On the origin of Creoles:
A Cartesian critique of Neo-Darwinian linguistics


Linguistic Typology 2001, vol. 5, nos. 2/3, pp. 213--310

Michel DeGraff

degraff@MIT.EDU


[...]

References [pp. 300--310]


 

Aarsleff, Hans (1988).
Introduction.
In Humboldt 1988, vii-lxv.

Adam, Lucien (1882).
Les Classifications, l'Objet, la Méthode, les Conclusions de la Linguistique.
Paris: Maisonneuve et Cie.

Adam, Lucien (1883).
Les Idiomes Négro-Aryen et Maléo-Aryen. Essai d'Hybridologie Linguistique.
Paris: Maisonneuve et cie.

Alleyne, Mervyn (1971).
The cultural matrix of creolization.
In Hymes 1971, 169-186.

Alleyne, Mervyn (1988).
Roots of Jamaican Culture.
London: Pluto Press.

Alleyne, Mervyn (1994).
Problems of standardization of Creole languages.
In Morgan 1994, 7-18.

Alter, Stephen G. (1999).
Darwinism & the Linguistic Image: Language, Race, and Natural Theology in the Nineteenth Century.
Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Andersen, Roger (1983).
Introduction: A language acquisition interpretation of pidginization & creolization. In Roger Andersen (ed.),
Pidginization & creolization as language acquisition, 1-56,
Rowley MA: Newbury House Publishers.

Arends, Jacques -- Pieter Muysken -- Norval Smith (eds.) (1994).
Pidgins & Creoles: An Introduction.
Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Arends, Jacques -- Silvia Kouwenberg -- Norval Smith (1994).
Theories focusing on the non-European input.
In Arends, Muysken & Smith 1994, 99-109.

Bacon, Francis (1620 [1994]).
Novum Organum.
1994 Translation by Peter Urbach & John Gibson.
Chicago, Illinois: Open Court.

Bailey, Charles-James -- Karl Maroldt (1977).
The French lineage of English.
In Jurgen Meisel (ed.), 21-53,
Langues en Contact: Pidgins, Créoles,
Tübingen: TBL Verlag Gunter Narr.

Baissac, Charles (1880).
Étude sur le Patois Créole Mauricien.
Nancy: Imprimerie Berger-Levrault et Cie.

Baker, Philip (1995).
Some developmental inferences from historical studies of pidgins & creoles.
In Jacques Arends (ed.),
The Early Stages of Creolization, 1-24,
Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Baker, Philip -- Chris Corne (1982).
Isle de France Créole.
Ann Arbor, Michigan: Karoma.

Baker, Philip -- Anand Syea (1991).
On the copula in Mauritian Creole, past & present.
In Francis Byrne & Thom Huebner (eds.),
Development & Structures of Creole Languages: Essays in Honor of Derek Bickerton, 159-175.
Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Baptista, Marlyse (1997).
The Morpho-Syntax of Nominal & Verbal Categories in Capeverdean Creole.
Harvard University: PhD dissertation.

Baptista, Marlyse (2001).
Number inflection in Creole languages.
Paper read at the meeting of the Society of Pidgin & Creole Linguistics (Coimbra, Portugal, 26 June 2001).
To appear in Anthony Grant (ed.),
Interface.
University of Bradford, England: Bradford Studies in Language, Culture & Society.

Bateman, Richard -- Ives Goddard -- Richard O'Grady -- V. A. Funk -- Rich Mooi -- W. John Kress -- Peter Cannell (1990).
Speaking of forked tongues. The feasibility of reconciling human phylogeny & the history of language.
Current Anthropology 31/1: 1-24.

Bickerton, Derek (1977).
Pidginization & creolization: Language acquisition & language universals.
In Albert Valdman,
Pidgin & Creole Linguistics, 49-69,
Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Bickerton, Derek (1988).
Creole languages & the bioprogram.
In Newmeyer 1988, 268-284.

Bickerton, Derek (1998).
A sociohistoric examination of Afrogenesis
Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 13: 63-92.

Bickerton, Derek (1999).
How to acquire language without positive evidence: What acquisitionists can learn from Creoles.
In DeGraff 1999e, 49-74.

Bloomfield, Leonard (1933).
Language.
New York: Henry Holt & Company.

Boas, Franz (1911).
Handbook of American Indian Languages. Part 1. (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology. Bulletin 40.)
Washington: Goverment Printing Office.

Bopp, Franz (1833-1852 [1985]).
Vergleichende Grammatik des Sanskrit, Send, Armenischen, Griechischen, Lateinischen, Litauischen, Altslavischen, Gothischen und Deutschen
Berlin: F. Dummler.
[1985 Translation by H. H. Wilson: A Comparative Grammar of the Sanskrit, Zend, Greek, Latin, Lithuanian, Gothic, German, and Slavonic Languages; London: Madden & Malcolm.]

Brunot, Ferdinand (1906).
Histoire de la Langue Française des Origines à 1900. Tome II. Le Seizième Siècle.
Paris: Librairie Armand Colin.

Brunot, Ferdinand (1913).
Histoire de la Langue Française des Origines à 1900. Tome IV. La Langue Classique (1660-1715). Première Partie.
Paris: Librairie Armand Colin.

Brunot, Ferdinand (1924).
Histoire de la Langue Française des Origines à 1900. Tome IV. La Langue Classique (1660-1715). Deuxième Partie.
Paris: Librairie Armand Colin.

Cadely, Jean-Robert (1988).
Représentations syllabiques et distribution des diphtongues en créole haïtien.
Etudes Créoles 11/1: 9-40.

Cadely, Jean-Robert (1994).
Aspects de la Phonologie du Créole Haïtien.
Université du Québec Montréal: Doctoral dissertation.

Cadely, Jean-Robert (1995).
Élision et agglutination en créole haïtien: Le cas des pronoms personnels.
Études Créoles 18/1: 9-38.

Cadely, Jean-Robert (1997).
Prosodie et cliticisation en créole haïtien.
Études Créoles 20/1: 77-88.

Cadely, Jean-Robert (to appear).
Nasality in Haitian Creole.
In Dany Adone (ed.),
Recent Developments in Creole Studies.
Tübingen: Niemeyer Verlag.

Campbell, Lyle (1999). Historical Linguistics: An Introduction.
Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi Luca (2000).
Genes, Peoples, & Languages.
New York: North Point Press.

Chafe, Wallace (1970).
Meaning and the structure of language.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Chambers, J. K. (1995).
Sociolinguistic Theory: Linguistic Variation & its Social Significance.
Oxford: Blackwell.

Chaudenson, Robert (1979).
Les Créoles Français.
Paris: Fernand Nathan, France.

Chaudenson, Robert (1992).
Des îles, des Hommes, des Langues: Essai sur la Créolisation Linguistique et Culturelle.
Paris: L'Harmattan.

Chaudenson, Robert (1994).
Les créoles francais sont-ils des formes simplifiées du français?
Cahiers du Français Contemporain 1: 41-54.

Chaudenson, Robert (1995).
Les Créoles.
Paris Presses Universitaires de France.

Chaudenson, Robert -- Raymond Mougeon -- Edouard Beniak (1993).
Vers une Approche Panlectale de la Variation du Français.
Aix-en-Provence: Institut d'Études Créoles et Francophones; Diffusion: Didier Érudition.

Chaudenson, Robert -- Salikoko Mufwene (2001).
Creolization of Language & Culture.
[English translation & revision of Chaudenson 1992]
London: Routledge.

Chomsky, Noam (1957).
Review of A manual of phonology by Charles F. Hockett. International Journal of American Linguistics 23: 223-234.

Chomsky, Noam (1966).
Cartesian Linguistics: A Chapter in the History of Rationalist Thought.
New York: Harper & Row.

Chomsky, Noam (1981).
Principles & parameters in syntactic theory.
In Norbert Hornstein & David Lightfoot (eds.), Explanation in Linguistics, 32-75.
London: Longman.

Chomsky, Noam (1986).
Knowledge of Language: Its Nature, Origin & Use.
New York: Praeger.

Chomsky, Noam (1995).
The Minimalist Program.
Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Chomsky, Noam (2001).
Derivation by phase.
In Kenstowicz 2001, 1-52.

Cinque, Guglielmo (1999).
Adverbs & Functional Heads : A Cross-Linguistic Perspective.
New York: Oxford University Press.

Clark, Eve (1993).
The Lexicon in Acquisition.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Clyne, Michael (ed.) (1981).
Foreigner talk.
(International journal of the sociology of language 28.)
The Hague: Mouton.

Comrie, Bernard (1992).
Before complexity.
In Hawkins & Gell-Mann 1992, 193-211.

Corcoran, Chris (2001).
Creoles & the creation myth: A report on some problems with the linguistic use of `Creole'.
In John Boyle, Jung-Hyuck Lee & Arika Okrent (eds.),
Papers from the 36th Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society.
Chicago: The Chicago Linguistics Society.

Crowley, Terry -- Bruce Rigsby (1979).
Cape York Creole.
In Timothy Shopen (ed.),
Languages & their Status.
Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Damoiseau, Robert -- Gérald Saint-Louis (1986).
Les verbo-adjectivaux en créole haïtien.
Modèles Linguistiques 8, 103-175.

D'Ans, André-Marcel (1968).
Le Créole Français d'Haïti.
The Hague: Mouton.

Darwin, Charles (1859 [1979]).
On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.
London: John Murray.
[1979 Reprint: New York: Avenel Books]

Darwin, Charles (1871).
The Descent of Man, & Selection in Relation to Sex.
London: John Murray.

DeGraff, Michel (1992a).
Creole Grammars & Acquisition of Syntax: The Case of Haitian Creole.
University of Pennsylvania: Doctoral dissertation.

DeGraff, Michel (1992b).
The syntax of predication in Haitian.
In NELS 22, Proceedings of the 22nd Meeting of the North-Eastern Linguistics Society, 103-117.
GLSA, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

DeGraff, Michel (1993).
A riddle on negation in Haitian. Probus 5, 63-93.

DeGraff, Michel (1995).
Predicate-movement, quantification, events & properties.
In Victor Manfredi & Karl Reynolds (eds.), 69-82,
Niger-Congo Syntax & Semantics 6,
Boston Massachusetts: Boston University African Studies Center.

DeGraff, Michel (1996a).
Review article on Temps et Aspects en Créole Seychellois: Valeurs et Interférences [Michaelis 1993].
Journal of Pidgin & Creole Languages 11: 121-137.

DeGraff, Michel (1996b).
U[niversal] G[rammar] & acquisition in pidginization and creolization.
Behavioral & Brain Sciences 19: 723-724.

DeGraff, Michel (1997).
Verb syntax in creolization (& beyond).
In Liliane Haegeman (ed.), 64-94,
The New Comparative Syntax,
London: Longman.

DeGraff, Michel (1998).
Nominal Predication in Haitian & in Irish.
In Curtis et al (eds.), 113-128,
Proceedings of the Sixteenth West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics,
Stanford, California: Center for the Study of Language & Information.

DeGraff, Michel (1999a).
Creolization, language change & language acquisition: A prolegomenon.
In DeGraff 1999e: 1-46.

DeGraff, Michel (1999b).
Creolization, language change & language acquisition: An epilogue.
In DeGraff 1999e: 473-543.

DeGraff, Michel (1999c).
Empirical quicksand: Probing two recent articles on Haitian Creole.
Journal of Pidgin & Creole Languages 14: 1-12, 1999.

DeGraff, Michel (1999d).
Parameter-setting in acquisition & through creolization and language change.
In Rob Wilson & Frank Keil (eds.), 624-627,
The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences.
Cambridge: MIT Press.

DeGraff, Michel (1999e).
Language Creation & Language Change: Creolization, Diachrony & Development.
Cambridge: MIT Press.

DeGraff, Michel (2000).
À propos des pronoms objets dans le créole d'Haïti: Regards croisés de la morphologie et de la diachronie.
Langages 138: 89-113.

DeGraff, Michel (2001a).
Against Creole genesis as `abnormal transmission'.
Annual Meeting of the Linguistics Society of America.
Washington D.C. January 2001.

DeGraff, Michel (2001b).
Morphology in Creole genesis: Linguistics & ideology.
In Kenstowicz 2001: 53-121.

DeGraff, Michel (to appear).
Morphology & word order in `creolization' & beyond.
In Richard Kayne & Guglielmo Cinque (eds.),
Handbook of Comparative Syntax,
New York: Oxford University Press.

DeGraff, Michel (in preparation).
Postcolonial Linguistics: The Politics of Creole Studies.
London: Blackwell.

Dejean, Paul (1989).
Survol des Tentatives d'Alphabétisation en Haïti par les Services Gouvernementaux, 1943-1988.
Port-au-Prince, Haïti: Groupe d'Action et de Recherche pour l'Éducation.

Dejean, Paul (1993).
Haïti: Alerte, On Tue!
Montréal: CIDIHCA.

Dejean, Yves (1975).
Dilemme en Haïti: Français en Péril ou Péril Français?
New York: Éditions Connaissance d'Haïti.

Dejean, Yves (1980).
Comment Écrire le Créole d'Haïti.
Outremont, Québec: Collectif Paroles.

Dejean, Yves (1993).
An overview of the language situation in Haiti.
International Journal of the Sociology of Language 102: 73-83.

Dejean, Yves (1999a).
L'archipel nous revient: Créolistes et données.
Études Créoles, 22/2: 85-114.

Dejean, Yves (1999b).
The native language as a medium of instruction: An issue revisited.
In Arthur Spears (ed.),
Race & Ideology, 93-103,
Detroit: Wayne State University Press.

Dejean, Yves (to appear).
Créole, école, rationalité.
Chemins Critiques.

den Besten, Hans (1981).
On the interaction of root transformations & lexical deletive rules.
Groninger Arbeiten zur Germanistischen Linguistik 20: 1-78.

den Besten, Hans -- Pieter Muysken -- Norval Smith (1994).
Theorie focusing on the European input.
In Arends, Muysken & Smith 1994: 87-109.

Descourtilz, Michel Étienne (1809).
Voyages d'un Naturaliste et ses Observations faites sur les Trois Règnes de la Nature, dans Plusieurs Ports de Mer Français, en Espagne, au Continent de l'Amérique Septentrionale ... (3 volumes).
Paris: Dufart, père.

Dijkhoff, Marta (1993).
Papiamentu Word Formation: A Case Study of Complex Nouns & their Relation to Phrases & Clauses.
University of Amsterdam: Doctoral dissertation.

Dixon, Robert (1997).
The Rise & Fall of Languages.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Domingue, Nicole Z. (1977).
Middle English: Another Creole?
Journal of Creole Studies 1: 89-100.

Drechsel, Emanuel J. (1993).
Basic word order in Mobilian Jargon: Underlying SOV or OSV?"
In Anthony Mattina & Timothy Montler (eds.), 343-367,
American Indian Linguistics & Ethnography. In Honor of Laurence C. Thompson,
Missoula, Montana: University of Montana Occasional Papers in Linguistics.

Drechsel, Emanuel J. (1997). Mobilian Jargon: Linguistic & Sociohistorical Aspects of a Native American Pidgin.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Duc\oeurjoly, S.J. (1802).
Manuel des habitans de Saint-Domingue.
Paris: Lenoir.

Eco, Umberto (1998).
Serendipities: Language & Lunacy.
New York: Columbia University Press

Faraclas, Nicholas (1988).
Nigerian Pidgin & the Languages of Southern Nigeria.
Journal of Pidgin & Creole Languages 3: 177-197.

Fattier, Dominique (1998).
Contribution à l'Étude de la Genèse d'un Créole: L'Atlas Linguistique d'Haïti, Cartes et Commentaires.
Université de Provence: Doctoral dissertation.
(Distributed by Presses Universitaires du Septentrion, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France.)

Ferguson, Charles (1971).
Absence of copula & the notion of simplicity: A study of normal speech, baby talk, foreigner talk, & pidgins.
In Hymes 1971b, 141-150.

Ferguson, Charles (1975).
Toward a characterization of English foreigner talk.
Anthropological Linguistics 17: 1-14.

Ferguson, Charles (1981).
`Foreigner Talk' as the name of a simplified register.
In Clyne 1981: 9-18.

Foucault, Michel (1972).
The Archaeology of Knowledge & the Discourse on Language.
New York: Pantheon Books.

Fouché, Pierre (1966).
Phonétique historique du français.
Paris: Libraire C. Klincksieck.

Freeman, Bryant -- Jowel Laguerre (1996 [1998]).
Haitian-English Dictionary (2nd edition: 1998).
Lawrence, KS: Institute of Haitian Studies, University of Kansas.

Gilbert, Glenn (ed.) (1980).
Pidgin & Creole Languages: Selected Essays by Hugo Schuchardt.
Cambridge: Cambridge University press.

Girod-Chantrans, Justin (1785 [1980]).
Voyage d'un Suisse dans Différentes Colonies d'Amérique....
Neuchâtel: Imprimerie de la Société typographique.
[1980 edition: Paris: Libraire Jules Tallandier.]

Givón, Talmy (1971).
Historical syntax & synchronic morphology: An archeologist's field trip.
In Papers from the 7th Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, 394-415.
Chicago: The Chicago Linguistics Society.

Givón, Talmy (1979).
Prolegomena to any sane creology.
In Ian Hancock (ed.),
Readings in Creole Studies, 3-35.
Ghent, Belgium: E. Story-Scientia.

Goodman, Morris (1964).
A Comparative Study of Creole French Dialects.
The Hague: Mouton.

Gougenheim, Georges (1971).
Etude sur les Périphrases Verbales de la Langue Française.
Paris: Nizet.

Gould, Stephen Jay (1996).
The Mismeasure of Man.
New York: Norton.

Goyette, Stéphane (2000).
Creole wars--Episode I: The prototype menace.
Paper read at the meeting of the Society of Pidgin & Creole Linguistics (Chicago, January 7-8, 2000).

Grimes, Barbara (ed.) (1996).
Ethnologue (13th Edition).
Dallas, Texas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Hall, Robert A. Jr. (1944).
Chinese Pidgin English Grammar & texts.
Journal of the American Oriental Society 64: 95-113.

Hall, Robert, A. Jr. (1953).
Haitian Creole: Grammar, Texts, Vocabulary.
The American Anthropologist. Memoir 74.
Washington D.C.: American Anthropological Association.

Hall, Robert, A. Jr. (1962).
The life cycle of pidgin languages.
Lingua 11: 151-166.

Hall, Robert, A. Jr. (1966). Pidgin & Creole Languages.
Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Hawkins, John. (1986).
A Comparative Typology of English & German: Unifying the Contrasts.
London: Croom Helm.

Hawkins, John (1988).
On generative & typological approaches to Universal Grammar.
Lingua 74: 85-100.

Hawkins, John -- Murray Gell-Mann (eds.) (1992).
The Evolution of Human Languages.
Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley.

Halle, Morris (1962).
Phonology in Generative Grammar.
Word 18: 54-72.

Haspelmath, Martin (2000).
Periphrasis.
In Booj, Geert; Christian Lehmann & Joachim Mugdan (eds.),
Morphology. An International Handbook on Inflection and Word-Formation, 654-664,
Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Heath, Jeffrey (1998).
Hermit crabs: Formal renewal of morphology by phonologically mediated affix substitution.
Language 74: 728-759.

Heine, Bernd (1978).
Some generalizations on African-based pidgin languages. African-based pidgin languages.
Afrika und Übersee 61, 219-229.

Heine, Bernd (1982). The Nubi Language of Kibera. An Arabic Creole.
Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag

Henry, Alison -- Denise Tangney (1999).
Functional categories & parameter setting in the second language acquisition of Irish in early childhood.
In DeGraff 1999e, 239-253.

Hilton, Dimitri (2000).
Pronominal clitics in Haitian Creole: Phonological or syntactic?
In Vicki Carstens & Frederick Parkinson (eds.),
Advances in African Linguistics, 51-59,
Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press.

Hjelmslev, Louis (1938).
Relation de parenté des langues créoles.
Revue des Études Indo-Européennes 1: 271-286.

Hodge, Carleton (1970).
The linguistic cycle.
Language Sciences 13: 1-7.

Hoenigswald, Henry (1971).
Language history & Creole studies.
In Hymes 1971b, 473-480.

Hoenigswald, Henry -- Linda Wiener (eds.) (1987).
Biological Metaphor & Cladistic Classification : An Interdisciplinary Perspective.
Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Holm, John (1988).
Pidgins & Creoles.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Huang, James (1982).
Logical Relations in Chinese & the Theory of Grammar.
MIT: Doctoral Dissertation.

Humboldt, Wilhelm von (1836 [1988]).
Über die Verschiedenheit des Menschlichen Sprachbaues und ihren Einfluss auf die Geistige Entwickelung des Menschengeschlechts.
1988 Translation by Peter Heath: On Language: The Diversity of Human Language-Structure and its Influence on The Mental Development of Mankind.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Huttar, Georges -- Frank Velantie (1997).
Ndyuka-Trio Pidgin.
In Thomason 1997, 99-124.

Hymes, Dell (ed.) (1971a).
General conceptions of process: Introduction.
In Hymes 1971b: 65-90.

Hymes, Dell (ed.) (1971b).
Pidginization & Creolization of Languages.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hymes, Dell (ed.) (1971c).
Preface.
In Hymes 1971b: 1-11.

Janda, Richard (2001).
Beyond ``pathways'' & ``unidirectionality'': On the discontinuity of language transmission & the counterability of grammaticalization.
Language Sciences 23: 265-340.

Jespersen, Otto (1922).
Language: Its Nature, Development & Origin.
London: G. Allen & Unwin.

Jahr, Ernst Håkon -- Ingvild Broch (eds.) (1996).
Language Contact in the Arctic: Northern Pidgins & Contact Languages.
Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Jordens, Peter (ed.) (1997). Introducing the Basic variety.
Special issue of Second Language Research 13/4.
New York: Columbia University Press

Joseph, Frantz (1988).
La Détermination Nominale en Créole Haïtien.
Université Paris VII: Doctoral dissertation,

Keesing, Roger (1988).
Melanesian Pidgin & the Oceanic Substrate.
Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.

Keesing, Roger (1991).
Substrates, calquing & grammaticalization in Melanesian Pidgin.
In Traugott & Heine 1991/v1: 315-342.

Kegl, Judy -- John McWhorter (1997).
Perspectives on an emerging language.
In Eve Clark (ed.), 15-38,
The Proceedings of the Twenty-Eighth Annual Child Language Research Forum,
Stanford, California: Center Study Language & Information.

Kenstowicz, Michael (ed.) (2001).
Ken Hale: A Life in Language.
Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Klein, Thomas (2001).
Conflicting trends in Creole syllable structure: Evidence from Haitian morphophonology.
Paper read at the meeting of the Society of Pidgin & Creole Linguistics (Coimbra, Portugal, 27 June 2001).

Kleine, Wolfgang & Clive Perdue (1997).
The basic variety (or: Couldn't natural languages be much simpler?)
In Jordens 1997 (Linguistics 13/4) 301-347.

Koerner, Konrad (1983a).
Editor's foreword.
In Koerner 1983b:ix-xvi.

Koerner, Konrad (ed.) (1983b).
Linguistics & Evolutionary Theory: Three Essays by August Schleicher, Ernst Haeckel & Wilhelm Bleek.
Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Koopman, Hilda (1986).
The Genesis of Haitian: Implications of a comparison of some features of the syntax of Haitian, French, & West African Languages.
In Pieter Muysken & Norval Smith, 231-258.

Kouwenberg, Silvia (1994).
A Grammar of Berbice Dutch Creole.
New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Labov, William (1994).
Principles of Linguistic Change. Internal factors.
Oxford: Blackwell.

Labov, William (2001).
Principles of Linguistic Change. Social Factors.
Oxford: Blackwell.

Larousse, Pierre (1869).
Grand Dictionnaire Universel du XIX siècle.
Paris: Larousse.

Lefebvre, Claire (1998).
Creole Genesis & the Acquisition of Grammar: The Case of Haitian Creole
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lefebvre, Claire -- Elizabeth Ritter (1989).
A note on verbal reduplication in Haitian Creole
Revue Québecoise de Linguistique 18/2: 173-182.

Lefebvre, Claire -- Elizabeth Ritter (1991).
A note on three types of causal clauses in Haitian Creole.
Journal of Pidgin & Creole Languages 6: 279-283.

Lehmann, Winfred (ed.) (1967).
A Reader in Nineteenth Century Historical Indo-European Linguistics.
Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Lightfoot, David (1999).
The Development of Language: Acquisition, Change, and Evolution.
Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell.

Lumsden, John (1999).
Language acquisition & creolization.
In DeGraff 1999e, 129-157.

Maher, J. Peter (1983).
Introduction.
In Koerner 1983b:xvii-xxxii.

Marantz, Alec (1983).
Before Babel: The misguided quest for the origins of language.
The Sciences, May/June, 16-20.

Marantz, Alec -- Yasushi Miyashita -- Wayne O'Neil (eds.) (2000).
Introduction: Mind articulation.
In Alec Marantz; Yasushi Miyashita & Wayne O'Neil (eds.),
Image, Language, Brain: Papers from the First Mind-Articulation Project Symposium, 1-9.
Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2000.

Matisoff, James (1991).
Grammatization in Lahu.
In Traugott & Heine 1991, vol. 2, 383-453.

McWhorter, John (1997).
Towards a New Model of Creole Genesis.
New York: Peter Lang.

McWhorter, John (1998).
Identifying the Creole prototype: Vindicating a typological class.
Language 74: 788-818.

McWhorter, John (2000a).
Defining ``Creole'' as a synchronic term.
In Neumann-Holzschuh & Schneider, 2000, 85-124.

McWhorter, John (2000b).
The Missing Spanish Creoles: Recovering the Birth of Plantation Contact Languages.
Berkeley: University of California Press.

McWhorter, John (2001).
The world's simplest grammars are Creole grammars.
Linguistic Typology 5.2/3.

Meillet, Antoine (1906 [1958]).
L'État actuel des études de linguistique générale.
(Opening lecture for the course on comparative grammar at the Collège de France.)
[Reprinted in Meillet 1958: 1-18]

Meillet, Antoine (1912 [1958]).
L'Évolution des formes grammaticales.
Scientia (Rivista di Scienza) 12/26.
[Reprinted in Meillet 1958: 130-148]

Meillet, Antoine (1919 [1958]).
Le genre grammaticale et l'élimination de la flexion.
Scientia (Rivista di Scienza) 25/86.
[Reprinted in Meillet 1958: 199-210]

Meillet, Antoine (1929 [1951]).
Le développement des langues.
In Jacques Chevalier, ed.,
Continu et Discontinu, 119-131.
Paris: Bloud & Gay,
[Reprinted in Meillet 1951: 71-83]

Meillet, Antoine (1951).
Linguistique Historique et Linguistique Générale. Volume II.
Paris: Klincksieck.

Meillet, Antoine (1958).
Linguistique Historique et Linguistique Générale. Volume I.
Paris: Honoré Champion.

Michaelis, Susanne (1993).
Temps et Aspects en Créole Seychellois: Valeurs et Interférences.
Hamburg: Helmust Buske Verlag.

Migge, Bettina (1998).
Substrate Influence in the Formation of the Surinamese Plantation Creole: A Consideration of the Sociohistorical Data and Linguistic Data from Ndyuka & Gbe.
Ohio State University: Doctoral dissertation.

Morin, Yves-Charles (1986).
On the morphologization of word-final consonant deletion in French.
In Henning Andersen (ed.),
Sandhi Phenomena in the Languages of Europe, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 167-210.

Moreau de Saint-Méry, M. L. E. (1797 [1958]).
Description Topographique, Physique, Civile, Politique et Historique de la Partie Française de l'Isle Saint Domingue (3 volumes).
Philadelphia: Chez l'Auteur.
[1958 edition: Paris: Société de l'Histoire des Colonies Françaises.]

Mufwene, Salikoko (1986).
Can Creole languages be defined without reference to their history?
Etudes Creoles 9/1: 135-150.

Mufwene, Salikoko (1990).
Transfer & the substrate hypothesis in creolistics.
Studies in Second Language Acquisition 12/1: 1-23.

Mufwene, Salikoko (1993).
Africanisms in Afro-American Language Varieties.
Athens: University of Georgia Press.

Mufwene, Salikoko (1996).
The Founder Principle in Creole genesis.
Diachronica 13/1: 83-134.

Mufwene, Salikoko (1997).
Kitúba.
In Thomason 1997, 173-208.

Mufwene, Salikoko (1998).
What research on Creole genesis can contribute to historical linguistics.
In Monika Schmid, Jennifer Austin, & Dieter Stein (eds.),
Historical Linguistics 1997,
Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 315-338.

Mufwene, Salikoko (2000a).
Creolization is a social, not a structural, process.
In Neumann-Holzschuh & Schneider 2000: 65-84.

Mufwene, Salikoko (2000b).
Population contact & the evolution of English.
The European English Messenger 9: 9-15.

Mufwene, Salikoko (2001).
The Ecology of Language Evolution.
Cambridge U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Mühleisen, Susanne (2000).
Creole Discourse. Exploring Prestige Formation & Change across Caribbean English-Lexicon Creoles.
Johann Wofgang Goethe-Universität: Doctoral Dissertation.

Müller, F. Max (1868).
On the stratification of language
London: Longmans, Green, Reader, & Dyer

Muusse, Esther -- Jacques Arends (2001).
Inflectional morphology in the Lingua Franca noun phrase.
Paper read at the Westminster Pidgin Workshop, 19-21 April 2001.
To appear in Hans den Besten & Mikael Parkvall (eds.),
Pidgins: Their Nature & Significance. Papers from the 2001 Westminster Pidgin Workshop.
London: Battlebridge Publications.

Muysken, Pieter (1988).
Are Creoles a special type of language?
In Newmeyer 1988, 285-301.

Muysken, Pieter (in press).
Pidginization, creolization & language death.
In Geert Booij & Christian Lehmann (eds.),
Handbook of Morphology.
Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Muysken, Pieter -- Paul Law (2001).
Creole studies. A theoretical linguist's field guide.
Glot International 5/2, 47-57.

Muysken, Pieter -- Norval Smith (eds.) (1986).
Substrata Versus Universals in Creole Genesis.
Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Neumann-Holzschuh, Ingrid -- Edgar Schneider (eds.) (2000).
Degrees of Restructuring in Creole Languages.
Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Newmeyer, Frederick (1988).
Linguistics. The Cambridge Survey. Vol 2: Linguistic Theory: Extensions & Implications.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Newport, Elissa (1999).
Reduced input in the acquisition of Signed Languages: Contributions to the study of creolization.
In DeGraff 1999e, 161-178.

Nichols, Johanna (1986).
The bottom line: Chinese Pidgin Russian.
In Wallace Chafe & Johanna Nichols (eds.),
Evidentiality: The Linguistic Encoding of Epistemology, 239-257.
Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex.

Nyrop, Kr. (1899).
Grammaire Historique de la Langue Française, tome premier.
Copenhague: Ernst Bojesen.

Nyrop, Kr. (1903).
Grammaire Historique de la Langue Française, tome deuxième.
Copenhague: Ernst Bojesen.

Osthoff, Hermann -- Karl Brugmann (1878 [1967]).
Preface to Morphological Investigations in the Sphere of the Indo-European Languages I
Leipzig: S. Hirzel.
1967 Translation in Lehmann 1967: 197-209.

Paul, Hermann (1890 [1970]).
Principien der Spraschgeschichte
1970 Translation by H. A. Strong: Principles of the History of Language.
College Park, Maryland: McGrath Publishing Company.

Pelleprat, Father Pierre (1655).
Relation des Missions des Pères de la Compagnie de Jésus dans les Iles et dans la Terre Ferme de l'Amérique Méridionale.
Paris: Chez Sébastien Cramoisy & Gabriel Cramoisy.

Pierret, Jean-Marie (1994).
Phonétique Historique du Français et Notions de Phonétique Générale.
Leuven: Peeters.

Pompilus, Pradel (1961).
La Langue Française en Haïti.
Paris: Institut des Hautes Études de l'Amérique Latine.

Popper, Karl (1965). Conjectures & Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge.
New York: Basic Books.

Prudent, Lambert-Félix (1980).
Des Baragouins à la Langue Antillaise: Analyse Historique et Sociolinguistique du Discours sur le Créole.
Paris: Editions Caribéennes.

Ramat, Anna Giacalone -- Paul Hopper (1998).
The limits of grammaticalization.
Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Rivera-Castillo, Yolanda (1998).
Tone & Stress in Papiamentu: The Contribution of a Constraint-Based Analysis to the Problem of Creole Genesis.
Journal of Pidgin & Creole Languages 13: 297-334.

Rizzi, Luigi (1999).
Broadening the empirical basis of Universal Grammar models: A Commentary.
In DeGraff 1999e, 453-472.

Roberts, Ian (1999).
Verb Movement & Markedness.
In DeGraff 1999e, 287-327.

Romaine, Suzanne (1992).
The evolution of linguistic complexity in pidgin & creole languages.
In Hawkins & Gell-Mann 1992: 213-238.

Saint-Quentin, Alfred de (1872 [1989]).
Introduction à l'Histoire de Cayenne ... , with Étude sur la Grammaire Créole by Auguste de Saint-Quentin.
Antibes : J. Marchand
[1980 edition: Cayenne: Comité de la Culture, de l'Éducation et de l'Environnement, Région Guyane.]

Samarin, William (1980).
Standardization & instrumentalization of Creole languages.
In Albert Valdman & Arnold Highfield (eds.),
Theoretical orientations in Creole studies, 213-236.
New York: Academic Press.

Sapir, Edward (1921).
Language. An Introduction to the Study of Speech.
New York: Harcourt, Brace & Company.

Schleicher, August (1850 [1852]).
Die Sprachen Europas in Systematischer Ubersicht: Linguistische Untersuchungen.
Bonn: H. B. König.
[1852 Translation by Hermann Ewerbeck: Les Langues de l'Europe Moderne, Paris: Ladrange]

Schleicher, August (1863 [1869]).
Die Darwinsche Theorie und die Sprachwissenschaft.
Weimar: Hermann Böhlau.
[1869 Translation by Alex Bikkers: Darwinism Tested by the Science of Language; London: John Camden Hotten; Reprinted in Koerner 1983b: 1-73]

Schleicher, August (1865 [1983]).
Über die Bedeutung der Sprache für die Naturgeschichte des Menschen.

Weimar: Hermann Böhlau. [1983 Translation by Peter Maher: On the Significance of Language for the Natural History of Man in Koerner 1983b: 75-82.]

Schlegel, Frederick von (1808 [1849]).
Über die Sprache und Weisheit der Indier
Heidelberg, Mohr und Zimmer.
[1849 Translation by E. J. Millington: On the Language & Wisdom of the Indians in The Æsthetic and Miscellaneous Works of Frederick von Schlegel; pp. 425-526; London: Henry G. Bohn]

Schuchardt, Hugo (1885 [1972]).
Über die Lautgesetze.
Berlin: Verlag von Robert Oppenheim.
[1972 Translation: On Sound Laws: Agains the Neogrammarians in Venneman & Wilbur 1972: 1-114.]

Schuchardt, Hugo (1909 [1980]).
Die Lingua Franca.
Zeitschrift für romanische Philologie 33, 441-461.
[1980 Translation: Gilbert 1980: 65-88]

Schuchardt, Hugo (1914 [1980]).
Die Sparche der Saramakkaneger in Surinam.
Amsterdam: Johannes Müller.
[1980 Translation of pp. i-xxxvi: Gilbert 1980: 91-126]

Schwegler, Armin -- Kate Green (to appear).
Palenquero (Creole Spanish).
In John Holm & Peter Patrick (eds.),
Comparative Creole Syntax..
London: Battlebridge Publications.

Seuren, Pieter (1998).
Western Linguistics. An Historical Introduction.
Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

Seuren, Pieter & Herman Wekker (1986).
Semantic transparency as a factor in Creole genesis.
In Pieter Muysken & Norval Smith (eds.),
Substrata Versus Universals in Creole Genesis, 57-70.
Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Siegel, Jeff (1999).
Transfer constraints & substrate influence in Melanesian Pidgin
Journal of Pidgin & Creole Languages 14: 1-44.

Singler, John (1996).
Theories of Creole genesis, sociohistorical considerations, and the evaluation of the evidence: The case of Haitian Creole & the Relexification Hypothesis.
Journal of Pidgin & Creole Languages 11: 185-230.

Syea, Anand (1992).
The short & long form of verbs in Mauritian Creole: Functionalism versus formalism.
Theoretical Linguistics 18/1: 61-97.

Syea, Anand (1997).
Copula, wh-trace, & the ECP in Mauritian Creole.
Linguistics 35/1: 25-56.

Sylvain, Suzanne (1936).
Le Créole Haïtien: Morphologie et Syntaxe.
Belgique: Wetteren, Imprimerie de Meester.

Szathmáry, Eörs -- Ferenc Jordán -- Csaba Pál (2001).
Molecular biology & evolution: Can genes explain biological complexity?
Science 292: 5520 1315-1316.

Thomason, Sarah (1980).
In Jacek Fisiak (ed.), 359-372.
Historical Morphology,
The Hague: Mouton.

Thomason, Sarah (1997).
Contact Languages: A Wider Perspective.
Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Thomason, Sarah -- Terrence Kaufman (1988).
Language Contact, Creolization, & Genetic Linguistics.
University of California Press, Berkeley & Los Angeles.

Traugott, Elizabeth Closs -- Bernd Heine (1991).
Approaches to Grammaticalization.
Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Trudgill, Peter (1989).
Contact & isolation in linguistic change.
In Leiv Egil Brevik & Ernst Håkon Jahr (eds.),
Language Change: Contributions to the Study of its Causes, 227-237, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Valdman, Albert (1978). Le Créole: Structure, Statut et Origine.
Paris: Éditions Klincksieck.

Valdman, Albert (2001).
Sur les processus lexicogénétiques du créole haïtien.
In Hartmut Schröder, Petra Kumschlies & María González (eds.),
Linguistik alks Kulturiwssenchaft. Festschrift für Bernd Splilner zum 60. Geburstag, 43-53,
Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

van Kemenade, Ans (ed.) (1999).
Functional Properties of Morphosyntactic Change.
Special Issue of Linguistics 37/6.

van Kemenade, Ans -- Nigel Vincent (eds.) (1997).
Parameters of Morphosyntactic Change.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Van Name, Addison (1870).
Contributions to Creole grammar.
Transactions of the American Philological Association 1: 123-167.

Veenstra, Tonjes (1996).
Serial Verbs in Saramaccan: Predication & Creole Genesis.
University of Amsterdam: Doctoral dissertation.
(Distributed by Holland Academic Graphics, The Hague.)

Venneman, Theo -- Terence Wilbur (eds.) (1972).
Schuchardt, the Neogrammarians, & the Transformational Theory of Phonological Change.
Frankfurt: Athenäum Verlag.

Vikner, Sten (1995).
Verb Movement & Expletive Subjects in the Germanic Languages.
New York: Oxford University Press.

Vinson, Julien (1889).
Creole.
In Adolphe Bertillon et al (eds.),
Dictionnaire des Sciences Anthropologiques, 345-347. Paris: Doin.

Vrzic, Zvjezdana (1997).
`A minimalist approach to word order in Chinook Jargon & the theory of Creole genesis'.
In Ben Bruening (ed.),
Proceedings of the Eighth Student Conference in Linguistics, 467-478,
Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Working Papers in Linguistics, 31.

Weinreich, Uriel (1953).
Languages in Contact: Findings & Problems.
New York: Linguistic Circle of New York.

Whinnom, Keith. 1971.
Linguistic hybridization and the `special case' of pidgins and creoles.
In Hymes 1971b, 91-115.

Wilbur, Terence (ed.) (1977).
The Lautgesetz-Controversy: A documentation (1885-86).
Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Winford, Don (1994).
Sociolinguistic approaches to language use in the Anglophone Caribbean.
In Marcyliena Morgan (ed.), 43-62,
Language & the Social Construction of Identity in Creole Situations,
Los Angeles: Center for Afro-American Studies, University of California.

Wurm, Stephen (1996).
The Taimyr Peninsula Russian-based Pidgin.
In Jahr & Broch 1996, 79-90.

Zink, Gaston (1986).
Phonétique Historique du Français: Manuel Pratique.
Paris: Presses universitaires de France.



degraff@MIT.EDU