOSOPHERS: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Gotthold E. Lessing, 
     Voltaire (Francois Marie Arouet)

     ATHLETES: Bob Feller, Tris Speaker, Ty Cobb, Paul "Dizzy" Trout, 
     Harry Carey, Dell Rice, Jimmy Fox, Joe Tinker (of "Tinker to Evers
     to Chance"), Jack Dempsey, Arnold Palmer, Jack Arthur Johnson

     ASTRONAUTS: Edwin E. "Buzz" Aldrin, Jr., Leroy Gordon Cooper, 
     Donn F. Eisele, Virgil I. Grissom, Edgar D. Mitchell, Walter M. 
     Schirra, Jr., Thomas P. Stafford, Paul J. Weitz, James B. Irwin,
     John Glenn.
        
     WRITERS: Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain), Sir Walter Scott, Rudyard Kipling, 
     Robert Burns, Wassily I. Maikow, Heinrich Heine, Jean P.C. de Florian, 
     Leopoldo Lugoner, Antonio de Castro Alves, James Boswell, Alexander
     Pushkin, Arthur Conan Doyle, Johnathon Swift, Oscar Wilde

     LAW: John Marshall, Earl Warren, Thurgood Marshall

     MEDICINE: Drs. Alexander Fleming, Jules Bordet, Antoine DePage, Edward 
     Jenner, Charles and William Mayo, Karl and William  Menninger

     SCIENCE: Hans C. Orsted, Jons Jakob Frk. von Berzelius, Alfred Edmund
     Brehm, Luther Burbank, Johan Ernst Gunnerus, Albert Abraham Michelson,
     Gaspard  Monge, C.F.S. Hahnemann, Pedro N. Arata, Alexandre Gustave
     Eiffel, Alexander Fleming, James Smithson

     ...as well as Harry Houdini, Norman Vincent Peale, David Sarnoff, 
     Thomas J. Watson, Giuseppe Garibaldi, Cecil J. Rhodes, 
     Marvin Zindler, and many, many more.

(5) What famous buildings in the US have been laid Masonically?

     The U. S. Capitol   
     The Smithsonian Institution
     Jackson Hall
     The National Education Association Building
     The Army War College Building
     House of Representatives Office Building
     The Washington Monument
 
     The Washington Monument is in Alexandria, Virginia, and honors
     our first President and Brother Mason, George Washington. (FMBITS.TXT)

*(6)* What's the difference between AF&AM and F&AM?

     F&AM means "Free & Accepted Masons."
     AF&AM means "Ancient Free & Accepted Masons".
     In practical terms, there is no difference, since the jurisdictions
     that are termed "ancient" F&AM are no different than those that are
     simply F&AM.  The distinction is a historical one, owing to differences
     in Grand Lodge names.  (someone will provide more information on this
     topic, I hope)

(7) Was Joseph Smith, founder of the Church of Latter Day Saints
(Mormon), a Mason?

    (This section provided by Brother Bob Dixon; the use of the first 
    person is his)

     "Joseph Smith was a mason, as were the following four presidents of
     the LDS church.

     From about 1839 to about 1846 most of the members of the church
     gathered to Nauvoo, Illinois, and there were at least four lodges in
     operation there.  Joseph Smith was a very flamboyant individual and had
     a disagreement with the Grand Lodge of Illinois over the way the Nauvoo
     lodges were operated.  Accordingly, their charters were revoked by the
     Grand Lodge.

     He was murdered by a mob in 1844, and Brigham Young felt it was as a
     result of a masonic conspiracy.  He prohibited Mormons from being
     Masons, which remained in effect until the last ten years or so.  The
     ill feelings went both ways, as the Grand Lodge of Utah refused to
     accept Mormons as members until about 1984.

     There are no particular restrictions on Mormons being Masons.  We are
     continually counselled to put our families and Christ first, which many
     interpret as counsel to avoid most activities outside family and church.
     This is a personal choice, though, and not a matter of strict doctrine.

     We perform certain ordinances such as baptisms for the dead and
     eternal marriages in our temples, and minor portions of those ordinances
     bear very surface similarity to parts of the Masonic degrees.  The whole
     scope and character is much different, though.  Where (I feel, anyway)
     that the masonic degree work revolves around our place in God's kingdom
     here on the earth, our temple rituals deal with creation and our place
     in the eternities."

     (A minor historical note: Smith was made a Mason at Sight by the
     Grand Master of Illinois)

(8) What is the oldest Lodge Room in the world?  In the US?

     "St.  John's  Chapel,  Edinburgh, Scotland is said to be the 
     oldest Masonic Lodge Room (1736) in the world. The oldest known Lodge 
     Room in the U.S. is situated in Prentiss House, Marble head, 
     Massachusetts (1760).The oldest Masonic Lodge Building is the Lodge 
     Hall of Royal White Hart Lodge No. 2, Halltax, Northings, North Carolina 
     (1771)." (FMBITS.TXT)

     Other information disagrees with this, stating that the oldest
     American Lodge Room is "Masons Hall in Richmond, Virginia, the home of
     Richmond Randolph Lodge No. 19 and Richmond Royal Arch Chapter No. 3. The
     building owned by Royal White Hart Lodge wasn't built until 1821. Masons
     Hall was built in 1785. It was originally the home of Richmond Lodge No.
     10, the first wholly new Lodge chartered by the Grand Lodge of Virginia. 
     It was also the first permanent home of the Grand Lodge of Virginia."
     (from Northern Light)

(9) Is it true that all of George Washington's generals during the 
    Revolutionary War were Masons?

     No.  33 of the generals serving under Washington were Masons.  A 
     substantial number, but not "all". 

(10) Is it true that all the signers of the Declaration of Independence were
    Masons?  The Articles of Confederation?  The Constitution?

     No.  Masons constituted ten of the signers of the Articles, nine signers 
     of the Declaration, and thirteen signers of the Constitution.  

     Additionally, Edmund Randolph, Grand Master of Virginia, was an active
     participant at the Constitutional Convention, though he didn't sign the
     document. It should also be noted that four Presidents of the
     Continental Congresses were Freemasons: Peyton Randolph of Virginia, John
     Hancock of Massachusetts, Henry Laurens of South Carolina, and Arthur St.
     Clair of Pennsylvania.  (Northern Light)

(11) George Washington turned down the title of "Grand Master of the United 
     States"-- true?

     Yes, sort of.  The American Union Lodge proposed that Washington
     become "General Grand Master of the United States", a title to 
     be held in the "National Grand Lodge".  However, there were many 
     others who also disagreed with the idea, so it was never a serious 
     proposal.

     Washington was Master of Alexandria Lodge No. 22 in Virginia, whose
     Grand Master was then Edmund Randolph.  Washington was never Grand 
     Master of Virginia (or any other jurisdiction).

(12) Why do some Lodges meet on a certain day of the week "following the
    full moon"?  Are Masons some kind of moon worshippers?

     The reason is actually simple practicality.  Masonic Lodges meet at
     night, since their membership typically works during the day.  Before 
     street lights were available in the 19th century, men walked to Lodge
     in the dark of night and it was common to schedule Lodge meetings 
     shortly after a full moon to provide maximum illumination for
     Brothers' walk to and from Lodge.

     Obviously, this is no longer an issue, though some Lodges whose
     history stretches back into the 19th century or earlier still 
     schedule their meetings by the moon's period.  These are sometimes
     referred to as "moon Lodges".

(13) Did Masons suffer at the hands of the Nazis?

     Yes.  The exact numbers are unknown.  Lt. Col. David Boyd wrote that
     85,000 German Masons were killed by the Nazis, though other research has
     found that this number may be off by as much as a third.  This figure 
     does not include any of the nations the Nazis occupied.

     Regardless of the actual number killed, it is clear that Hitler viewed
     Masonry, which exalts truth, toleration, brotherly love, and free 
     thought, to be dangerous and a threat to his regime.  Ironically, in his
     last days in his bunker in Berlin, Hitler had a painting of Frederick the
     Great in his chambers.  Frederick the Great was a Mason.

*(14)* Are Masons connected to Greek-letter fraternities?

*(15)* I want information on Masonic history.  What books would be good 
     introductions? 

     Virtually anything by Allen Roberts.

     Robinson, John J.  _A Pilgrim's Path_
     Robinson, John J.  _Born in Blood_

     Stevenson, David, PhD.  _The Origins of Freemasonry: Scotland's
     Century 1590-1710_ (Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University 
     Press, 1988).

     _Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia_ is an excellent reference.

(16) My local Library doesn't have any books on Freemasonry,
     where can I find them?

     Many Lodges maintain their own libraries as do the Grand Lodges.
     Some larger public Libraries also may have a better collection than
     a smaller Library.  Unfortunately, bookstores do not typically carry
     a wide assortment of Masonic related books, however, there are
     several sources to purchase books:
    
               Macoy Publishing   (804) 262-6551
                P.O. Box 9759
                Richmond, VA  23228

                Anchor Communications  (804) 737-4498
                110 Quince Ave.    Drawer 70
                Highland Springs, VA  23075

     Look at Roger Ingersoll's home page or FTP site for free
     publications and addresses of other sources of Masonic books.

*(17)* What movies/books feature Masonry?

     _The Man Who Would Be King_, by Brother Rudyard Kipling.  A good
     story, later made into an excellent film, starring Michael Caine, 
     Sean Connery, and Christopher Plummer.  Its portrayal of Masonic
     history is quite fanciful, of course.

     _Murder by Decree_  A Sherlock Holmes movie, concerning the Master
     Sleuth's hunt for Jack the Ripper.  It does not portray Masonry in
     an honest, accurate, or favorable light.  A good movie, but it is
     important to remember that no Mason would ever knowingly commit
     a crime for a Brother.  Incidentally, Edward VII was actually a Mason.  
     (The story is not one of Brother Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's).

     The "Turmgesellschaft" in Goethe's "Wilhelm Meister" novels is 
     certainly of Masonic origin.

     In Tolstoy's "War and Peace", the Masonic initiation ritual of the
     character Pierre Besouchoff is described in great detail.
    
     There is also a modest body of Masonic poetry: Kipling's "The Palace" 
     and "Mother Lodge," Burns's "Masonic Farewell," Goethe's "Mason Lodge," 
     Leigh Hunt's "Abou Ben Adhem," Carruth's "Each in His Own Tongue," 
     Burns's "On the Apron," Meredith's "Ebony Staff of Solomon," 
     Bowman's "Voice of America," Malloch's "Father's Lodge" and Nesbit's 
     "I Sat in Lodge with You." (Carl H. Claudy)


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-- 
Gordon N. Matheson       Internet: gordon@ll.mit.edu
MIT Lincoln Laboratory   Compu$erve: 73130,2257 
244 Wood Street B-368    Phone: 617.981.3459    FAX: 617.981.0695   
Lexington, MA 02173-9108           These are my opinions not LL's 

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