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Copyright (C) 1994 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.

Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this one.

Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this manual into another language, under the above conditions for modified versions, except that this permission notice may be stated in a translation approved by the Foundation.


This manual is incomplete: No attempt is made to explain basic concepts in a way suitable for novices. Thus, if you are interested, please get involved in improving this manual. The entire GNU community will benefit.

The GNU text utilities are mostly compatible with the POSIX.2 standard.

Please report bugs to `bug-gnu-utils@prep.ai.mit.edu'. Remember to include the version number, machine architecture, input files, and any other information needed to reproduce the bug. See section `Bugs' in GNU CC.

This manual is based on the Unix man pages in the distribution, which were originally written by David MacKenzie and updated by Jim Meyering. The original fmt man page was written by Ross Paterson. Pinard did the initial conversion to Texinfo format. Karl Berry did the indexing, some reorganization, and editing of the results. Richard Stallman contributed his usual invaluable insights to the overall process.

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