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RUTH ROGAN BENERITO
Over more than fifty years, and through more than fifty patents,
Ruth Rogan Benerito has used her broad scientific training to transform the
cotton, wood and paper industries. The most noteworthy benefit for consumers
has been easy-care clothing.
Benerito was born in New Orleans in 1916. Her mother, a prototypical feminist,
encouraged her daughter in her love of science, in spite of the rampant sexism
she would encounter. Benerito rose to the occasion, earning scholarships to
Newcomb College (BS in Chemistry, 1935), Bryn
Mawr College (Graduate Scholar, 1935-36), Tulane
University (MS in Physics, 1938), and the University
of Chicago (PHD in Physical Chemistry, 1948).
Upon earning her doctorate, Benerito became an Assistant Professor of Chemistry
at Newcomb College. Her teaching and research
included advanced quantitative
analysis and physical chemistry, organic chemistry, kinetics, and thermodynamics.
Her specialty became the use of cellulose chemistry to solve practical problems
in the cotton, wood and paper industries. In 1953, Benerito began a prolific
33-year career at the Southern Regional Research
Center of the US Department of Agriculture. First, she led a project, sponsored
by the Surgeon General, to develop a fat emulsion for intravenous feeding of
long-term medical patients (1953-58). Then Benerito moved on to her best known
work, the invention of the "easy-care cotton" process, which resulted in "wash
and wear" clothing. Rejecting the industry-standard reagents for cotton fibers,
Benerito found a way to use certain long-chain, mono-basic acid chlorides as
reagents, creating a new method of crosslinking cellulose chains in cotton.
This work led to patented processes, which eventually spread throughout the
industry, for manufacturing wrinkle-, stain-, and flame-resistant cotton fabrics.
In 1959, Benerito became Research Leader of the lab's Natural Polymers division,
a post she held until retiring in 1986. Her other innovations in textiles include
the use of radiofrequency cold plasmas to clean cotton and ready it for treatment
with film or dye. This method, which has been adopted by the textile industry
in Japan, takes the place of mercerization (the pretreatment of cotton with
sodium hydroxide), thereby eliminating a serious environmental hazard. Benerito
has also invented and patented processes that create (and etch) "glassy" polymeric
cellulosic materials. These, resembling "petrified cotton," resist both acids
and alkalis; they can be used as conductive, reflective, adhesive, or even ornamental
Many of Benerito's inventions have applications beyond the cotton industry.
For example, her work in the synthesis of chemically modified cottons has been
adopted for the development of new wood products and epoxy resins. Overall,
Benerito has earned 55 US patents and a glowing reputation within the cotton,
wood and paper industries. She has won numerous awards, including the USDA's
highest honor, the Distinguished Service Award, and the American
Chemical Society's Garvan Award (both in 1970).
After retiring from the Southern Regional Research Center
in 1986 at the age of 70, Benerito taught in the Chemistry
Department at the University of New Orleans. Ruth Benerito
continues both to inspire beginning students and to guide
advanced students in her many realms of expertise.