Freemasonry from AD 1600 to the Grand Lodge Era
One More Time, Please! Vol II No. 3
Circulation ------> 163 March 1997
This Month's Article comes from the Transactions of The Lodge of
Research No. 2429, Leicester (England) for the year 1903-04. The paper
was read by the Secretary at the fifty-eighth meeting held at
Freemasons' Hall, Leicester on Monday January 25th, 1904. This article
should be read in context of the time it was written. Additional
research findings since that time may make some of the conclusions
reached in the article questionable today.
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Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Freemasonry from AD 1600 to the Grand Lodge Era
A SKETCH OF THE TRANSITION PERIOD
Bro. W.J. Hughan, P.G.D., Hon. Mem. No. 2049
There is such an abundance of evidence in proof of the continuity of
Freemasonry during the period selected, that it is only necessary to
study the special records of the old Lodges, happily still preserved,
the Rolls of the "Old Charges", and especially the extant minutes of the
Masons' Company of London, to be assured that the Freemasons of the
present day are the lineal descendants of the operative builders, who in
the 17th century, and earlier, admitted speculative or non-professional
The 17th century operative Masons were most favourable to the
speculative element in their midst, and encouraged their admission to
such an extent, that sometimes the Lodges consisted almost exclusively
of brethren in no way connected with building. Several examples of this
remarkable feature may be cited, such as the Lodge at Warrington in
which Ashmole was initiated in 1646. An extraordinary instance of the
preponderance of gentlemen in an operative Lodge, is met with at
Aberdeen in 1670, for of forty-nine members registered in the "Mark
Book" with their marks attached, not a dozen were operatives; the Master
was a Tutor at Airth and Collector of the King's Customs, while several
of his companions were noblemen or of the educated class.
The oldest Masonic minutes known are those of the senior Lodge in the
world, viz., No 1 Edinburgh. They begin in the year 1599, the Lodge
having continued at work, as the records testify, from then to now, thus
overlapping the transition period and the final predominance of the
speculative branch, by the formation of modern Grand Lodges. The
monopoly of the operatives gradually disappeared, and Masonry itself
became as free practically as Freemasonry is at the present time. A
silent revolution was going on in the Craft throughout the 17th century,
and what with the changes in Society generally, and the failure of the
Companies to enforce regulation, which had become obsolete and
unsuitable to the times, Masonry, as with other trades, had to alter its
laws and customs accordingly.
The Lodge of Edinburgh and others in Scotland were legally governed
during the period in question by the statutes of 1598-9, promulgated by
William Schaw "Maister of wark, Wairden of ye Masons," of Royal
appointment. There were three "Head Lodges" in the kingdom, as
recognised in the code of 1599, which were described as Edinburgh "the
first and principall ludge," Kinwinning "the second ludge", and Stirling
"the third ludge". This trio still exists, and the Lodges are now on
the roll of the Grand Lodge of Scotland as Nos. 1, 0 and 30
Naturally several of the clauses in the above-named statutes relate
to matters common to all the crafts, but others are of a distinctive
character and most suggestive. The Lodge of Edinburgh was a kind of
Metropolitan Grand Lodge, having control of the local, but before the
17th century ended, its rights were often violated or ignored, and
Lodges were formed in its vicinity or jurisdiction, that it was
powerless to prevent, although issuing fulminations that were
still-born. The "Canongate Kilwinning" Lodge No. 2, was formed in 1677,
as an offshoot from "Mother Lodge Kilwinning", and in 1688, a secession
from the Lodge of Edinburgh resulted in the establishment of the
"Canongate and Leith, Leith and Canongate" Lodge, now No. 5, and
notwithstanding all the means used by the Mother Lodge, only one of the
seceders was induced to return to the fold. Then, again, early in the
18th century, the journeymen were not satisfied with the masters'
regulation and control; they seceded and started a Lodge on their own
account, and what is more gained a victory over their powerful
opponents, though Master Masons, by persisting in giving the "Mason
Word" to neophytes, the prerogative previously of their superiors. Two
of their number were imprisoned for contumacy, but an appeal to the
Court ended in their being allowed, as per the "Decreet Arbitral" of
1715, to assemble as a separate organisation, and esoterically -- i.e.,
to communicate the "word" -- as well as generally, to conduct their own
Lodge, then and since known as the "Journeymen", now No. 8 on the
roll. The Masters were fined a hundred pounds for their high-handed
conduct, which fine has not yet been paid.
The attendance of Apprentices at the Lodge during the making of
Fellow- crafts is confirmed by the minutes of 1601, 1606 and 1637, while
the "Schaw Ordinances" provided for the presence of six Masters and two
Apprentices, in like manner, on the making of Masters, a privilege
subsequently assumed by the Incorporation. Operative Essays were
obligatory in relation to both classes, Essay Masters being appointed,
and also "intenders for instruction;" represented in Modern Lodges by
the questions preparatory to promotion, and the proposers and seconders
of candidates respectively.
The first minute of the Lodge of Edinburgh containing an entry
concerning speculative membership is dated 8th June, 1600, and is the
oldest of the kind known in Great Britain and Ireland. The Brother was
John Boswell, Esq., the laird of Auchinleck, who attended as a member,
and whose name and mark attested the minutes, along with twelve
operatives who likewise agreed to the business transacted, and
acquiesced in the same manner. When he joined we cannot tell.
The head of the Lodge was generally styled "Deacon," while the
"Warden" was the medium of communication with the "Warden General", who
was a kind of Grand Master, the prototype of our modern Grand Lodge
Rulers. William Schaw was styled "Chief Maister of Maissonis" in the
16th century and later.
In the 17th century, it was quite a common occurrence for noblemen
and gentlemen to occupy the Chairs of Lodges, even if only Apprentices,
as with the Earl of Cassillis, who in 1672 was Deacon of "Mother Lodge
Kilwinning", being followed by Sir Alexander Cunninghame and the Earl of
Eglintoune, also an Apprentice. Harry Elphington, Tutor of Airth and
Collector of the King';s Customs, was Master of the Lodge of Aberdeen -
now No. 1 tris - in 1670, the members of which were mostly speculatives,
though an operative Lodge. Lord Strathallan was the Master or President
of the Lodge of Dundee, -- known as the "Lady Luge of Dundee" in
1536. Other instances could also be cited.
The old Lodge of Kilwinning ewxercised jurisdiction even as far as
Glasgow, according to the Code of 1599, and was to all intents and
purposes a Provincial Grand Lodge, thus foreshadowing the present
arrangement, whereby its R.W.M. for the time being occupies the
honourable position of Provincial Grand Master of Ayrshire.
Then, again, the protectorate of the Craft in Scotland was hereditary
in the St. Clair family, the Lairds of Roslin, being secured by charters
of 1600 and 1628 circa, which led to the claim being made that they were
Grand Masters, which the documents in no way countenance. The Lairds of
Roslin were simply Patrons and Protectors of the "Maissones and
Hammermen" with other crafts, but that obsolete and purely honorary
distinction was sufficient to secure trhe election in 1736, on
sentimental grounds, of one of the family, as the first Grand Master of
Other local magnates were appointed to the oversight of the Craftsmen
in cerrtain districts, such as Patrick Coipland of Udaucht as Warden of
the "airt and craft of Maisonrie" over three sheriffdomes in Scotland in
1590. These were clearly the precursors of the general and local Craft
bodies which sprang up during the 18th century in Great Britain and
Ireland. But time will not permit any reference to such just now. This
much, however, may be noted, that excepting the arrangement of separate
Masonic degrees and ceremonies peculiar to the post Grand Lodge period,
it is not easy to discover many important features of the Craft in the
eighteenth century, which are not represented in the regulations and
customs of the Scottish Craft in the present century.
Until the precise character of the Records of the Masons' Company of
London was made known -- quite recently -- it was believed that the
admission of Quarter Master General Moray, of the Scottish Army, at
Newcastle on Tyne in 1641, by membres of the Lodge of Edinburgh, was the
earliest instance of the initiation of a "speculative" in England. Now,
however, that the invaluable transactions of the before-mentioned
Company are accessible, it is found that there was a speculative Lodge
at work, under the wing of that body, the existing accounts of which go
as far back as 1620. The meetings were termed "the Acception," and the
candidates were received as "Accepted Masons;" the Company being then
known as Free masons, though the prefix was dropped during the latter
half of the 17th century. The dual character of the Company is
established by reference to the accounts, for the actual minutes are
missing prior to 1670. Beside those who obtained the "freedom of the
Company" by patrimony or servitude, there were others who were admitted
by redemption, and it is quite possible that being "accepted" by the
Lodge, though not connected with the building trade, strengthened their
application for the "freedom of the Company." it appears to have been
optional for the "accepted" brethren to join the Company, or for the
members of the latter to enter the "Acception," but both financially and
generally there was a most intimate connection between the two, as the
Company received the balance, if any, after each "Acception" had been
This Lodge became so influential and important, that in the Inventory
of 1663, and also in later ones, the names of the "Accepted Masons" are
delared to be exhibited "in a faire enclosed frame with a lock and key."
In the same Inventory was also "One book of the constitutions which
Mr. Flood gave," and which was described in a subsequent list of 1676 as
"the constitutions of the Accepted masons," as distinct from "One book
of the Ancient Constitutions and Orders" of the Company. The Inventory
of 1722 is still more explicit, the Constitutions of the Company being
entered as of the year 1481, and the other "A Book wrote on parchment
and bound or stitched in parchment containing an account of the
Antiquity Rise and Progress of the Art and Mistery of Masonry." This
latter was doubtless a MS. of the "Old Charges" but unfortunately it has
not been heard of since the year 1839, when it is said to have contained
"113 annals of the antiquity &c. of Masonry." The "Phillipps MSS" Nos 1
and 2 would answer to this description, and the first-noted has the name
of Mr. Richard Bankes, a Member of the Masons' company, on the cover;
the date of its caligraphy, however, does not answer, being of about the
middle of the 17th century, therefore not old enough. Though not the
original, which was doubtless much older, and used in the reception of
the "Accepted Masons," it may be an exact transcript. The "G.W. Bain
MS" has also an equal claim to be considered a representative of the
missing book, having a similar text and qualifications. there are also
other MSS with a different text from the "Phillipps," which may be
copies of the original document, having the "New Articles," such as the
"Grand Lodge MS No. 2," and the "Harleian No. 1942." These later
regulations are quite suggestive of the rules in force for the "Accepted
Masons," the term "Acception" is mentioned, and neophytes are termed
"Accepted Free-Masons," while Certificates were provided just as in
It is quite likely that the Company dropping the prefix "Free," and
the speculative branch becoming independent, led to the union of the two
prefixes as Free and Accepted Masons.
This is the Lodge that was visited by Elias Ashmole in 1682, for
which he received a Summons, and which assembled in the Maosns' Hall,
London, when six gentlemen were admitted into the Fellowship, four of
whom were members of the Company. Nine of the "Acception" or Lodge
attended, besides Ashmole, who says he was "the Senior Fellow among
them." No particulars whatever of the ceremony are afforded, but
subsequently they all dined "at the charge of the new-accepted Masons."
All the nine Fellows were members of the Company, including the Master
and the two Wardens.
It will thus be seen, that not a few customs of later days were
anticipated in the 17th century, such as the use of Maosnic Certificates
to aid in visitation, the issue of Lodge Summonses, masons' marks used
after the signatures, Essays and Intenders, as well as the promotion of
The "General Regulations" of the premier Grand Lodge of England,
printed in the year 1723, were for the use of "the Lodges in and about
London and Westminster," being thus originally a Metropolitan
organisation. At the time they were printed, there was a Provincial
authority at work in the City of York, as a "time immemorial" Lodge,
whose preserved records date from 1712, but the Lodge was a very old one
at that time.
In Ireland, in like manner, there was a Grand Lodge holding its
meetings in the Metropolis of that Country from 1725, and no doubt
earlier; also a District or Grand Lodge, quite distinct, though not
essentially different, assembling at Cork, for the Province of Munster,
and having subordinate Lodges. these surely were anticipated in the
17th century by the Metropolitan Lodge of Scotland, which Masonically in
olden time, governed the City, and "Mother Lodge Kilwinning," which was
in charge of quite a large district, and authorised dependent Lodges,
one of which is the "Canongate Kilwinning" of 1677.
I claim that Edinburgh and Kilwinning were thus, in not a few
important respects, the Masonic prototypes of the London and York
organisations, as well as of the Dublin and Cork Grand Lodges.
As the Masonic bodies in ireland adopted the usage of Deacons long
before those in England, which officers, nominally at least if not
precisely as to duties, had been familiar to Scotland for centuries, it
is just possible that Ireland was more indebted to North Britain for its
Masonic laws and customs that has hitherto been recognised or
acknowledged, and thus proportionately less to England accordingly.
whilst it is true that the Craft records in England are not so
numerous and valuable as those of Scotland, some of the existing minutes
and other indications of Masonic activity are of great importance, as
already indicated, and though we do not know when and by whom these 17th
century Lodges were originally started or constituted, they assuredly
had much in common. Judging from the fact that Dr. Desaguliers, Past
Grand Master of England, visited the "Lodge of Edinburgh" in 1721, and
having been found to be "duly qualified in all points of Masonry, was
received as a Brother," there seems no reason to suppose that
Freemasonry of the 17th century in England, as regards essentials,
differed from that of Scotland.
Esoterically there is much to be said as to the Lodges in England and
Scotland, but that must be reserved to another time. I may note,
however, in passing, that the "Mason Word" was acknowledged to be given
in Scotland, and dues paid therefor, as late as 1715, and whilst a
gratifying reticence is generally observed, an incomplete minute of 1702
at Haughfoot requires very careful consideration. It reads "of entrie
as the apprentice did. Leaving out (the common juudge - Probably an
operative "test"-) -- they then whisper the word as before, and the
Master Mason grips his hand in the ordinary way."
It does not appear to me that this entry calls for any remark just
now, as it tells its own tale consistently with other records, in
relation to the simplicity of the Masonic ceremonial at that time.
The Presbytery of Kelso in 1652 sustained the action of the
Rev. James Ainslie in becoming a Freemason, declaring that "there is
neither sinne nor scandale in that word" -- i.e., the "Mason Word".
Along with the "Harleian MS" (No. 2054, British Museum), is a scrap
of paper, which cites, "sevrall words and signes of a free Mason" as a
portion of an obligation. this MS of the "Old Charges" is in the
handwriting of Randle Holme (born 1627), the author of the "Academy of
Armory", printed in 1688, wherein he says, "I Cannot but Honor the
Felloship of the Masons because of its Antiquity; and the more as being
a Member of that Society, called Free-Masons."
The Oath that was taken by the Brethren during this period, as given
in various copies of the "Old Charges" &c., is not indicative of the
separate degrees of the post Grand Lodge era.
A remarkable Register of gentlemen and others, with the MS just
referred to -- Harleian No. 2054 -- states what each "giue for to be a
free Mason." This is also in the handwriting of the same Randle Holme,
and apparently belonged to a speculative Lodge at Chester.
The references to the Craft in Plot's "Natural History of
Staffordshire," published in 1686, are of a most important character,
and should be carefully studied, as they concern admissions into the
Fraternity, the reading of the "Old Charges", with prominent portions of
their text, and the early history of the Society.
There are many ways of proving the existence of the Craft during the
seventeenth century, but the foregoing must suffice for the present, the
evidence being so plentiful, that is is quite embarrassing to make a
selection. It cannot, in my opinion, be questioned, that modern Grand
Lodges are the direct representatives of the old Lodges previously
existing, many of which still continue working.
the records of one Scottish family offer eloquent testimony, to the
continuous working of the Craft for centuries, as enshrined in the
valuable Perth Charter, and in the "Lodge of Edinburgh" records. From
these documents the following facts are gleaned. John Mylne came to
Perth from the "North Countrie" and became the King's Master Mason and
Master of the "Lodge at Scone" -- now No. 3 Scotland. He was succeeded
by his son, whose name is mentioned in the remarkable "Contract" of
1658, who by His Majesty's desire entered "King James the sixt as
ffreeman, measone and fellow craft." His third son John was a member of
the "Lodge of Edinburgh," and Master Mason to Charles I., 1631-6; John
Mylne the younger, his eldest son, succeeding, became in 1633 a Fellow
Craft in No. 1, and was Deacon eleven times within thirty
years. Alexander Mylne was entered an apprentice to his uncle in 1653,
and was made a fellow-craft in 1660, becoming Warden in 1663-4, and
Deacon several times later on. then William Mylne was entered an
apprentice in 1721, and was Master in 1735, representing the Lodge at
the formation of the Grand Lodge of Scotland the following year, and
holding the office of Grand Treasurer from 1737 to 1755. Another
William was elected and initiated in the same Lodge in 1750, and a
Robert Mylne became a member in 1754, receiving the three degrees in
that year. He died in 1811 and "was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral,
having been surveyor to that edifice for fifty years." With his decease,
terminated the family's connection with the "Lodge of Edinburgh", which
had extended through five successive generations, and for a still longer
period as craftsmen.
There are two Lodges of the pre Grand Lodge era, which also overlap
that important period, which really require whole Papers to themselves,
to do their proceedings anything like justice. A few words about each
of these will fitly conclude my Address.
the records of the old Alnwick Lodge were brought to the notice of
the Craft by me in 1871, and are of special value, not only because of
their antiquity, but also in relation to their text. As with so many of
these venerable Lodges, its origin is unknown, but it may be accepted as
of the 17th century. A copy of the "Old Charges" precedes the "Orders
to be observed by the company and Fellowship of Free Masons, att A Lodge
held att Alnwick Septr 29 1701 being the Genrl head meeting day."
Apprentices had to be entered and be given their "Charge" within "one
whole Year after" admission, and on the expiry of their term of seven
years were "Admitted or Accepted butt uon the ffeast of St. Michaell the
Archangell." The Master and Wardens were elected by the members, and the
frequent entries "made free", "made free Masons" or "made free brothers"
are very suggestive and important. On 20th January, 1708, it was
ordered that no member "should appear at the Lodge to be kept on St.
John's Day in Christmas without his appron & Common Square fixt in the
Belt," and to be similarly attired on attending Church on that day, when
a special sermon was to be preached. Although the Lodge was active far
on in the 18th century, it never, so far as is known, joined the Grand
Lodge of England, although a Warrant issued by that Body in 1779 for
Alnwick may have been applied for by some of its Brethren. It is of
special interest to remember that on Christmas Day in 1755, Mr. "George
Henderson of Alnwick. visiting Bro from Canongate Kilwinning Lodge" is
duly noted in the minutes; he was initiated in the northern Lodge in
1751, receiving the two higher degrees on Nov 20th 1754. There is no
mention of separate Masonic ceremonies in the minutes, -- 1703 to 1756,
-- and the Lodge was operative from first to last, the proceedings of
the modern Grand Lodge and its subordinate Lodges being entirely
The old operative Lodge at Swalwell, in its early records, had much
in common with its senior of Alnwick, its "Orders of Antiquity" and its
"Apprentice and General Orders" being virtually reproductions of still
earlier "Old Charges." the three "ffraternal signs" are mentioned, and
the minutes generally from the third decade of the 18th century are of
considerable value and interest. the members accepted a Charter from
the Grand Lodge of England in 1735, being now, and for a long time past,
known as the :Lodge of Industry," No. 48 Gateshead. It was thus another
link in the union between the Grand Lodge and its operative ancestors.
It is the fashion of some to raise objections to our claim as being
"ancient", as well as "free and accepted" Masons, but I trust that the
facts herein submitted, will "at once and for ever" prove, that our
beloved Society is fully entitled to the antiquity so long assumed by
Wm. James Hughan
Jan 19th, 1904
A List of Works that should be consulted in confirmation of the Address.
- "Alnwick MS." -- Reproduction and Transcript; 1895
- "Ars Quatuor Coronatorum"; 1886-1903. With the "Masonic Reprints," Vols I to VI.
- Crawley's "Caementaria Hibernica. 1725-1807; 1895-1900.
- Conder's "The Hole Craft and Fellowship of Masonry" 1894.
- Gould's "History of Freemasonry"; 1882-87.
- " "Concise History of Freemasonry;" 1903
- Hughan's "Old Charges"; 1872 and 1895.
- " "Masonic Sketches and Reprints"; 1871.
- " "Masonic Register"; 1878.
- Lyon's "History of the Lodge of Edinburgh, No. 1"; 1873 and 1900.
- Mackenzie's "History of the Canongate Kilwinning Lodge, No. 2"; 1888.
- Rylands' "Freemasonry in the Seventeenth Century"; 1881.
- Smith's "History of the Ancient Masonic Lodge of Scoon and Perth"; 1898
- (Crawford Smith)
- Smith's "History of the Old Lodge of Dumfries"; 1892.
- Spencer's "Old Masonic Constitutions"; 1871.
- Todd and Whytehead's "Ancient York Masonic rolls"; 1894.
- Transactions "Lodge of Research," No 2049 Leicester; 1892-1903.
- Transactions "Humber Installed Masters" Lodge No. 2494 Hull; 1882- 1903.
- Transactions "Sussex Association for Masonic Research"; 1899-1902.
- Vernon's "History of Freemasonry in Roxburghshire, Peebles and
- Selkirkshire"; 1893.
- Watson's Reproductions of the "Old Charges" and "Library Reprints".
- Wylie's "History of Mother Lodge Kilwinning"; 1878.
Brother Hughan having intimated his willingness to answer any
questions suggested by the Paper, several Brethren took advantage of the
opprtunity. A list of these questions and Bro. Hughan's replies thereto
What brought about the decline of the operative Lodges?
Their inability to preserve or continue the monopoly so long
exercised by them. "Cowans" increased in spite of all regulations and
efforts to the contrary; the Masters gradually lost their exclusive
powers, and towards the end of the 17th century it became evident, that
the Building monopolies and close Corporations of the Freemasons' Lodges
had seen their day. It was not the speculatives that caused the decline
of the operative Lodges, but the causes came from within.
For what reasons and with what motives did the speculatives
orignally join the old operative Lodges?
I really cannot tell for certain but can only conjecture. Probably
mainly from friendly feelings towards the operatives, and to exhibit or
manifest an interest in their welfare. The funds were increased by
gentlemen joining, and the Lodges were made all the more popular, by the
admission of the local squires and others of means in the neighbourhood
of a Lodge. It was a secret Society that was thus joined, and this may
have led some to seek admission, from the mystery surrounding the
Initiation ceremony. The esoteric character of the Craft has been a
source of wonder and curiousity to outsiders for many centuries, and
especially for the reputation it has long enjoyed of preserving valuable
secrets connected with the Rosicrucians, etc.
Does not the fact that all the copies of the "Old Charges"
are of English origin, go to prove that Lodges of Masons existed in
England earlier than in Scotland?
I do not think so, but only that the traditional history emanated
from South Britain. My opinion is, that the Freemasonry of which our
Society is a lineal descendant, was formed, but not known when or where,
by the Cathedral Builders and their ecclesiastical employers, hece the
religious character of the introductory portion of the Manuscript
Constitutions, of which we have specimens from the 15th century.
What is known of the early history of the Lodges which formed
the Grand Lodge of England in 1717?
No records of any of the "Four Old Lodges" have been made known, of a
date prior to the Grand Lodge era. it is probable that the "Lodge of
Antiquity," the senior of the "time immemorial" quartette, was a
continuation of the Lodge which met under the wing of the Masons'
Company, and know as the "Acception" visited by Ashmole in 1682, and
susequently dropped by the Company. if the valuable "Antiquity MS" of
the "Old Charges" of 1686, was in the possession of the ancient Lodge at
that time, it dates back the "Antiquity" beyond that ascribed to it in
the "Engraved List" of 1729, which was 1691. the second of the
quartette on the Register was dated 1712, while the others had no dates
affixed. "Multi Paucis" (1764 circa) states that the Master and Wardens
of six Lodges assembled at the Apple-Tree in 1716, when it was agreed to
revive "their Quarterly Communications". Certainly the earlies
"Engraved List" (1723- 4) partly confirms this view of the matter, as
the junior of the historic quartette is placed in the fifth space, the
fourth being occupied by a Lodge at "The Cheshire Cheese in Arundell
Street," of which we know absolutely nothing more.
Are there not traditions of pre-1717 Lodges in various parts
of the South of England?
There are, but to my mind they have not been traced; save the
probablility of petitioners for the early Lodges have been Masons prior
to the formation of the premier Grand Lodge.
What's known of the Lodge which appears in the 1734 List as
"No. 65 St. Rooks Hill near Chicester. constituted in the reign of
The Lodge at St. Rook's Hill, a few miles from Chicester is dated
1730 on the Register. It met once a year only. Nothing is known of its
history prior to 1730, and but little since. It was erased from the
list in 1754. It is interesting to note, that at the Grand Lodge held
March 2nd 1732, "the petition of Brother Edward hall, a Member of the
Lodge at the Swan, in Chicester, being there made a Mason by the late
Duke of Richmond, six and thirty years ago, and now recommended by the
present Duke of Richmond, as a proper object of the Charity of Free and
Accepted masons, was read." This Lodge was constituted in the year 1724
as No. 31, but doubtless was at work many years before, as with several
other Lodges in England, which subsequently joined the Grand Lodge.
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