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Commercial Cesium Clock
For over forty years, Leonard Cutler has been a pioneer in the field of ultraprecise timekeeping standards and devices.
Cutler is a veteran of the greater Silicon Valley scientific community. He earned his BS (1958), MS (1960), and PHD (1966) in Physics from Stanford University, all the while working at neighboring Hewlett-Packard Laboratories. The mainstay of Cutler's work at HP has been developing atomic frequency standards and designing atomic chronometers.
One sub-specialty of nuclear physics that emerged early was the observation, and then measuring, of the constant rate at which atomic matter emits radiation or "vibrates" between states. And as scientific experiments became ever more subtle, scientists required ever more precise means to measure the passage of time. So it was natural that atomic clocks were developed: these are electric clocks whose timing is regulated by atomic decay. For example, a clock regulated by the radiation of hydrogen loses only one second every 1.7 million years. The most common isotope (133) of cesium, the most electropositive of the elements, became the element of choice for such clocks.
The first atomic clock was invented in 1948. In the early 1960s, HP set out to design a cesium clock for commercial purposes. In 1964, Cutler and his colleague Al Bagley succeeded, inventing the HP5060A Cesium Beam Clock. This was the first all-solid-state cesium-beam chronometer, whose frequency standard was soon adopted by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology and other scientific centers around the world. Cutler's 1964 clock coordinated international time to within a microsecond, whereas previous efforts had pared accuracy down to only a millisecond.
Cutler continued refining both the design and the constituent parts of cesium clocks, as well as researching in quantum mechanics. His most recent triumph, in 1991, was the HP 5071A: at twice the accuracy of its predecessor, it remains the world's most accurate commercial clock, losing about one second every 1.6 million years. HP 5071As also account for 82% of the data relied on to keep the International Atomic Time Standard.
Cutler has earned a number of patents, alone and on teams, for various atomic devices. His major invention outside the immediate realm of chronometry has been the two-frequency laser inferometer, which has become an essential element of integrated circuit manufacturing.
Leonard S. Cutler is well known in the US and abroad as
an authority on atomic timekeeping and quantum-mechanical
effects. His many honors include the IEEE's Centennial Award
(1984) and the American Institute of Physics' Industrial Applications
of Physics Award (1993). In 1990, Cutler became HP's first
Distinguished Contributor. In that capacity, Cutler works
today at Agilent Technologies, an HP spin-off, developing
atomic clocks and quartz oscillators, and using the Global
Positioning System to synchronize clocks world-wide.