MIT Gender Equity Project
Updated 5 July 2001
New in this release:
-URLs have been added to entries, where they are available
-New entries are marked with a change bar
- Bailyn, Lotte. "Chapter 3: Individual Constraints: Occupational Demands and Private Life." In Breaking the Mold: Women, Men and Time in the New Corporate World, 40-54. New York: Free Press, A Division of MacMillan, Inc., 1993.
This chapter analyzes the ways in which organizations make it difficult to maintain meaningful links between work and private life. Part of the chapter focuses explicitly on the pressures faced by professors.
Estrich, Susan. Sex and Power. New York: Riverhead Books (Penguin Putnam), 2000.
Makes a strong case for concerted action by women. Author draws heavily on her personal experience, both in politics and at Harvard Law School. Bibliography.
- Lazarus, Barbara B., Lisa M. Ritter, and Susan A. Ambrose. "Learning by Critique." In The Woman's Guide to Navigating the Ph.D. In Engineering and Science: IEEE Press, 2001
- Rayman, Paula. Beyond the Bottom Line: The Search for Dignity at Work: Palgrave, 2001.
When teaching American students about trade unions, organizations most students view as akin to religious cults, the only thing that sometimes gets through is "respect." And that only gets thru because they understand "disrespect," someone pushing them around in a humiliating fashion. Paula Rayman takes this argument to heart in "Beyond the Bottom Line: The Search for Dignity at Work." There are many threads to this work, including a critique of most corporations for pursuing the low road, but laudatory stories of firms such as Norsk Hydro, and case studies from the "dual agenda" (i.e. profits and people count) action research studies at Fleet Bank and in the Biotech sector. The importance of the design of work and the ways in which technology shape work are highlighted throughout. But at the heart of the book is a plea to build on the "three pillars of dignity: the economics of livelihood, the psychology of self-respect, and the political and spiritual dimensions of making a difference through social responsibility."(pp. 23-24) The concluding chapter provides elegant ways to make this happen, by overcoming overtime, promoting portable benefits, valuing caregiving, and connecting growth to economic security. All of this is written in an ascessible fashion, and stories small and large are covered throughout. Perhaps my favorite aspect of the work is the skillful blending of the case for work/life AND work/family AND anti-poverty policies. I've never seen anyone connect the three so well, and the "search for dignity" theme is what pulls it all together so very well.
- Toth, Emily. Ms. Mentor's Impeccable Advice for Women in Academia. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997.
Humorously dispensed advice a la Miss Manners. Index, bibliography
- Valian, Virginia. Why So Slow? The Advancement of Women. 1999 paperback ed. 401 vols: MIT Press, 1998.
An exhaustive compilation and analysis of virtually all scholarship to date
- Williams, Clarence G. Technology and the Dream: Reflections on the Black Experience at MIT, 1941-1999: MIT Press, 2001 (January).
This book grew out of the Blacks at MIT History Project, whose mission is to document the black presence at MIT. The main body of the text consists of transcripts of more than seventy-five oral history interviews, in which the interviewees assess their MIT experience and reflect on the role of blacks at MIT and beyond. Although most of the interviewees are present or former students, black faculty, administrators, and staff are also represented, as are nonblack faculty and administrators who have had an impact on blacks at MIT. The interviewees were selected with an eye to presenting the broadest range of issues and personalities, as well as a representative cross section by time period and category.
Each interviewee was asked to discuss family background; education; role models and mentors; experiences of racism and race-related issues; choice of field and career; goals; adjustment to the MIT environment; best and worst MIT experiences; experience with MIT support services; relationships with MIT students, faculty, and staff; advice to present or potential MIT students; and advice to the MIT administration. A recurrent theme is that MIT's rigorous teaching instills the confidence to deal with just about any hurdle in professional life, and that an MIT degree opens many doors and supplies instant credibility.
Each interview includes biographical notes and pictures. The book also includes a general introduction, a glossary, and appendixes describing the project's methodology.
Clarence G. Williams is Special Assistant to the President, Ombudsman, and Adjunct Professor of Urban Studies and Planning at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is the editor of Reflections of the Dream, 1975-1994: Twenty Years Celebrating the Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
- Zuckerman, Harriet, Jonathan R. Cole, John T. Bruer, and Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation. The Outer Circle: Women in the Scientific Community. 1st ed. New York: Norton, 1991.
- "Who Will Do the Science of the Future? A Symposium on Careers of Women in Science." Paper presented at the National Academy of Sciences Annual Meeting, 2000 1999. Report available online at
- McIntosh, Peggy. "Feeling Like a Fraud." Paper presented at the Stone Center Colloquium Series, April 1984.
Many people-especially women-experience feelings of fraudulence when singled out for praise, press, publicity or promotion. While such feelings of fraudulence may be deplorable, especially if and when they trouble women more than men, these same feelings also may indicate a wise reluctance to believe in the accuracy of absolute ranking, and may point the way to a valid critique of hierarchical structures. Apology and self-disparagement may indicate an honest refusal to internalize the idea that having power or public exposure proves one's merit and/or authority. Apologetic or hedging speech may indicate uneasiness with rhetorical or coercive forms of speech and behavior, and may signal a desire to find more collaborative forms. People who feel in public like imposters are perhaps more to be trusted than those who have never experienced feelings of fraudulence. The analysis is placed in context of a theoretical model of a double and conflicting structure within the psyche and within the society: overvalued, over-developed, "vertical," competitive functions at odds with undervalued, under-recognized, "lateral," collaborative functions. A double vision of these double functions within both psyche and society is recommended to understand feelings of fraudulence and to overcome them in contexts where that is necessary.
- McIntosh, Peggy. "Feeling Like a Fraud: Part Two." Paper presented at the Stone Center Colloquium Series, December 1987.
This sequel to Part I posits a baseline sense of authenticity which gives one the ability to have feelings of fraudulence. The sense of authenticity creates the awareness of a lack of fit between what one feels and what is said about one's virtue or competence, or expected in public behavior. Vignettes of situations inducing feelings of fraudulence are contrasted with vignettes of experiments in teaching or public speaking which involve newly-invented forms and which have brought feelings of authenticity in public performance. The talk is cast in the metaphor of a house tour, and features both a greenhouse and a Madwoman in the Attic. The analysis is placed in context of a theoretical model of a double and conflicting structure within the psyche and the society.
- Women in Higher Education edited by Mary Dee Wenniger. Madison WI: Wenniger, Mary Dee, 2001. http://www.wihe.com/
- Bix, Amy Sue. "Feminism Where Men Predominate: The History of Women's Science and Engineering Education at MIT." Women's Studies Quarterly 2000, no. 1&2 (2000): 24-45.
- Fehrs, Mary, and Roman Czujko. "Women in Physics: Reversing the Exclusion." Physics Today (1992): 33-41.
Examination of the pipeline in physics, including international comparisons. Sidebar: interviews with Vera Rubin, Sara Majetich, and Sarah Bolton.
- Ferber, Marianne A., and Michelle L. Teiman. "Are Women Economists at a Disadvantage in Publishing Journal Articles?" Eastern Economic Journal 6, no. 3-4 (1980): 189-94.
Another seminal article.
- Ginther, Donna K. "Does Science Discriminate against Women? Evidence from Academia, 1973-97." Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta Working Papers 2001, no. 02 (2001): 66.
This study uses data from the Survey of Doctorate Recipients to evaluate differences in employment outcomes for academic scientists by gender. A decomposition of estimated salary differences shows that over time, gender salary differences can partly be explained by differences in observable characteristics for faculty at the assistant and associate ranks. Substantial gender salary differences for full professors are not explained by observable characteristics. Probit and duration model estimates indicate gender differences in the probability of promotion, making it less likely for women to be promoted to tenure. Between 1973 and 1997, very little changed in terms of gender salary and promotion differences for academics in science. After evaluating potential explanations, the author concludes that gender discrimination similar to that observed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology accounts for unexplained gender disparities.
- Ginther, Donna K., and Kathy J. Hayes. "Gender Differences in Salary and Promotion for Faculty in the Humanities, 1977-95." Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta Working Papers 2001, no. 07 (2001): 69.
This study uses data from the Survey of Doctorate Recipients to evaluate gender differences in salaries and promotion for academics in the humanities. Differences in employment outcomes by gender are evaluated using three methods: the Oaxaca decomposition is used to examine salary differentials, and binary choice models and duration analysis are used to estimate the probability of promotion to tenure. Over time, gender salary differences can largely be explained by academic rank. Substantial gender differences in promotion to tenure exist after controlling for productivity and demographic characteristics. However, the authors observe a slight decline in the gender promotion gap for the most recent cohort evaluated. On the basis of this evidence, the authors conclude that gender discrimination for academics in the humanities tends to operate through differences in promotion, which in turn affects wages.
- Johnson, Kurt N., and J.D. Wiley. "Analytical Models for Minority Representation in Academic Departments." Research in Higher Education 41, no. 4 (2000): 481-504.
The authors present mathematical models for the evolution over time of the proportion of minorities in an academic department or similarly selected group of constant size. Using the models, they analyze both the steady-state and time-dependent behavior of the proportion of minorities, and also obtain a means of evaluating the effectiveness of a department's hiring history. They derive a number of surprising results with importance to institutional hiring policy and affirmative action; and they also present methods, suggested by the model and its behavior, to improve departmental hiring practices.
- McCracken, Douglas M. "Winning the Talent War for Women: Sometimes It Takes a Revolution." Harvard Business Review (2000).
http://www.hbsp.harvard.edu/hbsp/prod_detail.asp?R00611 for abstract; can order full text
Author is CEO of Deloitte Consulting and chairman of Deloitte & Touche LLP, U.S. Although this article describes the challenge of achieving gender equity in a non-academic environment, both the environment and approach seem remarkably germane for research-based universities. Among other points, the article describes the impact of the loss of high-performing women on the firm, the methods that the firm used to illuminate hidden bias with stigmatizing anyone, the difficulties of overcoming both males' dismissiveness and females' unwillingness to become affirmative action targets, and finally, the measurable results after nine years of effort (14% of the firm's partners and directors are women, up from 5% in 1991).
Some interesting points:
-"Most women weren't leaving to raise families; they had weighed their options in Deloitte's male-dominated culture and found them wanting."
-"Women get evaluated on their performance; men get evaluated on their potential."
-"It's not just about women: young men in the firm didn't want what older men wanted....they weren't willing to give up their families and outside lives for another $100,000."
The article draws on "Deloitte & Touche (A): A Hole in the Pipeline and (B): Changing the Workplace," Harvard Business School case studies #300-012 and #300-013, by Jane Roessner and Rosabeth Moss Kanter.
- Meyerson, Debra E., and Joyce K. Fletcher. "A Modest Manifesto for Shattering the Glass Ceiling." Harvard Business Review (2000): 127-36. http://www.hbsp.harvard.edu/hbsp/prod_detail.asp?R00107 for abstract; can order full text
"Gender discrimination is now so deeply embedded in organizational life as to be virtually indiscernible. Even the women who feel its impact are often hard-pressed to know what hit them." (p 127) The authors believe that the glass ceiling will be shattered "only through a strategy that uses small wins-incremental changes aimed at biases so entrenched in the system that they're not even noticed until they're gone." (p 128) The small wins approach to change was developed by Karl Weick. The authors emhasize that real and lasting change can be made by small changes, and that these small changes are not threatening to any stakeholders. For example, one firm discovered it could recruit women more effectively simply by increasing the length of the interview time from 30 min. to 45 min., which gave female candidates just a little bit more time to "bond" with their middle-aged male interviewers. Another firm reversed its high turnover rate for female middle managers by bringing more discipline to meetings-ensuring that meetings started and ended on time-a change that freed all employees from the need to be available 15 hours per day.
- Rowe, Mary P. "Barriers to Equality: The Power of Subtle Discrimination to Maintain Unequal Opportunity." Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal 3, no. 2 (1990): 153-63.
This article argues that subtle discrimination is now the principal scaffolding for segregation in the U.S. The author suggests that this scaffolding is built of "microinequities": apparently small events, which are often ephemeral and hard to prove; events that are covert, often unintentional, frequently unrecognized by the perpetrator. Microinequities occur wherever people are perceived to be "different": Caucasians in a Japanese-owned company, African-Americans in a white firm, women in a traditionally male environment, Jews and Moslems in a traditionally Protestant environment. These mechanisms of prejudice against persons of difference are usually small in nature, but not trivial in effect. They are especially pwerful taken together. Microinequities work both by excluding the person of difference and by making that person less self-confident and less productive.
- Wennerås, Christine, and Agnes Wold. "Nepotism and Sexism in Peer-Review." Nature 387 (1997): 341-43.
Two Swedish researchers conduct the first-ever analysis of peer-review scores for postdoctoral fellowship applications, and discover that the system is riddled with prejudice.
- "Women in Science '93: Gender & Culture." Science, 16 April 1993.
- "Random Samples: Demanding Less." Science, 15 Dec 2000. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/vol290/issue5499/r-samples.shtml (subscription required)
NIH "biomedical research grants to men are 22% larger than those going to women.-for 1999, the average size of research awards was $306,472 for men and $250,838 for women.-[M]en are more likely than women to be center heads and to receive large, center-type grants."
- Babcock, Linda. "Negotiation Advice for Women: How Not to Lose Your Skirt." Committee on the Status of Women in the Economics Profession Newsletter 1999. http://www.cswep.org/babcock.html
- Cook, Sarah Gibbard. "Nine Universities Pledge to End Bias in Science, Engineering." Women in Higher Education, March 2001 2001.
http://www.wihe.com/articles/index.htm for the subscribers' site; need login and pwd
- Emmett, Arielle. "Lost Girls: Budding Female Scientists Encounter the Glass Ceiling as Early as Grade School." Technology Review, May-June 1992, 58-59.
A summary of "How Schools Shortchange Girls," a report compiled by the Wellesley Center for Research on Women
- Hopkins, Nancy. "MIT Report on the Status of Women Faculty in Science Leads to New Initiatives to Increase Faculty Diversity." MIT Faculty Newsletter, October/November 2000, 1, 13-15.
https://mit.edu/afs/athena/org/f/fnl/www/archives.html (MIT only)
An update on progress at MIT since the School of Science report was published in 1999. Prof. Hopkins describe two initiatives established this year to address issues raised by the MIT Report: gender equity committees in each of MIT's five schools, and an Institute-wide Council on Faculty Diversity.
- Lawler, Andrew. "Tenured Women Battle to Make It Less Lonely at the Top." Science, 12 Nov 1999, 1272-78. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/286/5443/1272 (full text; subscription required)
-"MIT as 'Intractable Enemy'," about MIT's settlement with Gretchen Kalonji in her tenure-related sex-discrimination suit
-"Margaret Geller: Battling Discrimination or Bureaucracy?" about Geller's battle with Harvard
-"From MIT, a Primer on Boosting Women's Status"
- Manuel, Diane. "Sex and the Female Doctor." Boston Globe Magazine, 17 Oct 1993, 12.
When neurosurgeon Frances Conley resigned from Stanford Medical School to protest the advancement of a colleague whom she considered guilty of sexual harassment, she was really condemning the entire medical establishment.
- McKay, Shona. "Boys' Club." Globe and Mail: Report on Business Magazine, Sept 1992, 37-44.
Women in Canada have had to struggle to make hard-won inreoads in law, medicine, and business. But nothing compares with the antifeminist hostility-including murder and violence-that awaits them as they tackle engineering.
- Noble, David. "A World without Women." Technology Review, May-June 1992, 54-60.
The evolving but durable male priesthood of science and technology can trace its roots all the way to medieval Christianity. This article was adapted from the book of the same name. Sidebar: "The Lost Girls: Budding female scientists encounter the glass ceiling as early as grade school." [Emmett, 1992 #60]
- Timeline Committee in Celebration of Women in Medicine at Harvard Medical School. "Matriculation of Women at Harvard Medical School: A History of Conflict and Debate." JCSW Newsletter: A Publication of the Joint Committee on the Status of Women, Summer 1995.
A brief (six page) history. Partial source list included.
- Walsh, Elsa. "Glass Ceiling Breakthrough." Washington Post Magazine, 23 July 1995, 11 - 30.
Profile of Allison Estabrook, a surgeon at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center.
- "MIT'S Study of Its Own Gender Bias Is Attacked as "Junk Science"." Chronicle of Higher Education, 7 Jan 2000, A14.
Coverage of Judith Kleinfeld's attack on the MIT School of Science report.
- Abelson, Reed. "A Push from the Top Shatters a Glass Ceiling." New York Times, 20 Aug 1999, 1.
A look at the women of Hewlett-Packard, in the wake of Carly Fiorina's elevation. HP's equal opportunity policies are traced to the experiences of the 58-year-old chairman, Lewis Platt, when he was a single parent in 1981.
- Buchman, Susan. "Twenty Irrelevant Pages: Independent Women'S Forum Attack on MIT Gender Report Misses the Point." The Tech, 19 Jan 2000, 5.
Lucid debunking of Kleinfeld attack
- Campbell, Kenneth D. "Leaders of 9 Universities and 25 Women Faculty Meet at MIT, Agree to Equity Reviews." MIT press release, 30 January 2001. http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/nr/2001/gender.html
- Dalton, Clare. "Discrimination at Its Most Dangerous." Boston Globe, 3 Oct 1993, A1.
Clare Dalton describes her experience at Harvard Law School.
- Doten, Patti. "Clare Dalton Looks Back in Anger." Boston Globe, 25 Oct 1993, 36.
An interview with Clare Dalton following her out-of-court settlement with Harvard of the lawsuit she brought after she was denied tenure.
- Erikson, Jane. "UA Faculty Women Are Paid 11% Less: Study Detects Earnings Gap in Medical School." Arizona Daily Star, 16 May 2001.
A new study, GRACE, reveals that female faculty members in the UA College of Medicine are paid $13,000 a year less than men, a shortfall of about 11 percent in median pay.
- Feder, Barbara, and John Hubner. "Reactions Differ at Stanford, MIT." San Jose Mercury News, 17 Feb 2000.
Primarily an overview of Stanford's gender equity history, with brief references to MIT as a benchmark. Includes a graph with some data on hiring and a sidebar on high-profile women.
- --- . "Female Scholars Pressure Schools." San Jose Mercury News, 18 Feb 2000, 14A.
- Fitzgerald, Karen. "Women Lose Faith in Engineering: Fewer Enter College and Many Leave Jobs." The Institute M___.
- Goldberg, Carey. "MIT Acknowledges Bias against Female Professors." New York Times, 23 Mar 1999, 1.
Coverage of the release of the School of Science Report.
- Goodman, Ellen. "Feminism Hits Home for the Women on MIT'S Faculty." Boston Globe, 11 April 1999, D7.
Commentary on the School of Science report
- Kleinfeld, Judith. "MIT Study Lacking Scientific Principles." Wall Street Journal, 18 Jan 2000, A27.
Response to Reed et al [below]
- Reed, Kathryn L., M.D., Charles M. Vest, and Robert J. Birgeneau. "We're Not `on a Par with the Boys'." Wall Street Journal, 6 Jan 2000.
Responses to prior articles on gender politics.
- Rensberger, Boyce. "Women's Place: On the Podium." Washington Post, 26 Aug 1992, A21.
NSF official Mary Clutter makes antisexism a policy for conferences.
Wilson, Robin. "Professor Disputes Scientific Validity of Report on Sex Bias at MIT." Chronicle of Higher Education, 15 Dec 1999.
- Zernike, Kate. "MIT Women Win a Fight against Bias: In Rare Move, School Admits Discrimination." Boston Globe 21 Mar 1999, A1.
- Valian, Virginia. annotated bibliography 2000.
Annotated bibliography by the author of Why So Slow? The Advancement of Women
- "More Than Just Numbers: Report of the Canadian Committee on Women in Engineering." Report GST 108162025. Fredericton, New Brunswick: CCWE: Canadian Committee on Women in Engineering, 1992.
CCWE formed in 1990 "to uncover the social and cultural barriers responsible for the under-representation of women in engineering and to design bridges that will bring them as full participants into the profession." The Committee's mission was reinforced by a predicted shortage of engineers in Canada by 2000, and given further impetus by the murder, in 1989, of 13 female engineering students at École Polytechnique in Montreal. The report relied heavily on the personal testimony of women already in the profession, and makes a large number of specific recommendations, including steps to improve the public image of engineering as a profession attractive to women.
- "Advancing Women's Leadership in Science: An Action Plan to the Year 2000." Mills Women's Leadership Institute, 1995.
http://www.mills.edu/WLI/wli.home.html for Women's Leadership Institute
In October, 1994, the Mills College Women's Leadership Institute, with the assistance of a nine-member national advisory committee, sponsored the first national Women in Science Summit. Fifty-two of the country's leading women scientists gathered and developed specific strategies for each professional community, spanning all career stages, disciplines, and work venues.
"Statement on the Importance of Diversity in University Admissions." AAU: Association of American Universities, 1997.
- Committees on Women Faculty in the School of Science. "A Study on the Status of Women Faculty in Science at MIT: How a Committee on Women Faculty Came to Be Established by the Dean of the School of Science, What the Committee and the Dean Learned and Accomplished, and Recommendations for the Future." Cambridge, MA: MIT School of Science, 1999. http://web.mit.edu/fnl/women/women.html
This is the original report whose release in spring 1999 caused a media furor.
Including introductory comments by:
Dr. Charles M. Vest, President
Professor Robert J. Birgeneau, Dean of the School of Science
Professor Lotte Bailyn, Chair of the MIT Faculty
- Drago, Robert, Ann C. Crouter, Mark Wardell, and Billie S. Willits. "Faculty and Families Project: Final Report to the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation." Report Work-Family Working Paper #01-02. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University, 2001.
In November of 1999, the President and Provost of The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) met with senior women faculty at the University Park campus, and incompatibilities between simultaneous commitments to the institution and to families were among the issues raised. Growing out of that meeting, the Faculty and Families project was initiated at Penn State in August of 2000. Looking mainly at Penn State, the project sought to describe and understand the incompatibilities mentioned above with an eye to improving the ability of faculty to make and meet simultaneous commitments to career and family.
The context for and location of the research is found at Penn State, an institution whose policies and practices are arguably more advanced than most comparable universities. For some examples, tenure-track faculty with new children (including adoptees) are guaranteed paid leave, the tenure clock can be "stopped" (the formal term is "stayed") for one year in such cases regardless of whether a leave is taken, and on-site child care can be found on four of the larger Penn State campuses. The University Park campus also includes an active program to attract and support dual-career families and coordinates its spring break with the local school district.
Even with this relatively high level of support, there was a perception that the University could and should do more, and that policy oriented research might help guide further efforts. That research, along with the results, is described after a discussion of the framework employed for the project.
- European Technology Assessment Network (ETAN) Expert Working Group on Women and Science. "Science Policies in the European Union: Promoting Excellence through Mainstreaming Gender Equality." EU European Commission Research Directorate-General, 2000.
ftp://ftp.cordis.lu/pub/etan/docs/women.pdf (PDF 1.61 MB)
A long but very well done report.
- Galinsky, Ellen, Stacy S. Kim, and James T. Bond. "Feeling Overworked: When Work Becomes Too Much." Report ISBN 1-888324-33-3. New York: Families and Work Institute, 2001. http://www.familiesandwork.org/publications/FEELING%20OVERWORKED%20FINAL.pdf [case-sensitive]
In recent years, interest in how much and how hard Americans work has escalated. Studies explore work pressures and work hours and how these factors affect employees' behavior, their views about their jobs, their health, and their personal and family lives. Yet almost no one has come right out and asked employees to what extent they feel overworked or systematically explored how these feelings are linked to work experiences, job performance, and personal and family life. This critical gap in our knowledge was the impetus for our study.
Data for the study were obtained from telephone interviews with a representative national sample of 1,003 adults (18 or older) who work for pay and are employed by someone other than themselves in their main (or only) job for any number of hours per week. Researchers at Families and Work Institute developed the interview questionnaire based on a literature review, consultation with experts in the field and business leaders, and focus groups with employees. Harris Interactive drew the national sample and conducted the interviews by telephone. All differences and associations reported here are statistically significant.
- Goldin, Claudia, and Cecilia Rouse. "Orchestrating Impartiality: The Impact of "Blind" Auditions on Female Musicians." Report 5903. NBER: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1997.
http://papers.nber.org/papers/W5903.pdf to download full text (PDF 1.70 MB)
Discrimination against women in the hiring process has been alleged for a number of occupations, but is extremely difficult to demonstrate. Now, according to the authors, a change in the way that symphony orchestras recruit musicians provides an unusual way to test for such bias.
Most orchestras revised their audition policies in the 1970s and 1980s and began to use a "screen" of some sort to conceal the identity of the candidate from the jury. In 1970, female musicians made up only 5 percent of players in the top five symphony orchestras in the United States; today they represent 25 percent. Using data from the actual (confidential) audition records of eight major symphony orchestras, spanning the late 1950s through 1995, Goldin and Rouse estimate that use of the "screen" increases the probability that a woman will be advanced out of certain preliminary audition rounds by about 50 percent. The "screen" also enhances the likelihood that a female contestant will be the winner in the final round.
Goldin and Rouse also analyze personnel records covering 1970 to 1995 for selected orchestras. They find that the switch to "blind" auditions can explain 30 percent of the increase in the female proportion of "new hires." Blind auditions also explain 25 percent of the increase in the percentage female in the orchestras since 1970, they conclude.
- Hall, Roberta M., and Bernice R. Sandler. "Classroom Climate: A Chilly One for Women?" AAC Project on the Status and Education of Women, 1982.
- Hollenshead, Carol, and University of Michigan Faculty Work-Life Study Team. "Faculty Work-Life Study Report." Michigan, University of, 1999. http://www.umich.edu/~cew/fwlsexecsum.pdf for executive summary
The University of Michigan Faculty Work-Life Study survey was mailed to 2,624 individuals-all University of Michigan-Ann Arbor faculty who held at least half-time instructional appointments; who had been at U-M for at least one year; who were either tenured or in tenure-track appointments; or who were clinical II faculty or lecturers. The number of overall respondents was 1,167, a response rate of 44%. The survey was conducted in 1996.
- MIT Computer Science Female Graduate Students and Research Staff. "Barriers to Equality in Academia: Women in Computer Science at MIT." Cambridge: MIT Laboratory for Computer Science
MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, 1983.
- Morella Commission. "Land of Plenty: Diversity as America'S Competitive Edge in Science, Engineering and Technology." Congressional Commission on the Advancement of Women and Minorities in Science, Engineering and Technology Development, 2000.
- Sandler, Bernice R., and Roberta M. Hall. "Campus Climate Revisited: Chilly for Woman Faculty, Administrators, and Graduate Students." AAC Project on the Status and Education of Women, 1986.
This report explores the chilly professional climate often experienced by women as faculty and administrators, and as graduate and professional students. It focuses on subtle ways in which women are treated differently-ways that communicate to women that they are not quite first-class citizens in the academic community. Building on the Project's earlier reports on climate issues for students, this report is based on an examination of the literature, numerous campus commission reports, and a large number of anecdotes reported to staff during campus visits and in response to a call for information in our newsletter. The report discusses common behaviors that create a chilly professional climate and includes numerous specific recommendations for change, an institutional self-evaluation checklist, suggestions for a campus workshop, and a list of resources.
- Task Force on the Status of Women. "Report of the Task Force on the Status of Women at Washington University School of Medicine." St. Louis: WashU School of Medicine, 1997.
- Women Faculty Issues Committee. "Report to Acting Provost Robert L. Mcgrath." Stony Brook, NY: SUNY (State University of New York) at Stony Brook, 2000. http://www.sunysb.edu/provost/Reports/Reports.htm [points to links from which both report and provost's response can be downloaded]
Executive Summary of Report
This report reviews the status of women faculty in the College of Arts & Sciences, the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, and the Marine Sciences Research Center. It makes recommendations for redressing past inequities and for instituting future policies and procedures that will make Stony Brook a more attractive institution for women faculty.
Women constitute only about a quarter of the faculty in these colleges at Stony Brook. In the interests of promoting a more egalitarian community, the University should institute policies and procedures to increase the hiring, retention and recognition of women of all races and ethnicities. Strong leadership on gender issues is critical. The President, Provost, Deans, Chairs and Directors must actively promote conditions that will enable all faculty members to achieve their full potential as teachers and scholars, while serving as responsible members of their families and communities.
Although the manifestations of gender disparity differ by discipline, each department should follow the best practices now existing in the University and in other academic institutions in order to improve the atmosphere for all women on campus.
This report focuses on five specific areas and makes recommendations in each area.
- A. Salary equity and promotion path
- Establish a pool of money for redressing current salary inequities.
- Ensure that all starting salaries and processes for distributing salary increases are fair, whatever the gender or race of the faculty member.
- Address the significantly longer time spent at the rank of Associate Professor by women faculty.
- Work diligently to promote women to highest ranks of the University in a timely manner, including promotion to full Professor and consideration of women for positions at the Distinguished Professor ranks (for scholarship, teaching, or service).
- B. Parental/family leaves and childcare
- Establish a variety of leave options for care-givers.
- Allow junior faculty to suspend the tenure clock for care-giving responsibilities.
- Introduce flexible options for part-time positions for tenured and tenure-track faculty.
- Increase the availability of high-quality and affordable childcare.
C. Recruitment and retention of women faculty
- Hire and retain more women faculty at every rank in all academic disciplines.
- Establish a special fund for increasing the number of women faculty in areas in which they are significantly under-represented.
- Establish a family resource center.
- Establish a variety of partner hiring stratagems in conjunction with a strong effort to recruit and retain faculty from under-represented groups.
- Allow options for partners/spouses to share faculty positions and institute an option for halftime positions.
D. Resource Distribution
- Ensure gender equity in start-up funds, offices and laboratory space. Provide guidance from current faculty so that all new faculty, especially women and members of other under-represented groups, are adequately advised at hiring to negotiate for the resources necessary to succeed at Stony Brook.
- Provide increased mentoring for all current faculty, especially women, during their initial years, to help them obtain appropriate internal and external funding, including in the Humanities, Fine Arts, and Social Sciences.
- Monitor the distribution of travel and computer funding to make sure these resources are equally available to men and women faculty, particularly in the Humanities, Fine Arts and Social Sciences where such funds are often crucial for research and career advancement.
E. University Service and Administration
- Reserve women faculty's service for critical committees and recognize and reward such university service.
- Offer salary and other incentives to directors of undergraduate and graduate studies; reserve a portion of any new salary funds for this purpose.
- Promote more women to high administrative positions (chairs and above).
- Increase faculty lines, funding, and space for programs focusing on women in the University.
These recommendations are quite moderate. Much of what we recommend are already standard operating procedures at many U.S. universities and colleges. If all of our recommendations are accepted and put into place, the Stony Brook would still not be in the vanguard of academia in the U.S. with respect to gender equity. Perhaps the single most important objective is to increase the number of women faculty in the University. This will directly and indirectly affect many aspects of the academic atmosphere of the University in a positive manner.Provost's Response to the Women's Faculty Issues Committee
[the full text of the Acting Provost's response is included in this file; no executive summary is available]
- Zappert, Laraine T., and Kendyll Stansbury. "In the Pipeline: A Comparative Analysis of Men and Women in Graduate Programs in Science, Engineering and Medicine at Stanford University." Stanford, 1980's?