music21.musicxml.xmlToM21

Functions

music21.musicxml.xmlToM21.musicXMLTypeToType(value)

Utility function to convert a MusicXML duration type to an music21 duration type.

Changes ‘long’ to ‘longa’ and deals with a Guitar Pro 5.2 bug in MusicXML export, that exports a 32nd note with the type ‘32th’.

>>> musicxml.xmlToM21.musicXMLTypeToType('long')
'longa'
>>> musicxml.xmlToM21.musicXMLTypeToType('32th')
'32nd'
>>> musicxml.xmlToM21.musicXMLTypeToType('quarter')
'quarter'
>>> musicxml.xmlToM21.musicXMLTypeToType(None)
Traceback (most recent call last):
music21.musicxml.xmlToM21.MusicXMLImportException: found unknown MusicXML type: None
music21.musicxml.xmlToM21.textNotNone(mxObj)

returns True is mxObj is not None and mxObj.text is not None

>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import Element, SubElement
>>> e = Element('an-element')
>>> musicxml.xmlToM21.textNotNone(e)
False
>>> e.text = 'hello'
>>> musicxml.xmlToM21.textNotNone(e)
True
music21.musicxml.xmlToM21.textStripValid(mxObj)

returns True if textNotNone(mxObj) and mxObj.text.strip() is not empty

>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import Element, SubElement
>>> e = Element('an-element')
>>> musicxml.xmlToM21.textStripValid(e)
False
>>> e.text = '    '
>>> musicxml.xmlToM21.textStripValid(e)
False
>>> e.text = 'hello'
>>> musicxml.xmlToM21.textStripValid(e)
True

MeasureParser

class music21.musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser(mxMeasure=None, parent=None)

parser to work with a single <measure> tag.

called out for simplicity.

>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import fromstring as EL
>>> scoreMeasure = '<measure><note><rest/><duration>40320</duration></note></measure>'
>>> mxMeasure = EL(scoreMeasure)
>>> mp = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser(mxMeasure)
>>> mp.parse()
>>> mp.restAndNoteCount['rest']
1
>>> mp.restAndNoteCount['note']
0
>>> mp.fullMeasureRest
True

MeasureParser bases

MeasureParser methods

MeasureParser.addToStaffReference(mxObjectOrNumber, m21Object)

Utility routine for importing musicXML objects; here, we store a reference to the music21 object in a dictionary, where keys are the staff values. Staff values may be None, 1, 2, etc.

>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> MP.addToStaffReference(1, note.Note('C5'))
>>> MP.addToStaffReference(2, note.Note('D3'))
>>> MP.addToStaffReference(2, note.Note('E3'))
>>> len(MP.staffReference)
2
>>> list(sorted(MP.staffReference.keys()))
['1', '2']
>>> MP.staffReference['1']
[<music21.note.Note C>]
>>> MP.staffReference['2']
[<music21.note.Note D>, <music21.note.Note E>]
>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import fromstring as EL
>>> mxNote = EL('<note><staff>1</staff></note>')
>>> MP.addToStaffReference(mxNote, note.Note('F5'))
>>> MP.staffReference['1']
[<music21.note.Note C>, <music21.note.Note F>]

No staff reference.

>>> mxNote = EL('<note />')
>>> MP.addToStaffReference(mxNote, note.Note('G4'))
>>> len(MP.staffReference)
3
>>> MP.staffReference[None]
[<music21.note.Note G>]
MeasureParser.findM21VoiceFromXmlVoice(mxVoice=None)

Find the stream.Voice object from a <voice> tag or None.

static MeasureParser.getStaffNumberStr(mxObjectOrNumber)

gets a string representing a staff number, or None from an mxObject or a number…

>>> mp = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import fromstring as EL
>>> gsn = mp.getStaffNumberStr
>>> gsn(1)
'1'
>>> gsn('2')
'2'

<note> tags store their staff numbers in a <staff> tag’s text…

>>> gsn(EL('<note><staff>2</staff></note>'))
'2'

…or not at all.

>>> gsn(EL('<note><pitch><step>C</step><octave>4</octave></pitch></note>')) is None
True

Clefs, however, store theirs in a number attribute.

>>> gsn(EL('<clef number="2"/>'))
'2'
>>> print(gsn(None))
None
MeasureParser.handleClef(mxClef)

Handles a clef object, appending it to the core, and setting self.lastClefs for the staff number.

>>> import xml.etree.ElementTree as ET
>>> mxClef = ET.fromstring('<clef><sign>G</sign><line>2</line></clef>')
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> MP.handleClef(mxClef)
>>> MP.lastClefs
{None: <music21.clef.TrebleClef>}
>>> mxClefBC = ET.fromstring('<clef number="2"><sign>F</sign><line>4</line></clef>')
>>> MP.handleClef(mxClefBC)
>>> MP.lastClefs['2']
<music21.clef.BassClef>
>>> MP.lastClefs[None]
<music21.clef.TrebleClef>
MeasureParser.handleFingering(tech, mxObj)

A few specialized functions for dealing with fingering objects

MeasureParser.handleKeySignature(mxKey)

convert mxKey to a Key or KeySignature and run insertCoreAndRef on it

MeasureParser.handleMeasureStyle(mxMeasureStyle)

measure + multimeasure repeats, slashed repeats, etc.

But currently only multiMeasure rests are supported.

Each of these applies to the entire measure, so there’s no need to insert into the stream.

Does not support multiple staves yet.

MeasureParser.handleStaffDetails(mxDetails)

StaffDetails (staff-details) handles attributes about the staff itself – its size, number of lines, tuning, frets, etc.

It is different from StaffLayout (staff-layout) which only handles relationship of one staff to another (the distance)

Rather than returning a StaffLayout object, it adds it to self.staffLayoutObjects checking to see if there is already an incomplete StaffLayout object for this staff.

MeasureParser.handleTimeSignature(mxTime)

Creates a TimeSignature using xmlToTimeSignature and inserts it into the stream if it is appropriate to do so (now always yes.)

MeasureParser.insertCoreAndRef(offset, mxObjectOrNumber, m21Object)

runs addToStaffReference and then insertCore.

>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import fromstring as EL
>>> mxNote = EL('<note><staff>1</staff></note>')
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> MP.insertCoreAndRef(1.0, mxNote, note.Note('F5'))

Need to run at end:

>>> MP.stream.coreElementsChanged()
>>> MP.stream.show('text')
{1.0} <music21.note.Note F>
MeasureParser.insertInMeasureOrVoice(mxElement, el)

Adds an object to a measure or a voice. Need n (obviously) but also mxNote to get the voice.

MeasureParser.mxKeyOctaves(mxKey, ks)

process the <key-octave> tags to potentially change a key signature to a non-standard key signature.

>>> import xml.etree.ElementTree as ET
>>> mxKey = ET.fromstring('<key><fifths>-4</fifths>'
...   + '<key-octave number="1">3</key-octave>'
...   + '<key-octave number="2">4</key-octave>'
...   + '<key-octave number="4">3</key-octave>'
...   + '</key>')
>>> ks = key.KeySignature(-4)
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> MP.mxKeyOctaves(mxKey, ks)
>>> ks.alteredPitches
[<music21.pitch.Pitch B-3>,
 <music21.pitch.Pitch E-4>,
 <music21.pitch.Pitch A->,
 <music21.pitch.Pitch D-3>]
MeasureParser.nonTraditionalKeySignature(mxKey)

Returns a KeySignature object that represents a nonTraditional Key Signature

called by xmlToKeySignature if <fifths> is not present.

>>> import xml.etree.ElementTree as ET
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> mxKey = ET.fromstring('<key><key-step>E</key-step><key-alter>-1</key-alter></key>')
>>> MP.nonTraditionalKeySignature(mxKey)
<music21.key.KeySignature of pitches: [E-]>

Should be the same:

>>> MP.xmlToKeySignature(mxKey)
<music21.key.KeySignature of pitches: [E-]>

Works with key-accidental also:

>>> mxKey = ET.fromstring('<key><key-step>G</key-step><key-alter>1</key-alter>'
...                       + '<key-accidental>sharp</key-accidental></key>')
>>> MP.nonTraditionalKeySignature(mxKey)
<music21.key.KeySignature of pitches: [G#]>        
MeasureParser.parse()
MeasureParser.parseAttributesTag(mxAttributes)

Parses a single attributes tag (mxAttributes) and sets

self.attributesAreInternal to False, self.activeAttributes to mxAttributes, self.parent.activeAttributes to mxAttributes and then runs the appropriate attributeTagsToMethods for the attribute.

Also sets self.divisions for the current divisions (along with self.parent.lastDivisions) and self.transposition and to the current transpose.

MeasureParser.parseMeasureAttributes()

parses the attributes of the <measure> tag. Not the <attributes> tag inside the measure tag.

calls parseMeasureNumbers(), and gets the width from the width tag.

# TODO: implicit # TODO: non-controlling # may need to do a format/unit conversion?

MeasureParser.parseMeasureNumbers(mNumRaw=None)

Gets the measure number from the ‘number’ attribute of the <measure> tag. (Or, for testing, from the mNumRaw argument). Sets MeasureParser.stream.number and possibly MeasureParser.stream.numberSuffix

>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> MP.parseMeasureNumbers('5')
>>> MP.stream.number
5

Sets not only stream.number, but also MeasureParser.measureNumber and MeasureParser.numberSuffix

>>> MP.parseMeasureNumbers('44b')
>>> MP.stream.number
44
>>> MP.stream.numberSuffix
'b'
>>> MP.measureNumber
44
>>> MP.numberSuffix
'b'
>>> MP.parseMeasureNumbers('X1')
>>> MP.stream.number
1
>>> MP.stream.numberSuffix
'X'
static MeasureParser.setHarmonic(mxh, harm)

From the artificial or natural tag (or no tag) and zero or one of base-pitch, sounding-pitch, touching-pitch, sets .harmonicType and .pitchType on a articulations.Harmonic object

Called from xmlTechnicalToArticulation

>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import fromstring as EL
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> mxTech = EL('<harmonic><artificial/><sounding-pitch/></harmonic>')
>>> a = MP.xmlTechnicalToArticulation(mxTech)
>>> a
<music21.articulations.StringHarmonic>
>>> a.harmonicType
'artificial'
>>> a.pitchType
'sounding'
MeasureParser.updateLyricsFromList(n, lyricList)

Takes a list of <lyric> elements and update the note’s lyrics from that list.

>>> import xml.etree.ElementTree as ET
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> mxLyric1 = ET.fromstring('<lyric><text>Hi</text></lyric>')
>>> mxLyric2 = ET.fromstring('<lyric><text>Hi</text></lyric>')
>>> n = note.Note()
>>> MP.updateLyricsFromList(n, [mxLyric1, mxLyric2])
>>> n.lyrics
[<music21.note.Lyric number=1 text="Hi">,
 <music21.note.Lyric number=2 text="Hi">]
MeasureParser.updateVoiceInformation()

Finds all the “voice” information in <note> tags and updates the set of .voiceIndices to be a set of all the voice texts, and if there is more than one voice in the measure, sets .useVoices to True and creates a voice for each.

>>> import xml.etree.ElementTree as ET
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> MP.mxMeasure = ET.fromstring('<measure><note><voice>1</voice></note></measure>')
>>> MP.updateVoiceInformation()

This is a set, so displays differently in PY2 vs. PY3

>>> list(MP.voiceIndices)
['1']
>>> MP.useVoices
False

.updateVoiceInformation runs .coreInsert so we need to call coreElementsChanged:

>>> MP.stream.coreElementsChanged()
>>> len(MP.stream)
0

Now a better test:

>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> MP.mxMeasure = ET.fromstring('<measure><note><voice>1</voice></note>'
...                                     + '<note><voice>2</voice></note></measure>')
>>> MP.updateVoiceInformation()
>>> sorted(list(MP.voiceIndices))
['1', '2']
>>> MP.useVoices
True
>>> MP.stream.coreElementsChanged()
>>> len(MP.stream)
2
>>> len(MP.stream.getElementsByClass('Voice'))
2
MeasureParser.xmlBackup(mxObj)

parse a backup tag by changing .offsetMeasureNote

MeasureParser.xmlBarline(mxBarline)

Handles everything for putting a barline into a Stream and updating repeat characteristics.

MeasureParser.xmlDirection(mxDirection)

convert a <direction> tag to one or more expressions, metronome marks, etc. and them to the core and staffReference.

MeasureParser.xmlDirectionTypeToSpanners(mxObj)

Some spanners, such as MusicXML wedge, bracket, and dashes, are encoded as MusicXML directions.

>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import fromstring as EL
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> n1 = note.Note('D4')
>>> MP.nLast = n1
>>> len(MP.spannerBundle)
0
>>> mxDirectionType = EL('<wedge type="crescendo" number="2"/>')
>>> retList = MP.xmlDirectionTypeToSpanners(mxDirectionType)
>>> retList
[<music21.spanner.Crescendo >]
>>> len(MP.spannerBundle)
1
>>> sp = MP.spannerBundle[0]
>>> sp
<music21.spanner.Crescendo >
>>> mxDirectionType2 = EL('<wedge type="stop" number="2"/>')
>>> retList = MP.xmlDirectionTypeToSpanners(mxDirectionType2)

retList is empty because nothing new has been added.

>>> retList
[]
>>> len(MP.spannerBundle)
1
>>> sp = MP.spannerBundle[0]
>>> sp
<music21.spanner.Crescendo <music21.note.Note D>>
MeasureParser.xmlForward(mxObj)

parse a forward tag by changing .offsetMeasureNote

MeasureParser.xmlGraceToGrace(mxGrace, noteOrChord)

Given a completely formed, non-grace Note or Chord that should become one create and return a m21 grace version of the same.

MeasureParser.xmlHarmony(mxHarmony)

Create a ChordSymbol object and insert it to the core and staff reference.

MeasureParser.xmlNotations(mxNotations, n)
>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import fromstring as EL
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> mxNotations = EL('<notations>' +
...     '<fermata type="upright">angled</fermata>' +
...     '</notations>')
>>> n = note.Note()
>>> MP.xmlNotations(mxNotations, n)
>>> n.expressions
[<music21.expressions.Fermata>]
>>> n.expressions[0].type
'upright'
>>> n.expressions[0].shape
'angled'
MeasureParser.xmlNotationsToSpanners(mxNotations, n)
MeasureParser.xmlNoteToGeneralNoteHelper(n, mxNote, freeSpanners=True)

Combined function to work on all <note> tags, where n can be a Note or Rest

MeasureParser.xmlNotehead(n, mxNotehead)

Set notehead information from the mxNotehead object

>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import fromstring as EL
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> n = note.Note()
>>> nh = EL('<notehead color="#FF0000" filled="no" parentheses="yes">'
...         + 'diamond</notehead>')
>>> MP.xmlNotehead(n, nh)
>>> n.notehead
'diamond'
>>> n.noteheadFill
False
>>> n.noteheadParenthesis
True
>>> n.style.color
'#FF0000'
MeasureParser.xmlOneSpanner(mxObj, target, spannerClass, *, allowDuplicateIds=False)

Some spanner types do not have an id necessarily, we allow duplicates of them if allowDuplicateIds is True. Wedges are one.

Returns the new spanner created.

MeasureParser.xmlOrnamentToExpression(mxObj)

Convert mxOrnament into a music21 ornament.

This only processes non-spanner ornaments. Many mxOrnaments are spanners: these are handled elsewhere.

Returns None if cannot be converted or not defined.

Return an articulation from an mxObj, setting placement

>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import fromstring as EL
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> mxOrn = EL('<inverted-turn placement="above" font-size="24"/>')
>>> a = MP.xmlOrnamentToExpression(mxOrn)
>>> a
<music21.expressions.InvertedTurn>
>>> a.placement
'above'
>>> a.style.fontSize
24

If it can’t be converted, return None

>>> mxOrn = EL('<crazy-slide placement="above"/>')
>>> a = MP.xmlOrnamentToExpression(mxOrn)
>>> a is None
True

Not supported currently: ‘accidental-mark’, ‘vertical-turn’, ‘delayed-turn’, ‘delayed-inverted-turn’

MeasureParser.xmlPrint(mxPrint)

<print> handles changes in pages, numbering, layout, etc. so can generate PageLayout, SystemLayout, or StaffLayout objects.

Should also be able to set measure attributes on self.stream

MeasureParser.xmlStaffLayoutFromStaffDetails(mxDetails)

Returns a new StaffLayout object from staff-details.

>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import fromstring as EL
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> mxDetails = EL('<details number="2" print-object="no">'
...                + '<staff-size>21.2</staff-size><staff-lines>4</staff-lines>'
...                + '</details>')
>>> stl = MP.xmlStaffLayoutFromStaffDetails(mxDetails)
>>> stl.staffSize
21.2
>>> stl.staffLines
4
>>> stl.staffNumber
2
>>> stl.hidden
True
MeasureParser.xmlTechnicalToArticulation(mxObj)

Convert an mxArticulationMark to a music21.articulations.Articulation object or one of its subclasses.

>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import fromstring as EL
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> mxTech = EL('<down-bow placement="below"/>')
>>> a = MP.xmlTechnicalToArticulation(mxTech)
>>> a
<music21.articulations.DownBow>
>>> a.placement
'below'

Fingering might have substitution or alternate

>>> mxTech = EL('<fingering substitution="yes">5</fingering>')
>>> f = MP.xmlTechnicalToArticulation(mxTech)
>>> f
<music21.articulations.Fingering 5>
>>> f.substitution
True
>>> f.alternate
False

FingerNumbers get converted to ints if possible

>>> f.fingerNumber
5
>>> mxTech = EL('<fingering alternate="yes">4-3</fingering>')
>>> f = MP.xmlTechnicalToArticulation(mxTech)
>>>
<music21.articulations.Fingering 4-3>
>>> f.alternate
True
>>> f.fingerNumber
'4-3'
MeasureParser.xmlToAccidental(mxAccidental, inputM21=None)
>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import fromstring as EL
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> a = EL('<accidental>half-flat</accidental>')
>>> b = pitch.Accidental()
>>> MP.xmlToAccidental(a, b)
>>> b.name
'half-flat'
>>> b.alter
-0.5
>>> a = EL('<accidental parentheses="yes">sharp</accidental>')
>>> b = MP.xmlToAccidental(a)
>>> b.displayStyle
'parentheses'
>>> a = EL('<accidental bracket="yes">sharp</accidental>')
>>> b = MP.xmlToAccidental(a)
>>> b.displayStyle
'bracket'
>>> a = EL('<accidental bracket="yes" parentheses="yes">sharp</accidental>')
>>> b = MP.xmlToAccidental(a)
>>> b.displayStyle
'both'
MeasureParser.xmlToArticulation(mxObj)

Return an articulation from an mxObj, setting placement

>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import fromstring as EL
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> mxArt = EL('<spiccato placement="above"/>')
>>> a = MP.xmlToArticulation(mxArt)
>>> a
<music21.articulations.Spiccato>
>>> a.placement
'above'
>>> mxArt = EL('<doit dash-length="2" default-x="5" default-y="2" '
...            + 'line-shape="curved" line-type="dashed" space-length="1" />')
>>> a = MP.xmlToArticulation(mxArt)
>>> a
<music21.articulations.Doit>
>>> a.placement is None
True
>>> a.style.dashLength
2
>>> a.style.absoluteX
5
>>> a.style.lineShape
'curved'
MeasureParser.xmlToBarline(mxBarline, inputM21=None)

Given an mxBarline, fill the necessary parameters

>>> import xml.etree.ElementTree as ET
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> mxBarline = ET.fromstring(
...               '<barline location="right"><bar-style>light-light</bar-style></barline>')
>>> b = MP.xmlToBarline(mxBarline)
>>> b
<music21.bar.Barline type=double>
>>> b.style  # different in music21 than musicxml
'double'
>>> b.location
'right'
MeasureParser.xmlToBeam(mxBeam, inputM21=None)

given an mxBeam object return a Beam object

>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import fromstring as EL
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> mxBeam = EL('<beam>begin</beam>')
>>> a = MP.xmlToBeam(mxBeam)
>>> a.type
'start'
>>> mxBeam = EL('<beam>continue</beam>')
>>> a = MP.xmlToBeam(mxBeam)
>>> a.type
'continue'
>>> mxBeam = EL('<beam>end</beam>')
>>> a = MP.xmlToBeam(mxBeam)
>>> a.type
'stop'
>>> mxBeam = EL('<beam>forward hook    </beam>')
>>> a = MP.xmlToBeam(mxBeam)
>>> a.type
'partial'
>>> a.direction
'right'
>>> mxBeam = EL('<beam>backward hook</beam>')
>>> a = MP.xmlToBeam(mxBeam)
>>> a.type
'partial'
>>> a.direction
'left'
>>> mxBeam = EL('<beam>crazy</beam>')
>>> a = MP.xmlToBeam(mxBeam)
Traceback (most recent call last):
music21.musicxml.xmlToM21.MusicXMLImportException:
      unexpected beam type encountered (crazy)
MeasureParser.xmlToBeams(mxBeamList, inputM21=None)

given a list of mxBeam objects, sets the beamsList

>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import fromstring as EL
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> mxBeam1 = EL('<beam>begin</beam>')
>>> mxBeam2 = EL('<beam>begin</beam>')
>>> mxBeamList = [mxBeam1, mxBeam2]
>>> b = MP.xmlToBeams(mxBeamList)
>>> b
<music21.beam.Beams <music21.beam.Beam 1/start>/<music21.beam.Beam 2/start>>
MeasureParser.xmlToChord(mxNoteList)

Given an a list of mxNotes, fill the necessary parameters

>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import fromstring as EL
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> MP.divisions = 10080
>>> qnDuration = r'<duration>7560</duration><type>quarter</type>'
>>> a = EL(r'<note><pitch><step>A</step><octave>3</octave></pitch>'
...          + qnDuration + '</note>')
>>> b = EL(r'<note><chord/><pitch><step>B</step><octave>3</octave></pitch>'
...          + qnDuration + '</note>')
>>> c = MP.xmlToChord([a, b])
>>> len(c.pitches)
2
>>> c.pitches[0]
<music21.pitch.Pitch A3>
>>> c.pitches[1]
<music21.pitch.Pitch B3>
>>> a = EL('<note><pitch><step>A</step><octave>3</octave></pitch>'
...        + qnDuration
...        + '<notehead>diamond</notehead></note>')
>>> c = MP.xmlToChord([a, b])
>>> c.getNotehead(c.pitches[0])
'diamond'
MeasureParser.xmlToChordSymbol(mxHarmony)

Convert a <harmony> tag to a harmony.ChordSymbol object:

>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import fromstring as EL
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> elStr = '<harmony><root><root-step>D</root-step><root-alter>-1</root-alter>'
>>> elStr += '</root><kind>major-seventh</kind></harmony>'
>>> mxHarmony = EL(elStr)
>>> cs = MP.xmlToChordSymbol(mxHarmony)
>>> cs
<music21.harmony.ChordSymbol D-maj7>
>>> cs.figure
'D-maj7'
>>> cs.pitches
(<music21.pitch.Pitch D-3>,
 <music21.pitch.Pitch F3>,
 <music21.pitch.Pitch A-3>,
 <music21.pitch.Pitch C4>)
>>> cs.root()
<music21.pitch.Pitch D-3>

TODO: this is very classically-oriented. Make more Jazz/Rock like possible/default?.

>>> mxHarmony.find('kind').text = 'major-sixth'
>>> cs = MP.xmlToChordSymbol(mxHarmony)
>>> cs
<music21.harmony.ChordSymbol D-6>
>>> cs.figure
'D-6'
>>> cs.pitches
(<music21.pitch.Pitch D-3>, <music21.pitch.Pitch F3>,
 <music21.pitch.Pitch A-3>, <music21.pitch.Pitch B-3>)
>>> cs.root()
<music21.pitch.Pitch D-3>
MeasureParser.xmlToClef(mxClef)

Returns a music21 Clef object from an mxClef element.

>>> import xml.etree.ElementTree as ET
>>> mxClef = ET.fromstring('<clef><sign>G</sign><line>2</line></clef>')
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> MP.xmlToClef(mxClef)
<music21.clef.TrebleClef>
>>> mxClef = ET.fromstring('<clef><sign>G</sign><line>2</line>'
...                        + '<clef-octave-change>-1</clef-octave-change></clef>')
>>> MP.xmlToClef(mxClef)
<music21.clef.Treble8vbClef>
>>> mxClef = ET.fromstring('<clef><sign>TAB</sign></clef>')
>>> MP.xmlToClef(mxClef)
<music21.clef.TabClef>
MeasureParser.xmlToDuration(mxNote, inputM21=None)

Translate a MusicXML <note> object’s <duration>, <type>, <dot>, tuplets, etc. to a music21 Duration object.

>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import fromstring as EL
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> MP.divisions = 10080
>>> mxNote = EL('<note><pitch><step>D</step>' +
...     '<alter>-1</alter><octave>6</octave></pitch>' +
...     '<duration>7560</duration>' +
...     '<type>eighth</type><dot/></note>')
>>> c = duration.Duration()
>>> MP.xmlToDuration(mxNote, c)
>>> c
<music21.duration.Duration 0.75>
>>> c.quarterLength
0.75
>>> c.type
'eighth'
>>> c.dots
1
MeasureParser.xmlToKeySignature(mxKey)

Returns either a KeySignature (traditional or non-traditional) or a Key object based on whether fifths and mode is present.

>>> import xml.etree.ElementTree as ET
>>> mxKey = ET.fromstring('<key><fifths>-4</fifths></key>')
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> MP.xmlToKeySignature(mxKey)
<music21.key.KeySignature of 4 flats>
>>> mxKey = ET.fromstring('<key><fifths>-4</fifths><mode>minor</mode></key>')
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> MP.xmlToKeySignature(mxKey)
<music21.key.Key of f minor>

Invalid modes get ignored and returned as KeySignatures

>>> mxKey = ET.fromstring('<key><fifths>-4</fifths><mode>crazy</mode></key>')
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> MP.xmlToKeySignature(mxKey)
<music21.key.KeySignature of 4 flats>
MeasureParser.xmlToLyric(mxLyric, inputM21=None)

Translate a MusicXML <lyric> tag to a music21 Lyric object or return None if no Lyric object should be created (empty lyric tags, for instance)

If inputM21 is a Lyric object, then the values of the mxLyric are transfered there and nothing returned.

Otherwise, a new Lyric object is created and returned.

>>> import xml.etree.ElementTree as ET
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> mxLyric = ET.fromstring('<lyric number="4" color="red">'
...                         + '<syllabic>single</syllabic>'
...                         + '<text>word</text></lyric>')
>>> lyricObj = note.Lyric()
>>> MP.xmlToLyric(mxLyric, lyricObj)
>>> lyricObj
<music21.note.Lyric number=4 syllabic=single text="word">
>>> lyricObj.style.color
'red'

Non-numeric MusicXML lyric “number”s are converted to identifiers:

>>> mxLyric.set('number', 'part2verse1')
>>> l2 = MP.xmlToLyric(mxLyric)
>>> l2
<music21.note.Lyric number=0 identifier="part2verse1" syllabic=single text="word">
MeasureParser.xmlToNote(mxNote)

handles everything for creating a Note or Rest or Chord

Does not actually return the note, but sets self.nLast to the note.

MeasureParser.xmlToOffset(mxObj)

Finds an <offset> inside the mxObj and returns it as a music21 offset (in quarterLengths)

>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import fromstring as EL
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> MP.divisions = 40
>>> off = EL(r'<direction><offset>100</offset></direction>')
>>> MP.xmlToOffset(off)
2.5

Returns a float, not fraction.

>>> MP.divisions = 30
>>> off = EL(r'<direction><offset>10</offset></direction>')
>>> MP.xmlToOffset(off)
0.33333...
MeasureParser.xmlToPitch(mxNote, inputM21=None)

Given a MusicXML Note object, set this Pitch object to its values.

>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import fromstring as EL
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> b = EL('<note><pitch><step>E</step><alter>-1</alter>'
...        + '<octave>3</octave></pitch></note>')
>>> a = MP.xmlToPitch(b)
>>> print(a)
E-3

Conflicting alter and accidental – alter is still stored, but name is :

>>> b = EL('<note><pitch><step>E</step><alter>-1</alter><octave>3</octave></pitch>'
...              + '<accidental>sharp</accidental></note>')
>>> a = MP.xmlToPitch(b)
>>> print(a)
E#3
>>> a.fullName
'E-sharp in octave 3'
>>> a.accidental.alter
-1.0
>>> a.accidental.name
'sharp'
>>> a.accidental.modifier
'#'
MeasureParser.xmlToRehearsalMark(mxRehearsal)

Return a rehearsal mark from a rehearsal tag.

MeasureParser.xmlToRepeat(mxBarline, inputM21=None)

Given an mxBarline (not an mxRepeat object) with repeatObj as a parameter, file the necessary parameters and return a bar.Repeat() object

>>> import xml.etree.ElementTree as ET
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> mxBarline = ET.fromstring('<barline><bar-style>light-heavy</bar-style>' +
...       '<repeat direction="backward"/></barline>')
>>> r = MP.xmlToRepeat(mxBarline)
>>> r
<music21.bar.Repeat direction=end>

Test that the music21 style for a backwards repeat is called “final” (because it resembles a final barline) but that the musicxml style is called light-heavy.

>>> r.style
'final'
>>> r.direction
'end'
MeasureParser.xmlToRest(mxRest)

Takes a <note> tag that has been shown to have a <rest> tag in it and return a rest.

>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import fromstring as EL
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> mxr = EL('<note><rest/><duration>5040</duration><type>eighth</type></note>')
>>> r = MP.xmlToRest(mxr)
>>> r
<music21.note.Rest rest>
>>> r.duration.quarterLength
0.5
>>> mxr = EL('<note><rest><display-step>G</display-step>' +
...              '<display-octave>4</display-octave>' +
...              '</rest><duration>5040</duration><type>eighth</type></note>')
>>> r = MP.xmlToRest(mxr)
>>> r
<music21.note.Rest rest>

A rest normally lies at B4 in treble clef, but here we have put it at G4, so we’ll shift it down two steps.

>>> r.stepShift
-2

Clef context matters, here we will set it for notes that don’t specify a staff:

>>> MP.lastClefs[None] = clef.BassClef()
>>> r = MP.xmlToRest(mxr)

Now this is a high rest:

>>> r.stepShift
10

Test full measure rest.

>>> mxr = EL('<note><rest measure="yes"/><duration>40320</duration></note>')
>>> r = MP.xmlToRest(mxr)
>>> MP.fullMeasureRest
True

Note that we do NOT set r’s .fullMeasure to True or always, but keep it as “auto” so that changes in time signature, etc. will affect output.

MeasureParser.xmlToSimpleNote(mxNote, freeSpanners=True)

Translate a MusicXML <note> (without <chord/>) to a Note.

The spannerBundle parameter can be a list or a Stream for storing and processing Spanner objects.

If inputM21 is not None then that object is used for translating. Otherwise a new Note is created.

if freeSpanners is False then pending spanners will not be freed

Returns a note.Note object.

>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import fromstring as EL
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> MP.divisions = 10080
>>> mxNote = EL('<note pizzicato="yes"><pitch><step>D</step>'
...             + '<alter>-1</alter><octave>6</octave></pitch>'
...             + '<duration>7560</duration>'
...             + '<type>eighth</type><dot/></note>')
>>> n = MP.xmlToSimpleNote(mxNote)
>>> n
<music21.note.Note D->
>>> n.octave
6
>>> n.duration
<music21.duration.Duration 0.75>
>>> n.articulations
[<music21.articulations.Pizzicato>]
>>> beams = EL('<beam>begin</beam>')
>>> mxNote.append(beams)
>>> n = MP.xmlToSimpleNote(mxNote)
>>> n.beams
<music21.beam.Beams <music21.beam.Beam 1/start>>
>>> stem = EL('<stem>up</stem>')
>>> mxNote.append(stem)
>>> n = MP.xmlToSimpleNote(mxNote)
>>> n.stemDirection
'up'

# TODO: beams over rests?

MeasureParser.xmlToTempoIndication(mxMetronome, mxWords=None)

Given an mxMetronome, convert to either a TempoIndication subclass, either a tempo.MetronomeMark or tempo.MetricModulation.

>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import fromstring as EL
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> m = EL(r'<metronome><per-minute>125</per-minute>' +
...         '<beat-unit>half</beat-unit></metronome>')
>>> MP.xmlToTempoIndication(m)
<music21.tempo.MetronomeMark Half=125.0>

Metric modulation:

>>> m = EL(r'<metronome><beat-unit>long</beat-unit><beat-unit>32nd</beat-unit>' +
...         '<beat-unit-dot/></metronome>')
>>> MP.xmlToTempoIndication(m)
<music21.tempo.MetricModulation
 <music21.tempo.MetronomeMark Imperfect Longa=None>=<music21.tempo.MetronomeMark
           Dotted 32nd=None>>
MeasureParser.xmlToTextExpression(mxWords)

Given an mxDirection, create a textExpression

MeasureParser.xmlToTie(mxNote)

Translate a MusicXML <note> with <tie> subelements Tie object

>>> import xml.etree.ElementTree as ET
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()

Create the incomplete part of a Note.

>>> mxNote = ET.fromstring('<note><tie type="start" />'
...            + '<notations>'
...            + '<tied line-type="dotted" placement="below" type="start" />'
...            + '</notations></note>')
>>> t = MP.xmlToTie(mxNote)
>>> t.type
'start'
>>> t.style
'dotted'
>>> t.placement
'below'

Same thing but with orientation instead of placement, which both get mapped to placement in Tie objects

>>> mxNote = ET.fromstring('<note><tie type="start" />'
...            + '<notations>'
...            + '<tied line-type="dotted" orientation="over" type="start" />'
...            + '</notations></note>')
>>> t = MP.xmlToTie(mxNote)
>>> t.placement
'above'
MeasureParser.xmlToTimeSignature(mxTime)

Returns a TimeSignature or SenzaMisuraTimeSignature (for senza-misura) from a <time> block.

>>> import xml.etree.ElementTree as ET
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> mxTime = ET.fromstring('<time><beats>3</beats><beat-type>8</beat-type></time>')
>>> MP.xmlToTimeSignature(mxTime)
<music21.meter.TimeSignature 3/8>
>>> mxTime = ET.fromstring('<time symbol="common"><beats>4</beats>' +
...                                              '<beat-type>4</beat-type></time>')
>>> MP.xmlToTimeSignature(mxTime).symbol
'common'

Multiple times:

>>> mxTime = ET.fromstring('<time><beats>3</beats><beat-type>8</beat-type>' +
...                              '<beats>4</beats><beat-type>4</beat-type></time>')
>>> MP.xmlToTimeSignature(mxTime)
<music21.meter.TimeSignature 3/8+4/4>
>>> mxTime = ET.fromstring('<time><beats>3+2</beats><beat-type>8</beat-type></time>')
>>> ts32 = MP.xmlToTimeSignature(mxTime)
>>> ts32
<music21.meter.TimeSignature 3/8+2/8>

Senza Misura

>>> mxSenza = ET.fromstring('<time><senza-misura>0</senza-misura></time>')
>>> MP.xmlToTimeSignature(mxSenza)
<music21.meter.SenzaMisuraTimeSignature 0 >

Small Duration Time Signatures

>>> mxTime = ET.fromstring('<time><beats>3</beats><beat-type>32</beat-type></time>')
>>> MP.xmlToTimeSignature(mxTime)
<music21.meter.TimeSignature 3/32>
>>> mxTime = ET.fromstring('<time><beats>3</beats><beat-type>64</beat-type></time>')
>>> MP.xmlToTimeSignature(mxTime)
<music21.meter.TimeSignature 3/64>
>>> mxTime = ET.fromstring('<time><beats>3</beats><beat-type>128</beat-type></time>')
>>> MP.xmlToTimeSignature(mxTime)
<music21.meter.TimeSignature 3/128>
MeasureParser.xmlToTremolo(mxTremolo, n)

Converts an mxTremolo to either an expression to be added to n.expressions or to a spanner, returning either.

MeasureParser.xmlToTuplets(mxNote)

Given an mxNote, based on mxTimeModification and mxTuplet objects, return a list of Tuplet objects

>>> import xml.etree.ElementTree as ET
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> mxNote = ET.fromstring('<note><type>16th</type>' +
...    '<time-modification><actual-notes>5</actual-notes>' +
...    '<normal-notes>4</normal-notes></time-modification></note>')
>>> t = MP.xmlToTuplets(mxNote)
>>> t
[<music21.duration.Tuplet 5/4/16th>]
>>> mxNote = ET.fromstring('<note><type>eighth</type>' +
...    '<time-modification><actual-notes>5</actual-notes>' +
...    '<normal-notes>3</normal-notes>' +
...    '<normal-type>16th</normal-type><normal-dot /><normal-dot />' +
...    '</time-modification></note>')
>>> t = MP.xmlToTuplets(mxNote)
>>> t
[<music21.duration.Tuplet 5/3/16th>]
>>> t[0].durationNormal
DurationTuple(type='16th', dots=2, quarterLength=0.4375)
MeasureParser.xmlTransposeToInterval(mxTranspose)

Convert a MusicXML Transpose object to a music21 Interval object.

>>> import xml.etree.ElementTree as ET
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> t = ET.fromstring('<transpose><diatonic>-1</diatonic>'
...                   + '<chromatic>-2</chromatic></transpose>')
>>> MP.xmlTransposeToInterval(t)
<music21.interval.Interval M-2>
>>> t = ET.fromstring('<transpose><diatonic>-5</diatonic>'
...                   + '<chromatic>-9</chromatic></transpose>')
>>> MP.xmlTransposeToInterval(t)
<music21.interval.Interval M-6>

Not mentioned in MusicXML XSD but supported in (Finale; MuseScore): octave-change refers to both diatonic and chromatic, so we will deal…

>>> t = ET.fromstring('<transpose id="x"><diatonic>-1</diatonic><chromatic>-2</chromatic>'
...         + '<octave-change>-1</octave-change></transpose>')
>>> inv = MP.xmlTransposeToInterval(t)
>>> inv
<music21.interval.Interval M-9>
>>> inv.id
'x'

Methods inherited from XMLParserBase:

MusicXMLImporter

class music21.musicxml.xmlToM21.MusicXMLImporter

Object for importing .xml, .mxl, .musicxml, MusicXML files into music21.

MusicXMLImporter bases

MusicXMLImporter methods

MusicXMLImporter.creatorToContributor(creator, inputM21=None)

Given an <creator> tag, fill the necessary parameters of a Contributor.

>>> import xml.etree.ElementTree as ET
>>> creator = ET.fromstring('<creator type="composer">Beethoven, Ludwig van</creator>')
>>> MI = musicxml.xmlToM21.MusicXMLImporter()
>>> c = MI.creatorToContributor(creator)
>>> c
<music21.metadata.primitives.Contributor composer:Beethoven, Ludwig van>
>>> c.role
'composer'
>>> c.name
'Beethoven, Ludwig van'

Pass in a Contributor object and set it…

>>> c2 = metadata.Contributor()
>>> MI.creatorToContributor(creator, c2)
>>> c2.role
'composer'
MusicXMLImporter.identificationToMetadata(identification, inputM21=None)

Converter an <identification> tag, containing <creator> tags, <rights> tags, and <miscellaneous> tag.

Not supported: source, relation

Only the first <rights> tag is supported

Encoding only parses “supports” and that only has new-system (definesExplicitSystemBreaks) and new-page (definesExplicitPageBreaks)

MusicXMLImporter.parsePartList(mxScore)

Parses the <part-list> tag and adds <score-part> entries into self.mxScorePartDict[partId] and adds them to any open <part-group> entries, stored as PartGroup objects in self.partGroupList

MusicXMLImporter.parseXMLText()
MusicXMLImporter.partGroups()

set StaffGroup objects from the <part-group> tags.

MusicXMLImporter.readFile(filename)
MusicXMLImporter.rightsToCopyright(rights)

Given an <rights> tag, fill the necessary parameters of a Copyright object.

>>> import xml.etree.ElementTree as ET
>>> rights = ET.fromstring('<rights type="owner">CC-SA-BY</rights>')
>>> MI = musicxml.xmlToM21.MusicXMLImporter()
>>> c = MI.rightsToCopyright(rights)
>>> c
<music21.metadata.primitives.Copyright CC-SA-BY>
>>> c.role
'owner'
>>> str(c)
'CC-SA-BY'
MusicXMLImporter.scoreFromFile(filename)

main program: opens a file given by filename and returns a complete music21 Score from it.

MusicXMLImporter.styleFromXmlDefaults(mxDefaults)

Set the appearance and font information from mxDefault <appearance>, <music-font>, <word-font>, <lyric-font> (multiple), and <lyric-language> tags.

Here the demo does not include the <appearance> tag since that is documented in xmlAppearanceToStyle

>>> import xml.etree.ElementTree as ET
>>> defaults = ET.fromstring('<defaults>'
...          + '<music-font font-family="Maestro, Opus" font-weight="bold" />'
...          + '<word-font font-family="Garamond" font-style="italic" />'
...          + '<lyric-font name="verse" font-size="12" />'
...          + '<lyric-font name="chorus" font-size="14" />'
...          + '<lyric-language name="verse" xml:lang="fr" />'
...          + '<lyric-language name="chorus" xml:lang="en" />'
...          + '</defaults>')
>>> MI = musicxml.xmlToM21.MusicXMLImporter()
>>> MI.styleFromXmlDefaults(defaults)
>>> st = MI.stream.style
>>> st.musicFont
<music21.style.TextStyle object at 0x10535c0f0>
>>> st.musicFont.fontFamily
['Maestro', 'Opus']
>>> st.musicFont.fontWeight
'bold'
>>> st.wordFont.fontFamily
['Garamond']
>>> st.wordFont.fontStyle
'italic'
>>> len(st.lyricFonts)
2
>>> st.lyricFonts[0]
('verse', <music21.style.TextStyle object at 0x10535d438>)
>>> st.lyricFonts[0][1].fontSize
12
>>> st.lyricLanguages
[('verse', 'fr'), ('chorus', 'en')]
MusicXMLImporter.xmlAppearanceToStyle(mxAppearance)

Parse the appearance tag for information about line widths and note sizes

>>> import xml.etree.ElementTree as ET
>>> appear = ET.fromstring('<appearance>'
...          + '<line-width type="beam">5</line-width>'
...          + '<line-width type="ledger">1.5625</line-width>'
...          + '<note-size type="grace">60</note-size>'
...          + '<distance type="hyphen">0.5</distance>'
...          + '<other-appearance type="sharps">dotted</other-appearance>'
...          + '</appearance>')
>>> MI = musicxml.xmlToM21.MusicXMLImporter()
>>> MI.xmlAppearanceToStyle(appear)
>>> st = MI.stream.style
>>> st.lineWidths
[('beam', 5), ('ledger', 1.5625)]
>>> st.noteSizes
[('grace', 60)]
>>> st.distances
[('hyphen', 0.5)]
>>> st.otherAppearances
[('sharps', 'dotted')]
MusicXMLImporter.xmlCreditToTextBox(mxCredit)

Convert a MusicXML credit to a music21 TextBox

>>> import xml.etree.ElementTree as ET
>>> credit = ET.fromstring(
...               '<credit page="2"><credit-words>Testing</credit-words></credit>')
>>> MI = musicxml.xmlToM21.MusicXMLImporter()
>>> tb = MI.xmlCreditToTextBox(credit)
>>> tb.page
2
>>> tb.content
'Testing'
MusicXMLImporter.xmlDefaultsToScoreLayout(mxDefaults, inputM21=None)

Convert a <defaults> tag to a ScoreLayout object

MusicXMLImporter.xmlMetadata(el=None, inputM21=None)

Converts part of the root element into a metadata object

Supported: work-title, work-number, opus, movement-number, movement-title, identification

MusicXMLImporter.xmlPartToPart(mxPart, mxScorePart)

Given a <part> object and the <score-part> object, parse a complete part.

MusicXMLImporter.xmlRootToScore(mxScore, inputM21=None)

parse an xml file into a Score() object.

Methods inherited from XMLParserBase:

PartGroup

class music21.musicxml.xmlToM21.PartGroup(mxPartGroup)

Small helper class for keeping track of part-groups from XML since they are converted to StaffGroup spanners much later.

PartGroup methods

PartGroup.add(partGroupId)

Add a partGroupId to self.partGroupIds

PartParser

class music21.musicxml.xmlToM21.PartParser(mxPart=None, mxScorePart=None, parent=None)

parser to work with a single <part> tag.

called out for multiprocessing potential in future

PartParser bases

PartParser read-only properties

PartParser.parent

PartParser methods

PartParser.adjustTimeAttributesFromMeasure(m)

Adds padAsAnacrusis to pickup measures and other measures that do not fill the whole tile, if the first measure of the piece, or immediately follows an incomplete measure (such as a repeat sign mid-measure in a piece where each phrase begins with a pickup and ends with an incomplete measure).

Fills an empty measure with a measure of rest (bug in PDFtoMusic and other MusicXML writers).

sets self.lastMeasureWasShort to True or False if it is an incomplete measure that is not a pickup.

PartParser.applyMultiMeasureRest(r)

If there is an active MultiMeasureRestSpanner, add the Rest, r, to it:

>>> PP = musicxml.xmlToM21.PartParser()
>>> mmrSpanner = spanner.MultiMeasureRest()
>>> mmrSpanner
<music21.spanner.MultiMeasureRest 0 measures>
>>> PP.activeMultiMeasureRestSpanner = mmrSpanner
>>> PP.multiMeasureRestsToCapture = 2
>>> r1 = note.Rest(type='whole', id='r1')
>>> PP.applyMultiMeasureRest(r1)
>>> PP.multiMeasureRestsToCapture
1
>>> PP.activeMultiMeasureRestSpanner
<music21.spanner.MultiMeasureRest 1 measure>
>>> PP.activeMultiMeasureRestSpanner is mmrSpanner
True
>>> PP.stream.show('text')  # Nothing...
>>> r2 = note.Rest(type='whole', id='r2')
>>> PP.applyMultiMeasureRest(r2)
>>> PP.multiMeasureRestsToCapture
0
>>> PP.activeMultiMeasureRestSpanner is None
True

# spanner added to stream

>>> PP.stream.show('text')
{0.0} <music21.spanner.MultiMeasureRest 2 measures>
>>> r3 = note.Rest(type='whole', id='r3')
>>> PP.applyMultiMeasureRest(r3)
>>> PP.stream.show('text')
{0.0} <music21.spanner.MultiMeasureRest 2 measures>
PartParser.getDefaultInstrument(mxScorePart=None)
>>> scorePart = ('<score-part id="P4"><part-name>Bass</part-name>'
...     + '<part-abbreviation>B.</part-abbreviation>'
...     + '<score-instrument id="P4-I4">'
...     + '    <instrument-name>Instrument 4</instrument-name>'
...     + '</score-instrument>'
...     + '<midi-instrument id="P4-I4">'
...     + '   <midi-channel>4</midi-channel>'
...     + '<midi-program>1</midi-program>'
...     + '</midi-instrument>'
...     + '</score-part>')
>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import fromstring as EL
>>> PP = musicxml.xmlToM21.PartParser()
>>> mxScorePart = EL(scorePart)
>>> i = PP.getDefaultInstrument(mxScorePart)
>>> i.instrumentName
'Instrument 4'
PartParser.measureParsingError(mxMeasure, e)
PartParser.parse()

Run the parser on a single part

PartParser.parseMeasures()

Parse each <measure> tag using self.xmlMeasureToMeasure

PartParser.parseXmlScorePart()

The <score-part> tag contains a lot of information about the Part itself. It was found in the <part-list> in the ScoreParser but was not parsed and instead passed into the PartParser as .mxScorePart.

Sets the stream.partName, stream.partAbbreivation, self.activeInstrument, and inserts an instrument at the beginning of the stream.

The instrumentObj being configured comes from self.getDefaultInstrument.

PartParser.separateOutPartStaves()

Take a Part with multiple staves and make them a set of PartStaff objects.

PartParser.setLastMeasureInfo(m)

Sets self.lastMeasureNumber and self.lastMeasureSuffix from the measure, which is used in fixing Finale unnumbered measure issues.

Also sets self.lastTimeSignature from the timeSignature found in the measure, if any.

>>> PP = musicxml.xmlToM21.PartParser()

Here are the defaults:

>>> PP.lastMeasureNumber
0
>>> PP.lastNumberSuffix is None
True
>>> PP.lastTimeSignature is None
True

After setLastMeasureInfo:

>>> m = stream.Measure(number=4)
>>> m.numberSuffix = 'b'
>>> ts38 = meter.TimeSignature('3/8')
>>> m.timeSignature = ts38
>>> PP.setLastMeasureInfo(m)
>>> PP.lastMeasureNumber
4
>>> PP.lastNumberSuffix
'b'
>>> PP.lastTimeSignature
<music21.meter.TimeSignature 3/8>
>>> PP.lastTimeSignature is ts38
True

Note that if there was no timeSignature defined in m, and no lastTimeSignature exists, the PartParser gets a default of 4/4, because after the first measure there’s going to be routines that need some sort of time signature:

>>> PP2 = musicxml.xmlToM21.PartParser()
>>> m2 = stream.Measure(number=2)
>>> PP2.setLastMeasureInfo(m2)
>>> PP2.lastTimeSignature
<music21.meter.TimeSignature 4/4>

For obscure reasons relating to how Finale gives suffixes to unnumbered measures, if a measure has the same number as lastMeasureNumber, the lastNumberSuffix is not updated:

>>> PP3 = musicxml.xmlToM21.PartParser()
>>> PP3.lastMeasureNumber = 10
>>> PP3.lastNumberSuffix = 'X1'
>>> m10 = stream.Measure(number=10)
>>> m10.numberSuffix = 'X2'
>>> PP3.setLastMeasureInfo(m10)
>>> PP3.lastNumberSuffix
'X1'
PartParser.updateTransposition(newTransposition)

As you might expect, a measureParser that reveals a change in transposition is going to have an effect on the Part’s instrument list. This (totally undocumented) method deals with it.

If measureParser.transposition is None, does nothing. If measureParser.transposition is not None, but

NOTE: Need to test a change of instrument w/o a change of transposition such as: Bb clarinet to Bb Soprano Sax to Eb clarinet?

PartParser.xmlMeasureToMeasure(mxMeasure)

Convert a measure element to a Measure, using MeasureParser

>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import fromstring as EL

Testing full measure rest parsing:

Here is a measure with a rest that lasts 4 beats but we will put it in a 3/4 context.

>>> scoreMeasure = '<measure><note><rest/><duration>40320</duration></note></measure>'
>>> mxMeasure = EL(scoreMeasure)
>>> pp = musicxml.xmlToM21.PartParser()
>>> pp.lastDivisions
10080
>>> 40320 / 10080
4.0
>>> pp.lastTimeSignature = meter.TimeSignature('3/4')
>>> m = pp.xmlMeasureToMeasure(mxMeasure)

Test that the rest lasts three, not four beats:

>>> measureRest = m.notesAndRests[0]
>>> measureRest
<music21.note.Rest rest>
>>> measureRest.duration.type
'half'
>>> measureRest.duration.quarterLength
3.0

Methods inherited from XMLParserBase:

XMLParserBase

class music21.musicxml.xmlToM21.XMLParserBase

contains functions that could be called at multiple levels of parsing (Score, Part, Measure).

XMLParserBase methods

XMLParserBase.setColor(mxObject, m21Object)

Sets m21Object.style.color to be the same as color…

XMLParserBase.setEditorial(mxObj, m21Obj)

Set editorial information from an mxObj

>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import fromstring as El
>>> XP = musicxml.xmlToM21.XMLParserBase()
>>> mxObj = El('<a/>')
>>> n = note.Note('C#4')

Most common case:

>>> XP.setEditorial(mxObj, n)
>>> n.hasEditorialInformation
False
>>> mxObj = El('<note><footnote>Sharp is conjectural</footnote>'
...            + '<level reference="yes">2</level></note>')
>>> XP.setEditorial(mxObj, n)
>>> n.hasEditorialInformation
True
>>> len(n.editorial.footnotes)
1
>>> fn = n.editorial.footnotes[0]
>>> fn
<music21.editorial.Comment 'Sharp is conjectu...' >
>>> fn.isFootnote
True
>>> fn.levelInformation
'2'
>>> fn.isReference
True

If no <footnote> tag exists, the editorial information will be found in comments:

>>> mxObj = El('<note><level reference="no">ed</level></note>')
>>> n = note.Note('C#4')
>>> XP.setEditorial(mxObj, n)
>>> len(n.editorial.footnotes)
0
>>> len(n.editorial.comments)
1
>>> com = n.editorial.comments[0]
>>> com.isReference
False
>>> com.text is None
True
>>> com.levelInformation
'ed'
XMLParserBase.setFont(mxObject, m21Object)

sets font-family, font-style, font-size, and font-weight as fontFamily (list), fontStyle, fontSize and fontWeight from an object into a TextStyle object

conforms to attr-group %font in the MusicXML DTD

>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import fromstring as El
>>> XP = musicxml.xmlToM21.XMLParserBase()
>>> mxObj = El('<text font-family="Courier,monospaced" font-style="italic" '
...            + 'font-size="24" font-weight="bold" />')
>>> te = expressions.TextExpression('hi!')
>>> XP.setFont(mxObj, te)
>>> te.style.fontFamily
['Courier', 'monospaced']
>>> te.style.fontStyle
'italic'
>>> te.style.fontSize
24
>>> te.style.fontWeight
'bold'
XMLParserBase.setLineStyle(mxObject, m21Object)

Sets four additional elements for line elements, conforms to entity %line-shape, %line-type, %dashed-formatting (dash-length and space-length)

XMLParserBase.setPlacement(mxObject, m21Object)

Sets the placement for objects that have a .placement attribute (most but not all spanners) and sets the style.placement for those that don’t.

XMLParserBase.setPosition(mxObject, m21Object)

get positioning information for an object from default-x, default-y, relative-x, relative-y into the .style attribute’s absoluteX, relativeX, etc. attributes’

conforms to attr-group %position in the MusicXML DTD

XMLParserBase.setPrintObject(mxObject, m21Object)

convert ‘print-object=”no”’ to m21Object.style.hideObjectOnPrint = True

XMLParserBase.setPrintStyle(mxObject, m21Object)

get position, font, and color information from the mxObject into the m21Object, which must have style.TextStyle as its Style class.

conforms to attr-group %print-style in the MusicXML DTD

XMLParserBase.setPrintStyleAlign(mxObject, m21Object)

runs setPrintStyle and then sets horizontalAlign and verticalAlign, on an m21Object, which must have style.TextStyle as its Style class.

conforms to attr-group %print-style-align in the MusicXML DTD

XMLParserBase.setStyleAttributes(mxObject, m21Object, musicXMLNames, m21Names=None)

Takes an mxObject, a music21Object, and a list/tuple of musicXMLnames and a list/tuple of m21Names, and assigns each of the mxObject’s attributes that fits this style name to the corresponding style object’s m21Name attribute.

>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import fromstring as El
>>> XP = musicxml.xmlToM21.XMLParserBase()
>>> mxObj = El('<a x="20.1" y="10.0" z="yes" />')
>>> m21Obj = base.Music21Object()
>>> musicXMLNames = ('w', 'x', 'y', 'z')
>>> m21Names = ('justify', 'absoluteX', 'absoluteY', 'hideObjectOnPrint')
>>> XP.setStyleAttributes(mxObj, m21Obj, musicXMLNames, m21Names)

.justify requires a TextStyle object.

>>> m21Obj.style.justify
Traceback (most recent call last):
AttributeError: 'Style' object has no attribute 'justify'
>>> m21Obj.style.absoluteX
20.1
>>> m21Obj.style.absoluteY
10
>>> m21Obj.style.hideObjectOnPrint
True
XMLParserBase.setTextFormatting(mxObject, m21Object)

sets the justification, print-style-align group, and text-decoration, text-rotation, letter-spacing, line-height, lang, text-direction, and enclosure, on an m21Object, which must have style.TextStyle as its Style class, and then calls setPrintStyleAlign

conforms to attr-group %text-formatting in the MusicXML DTD

XMLParserBase.xmlPageLayoutToPageLayout(mxPageLayout, inputM21=None)

get a PageLayout object from an mxPageLayout

Called out from mxPrintToPageLayout because it is also used in the <defaults> tag

XMLParserBase.xmlPrintToPageLayout(mxPrint, inputM21=None)

Given an mxPrint object, set object data for the print section of a layout.PageLayout object

>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import fromstring as El
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> mxPrint = El('<print new-page="yes" page-number="5">'
...    + '    <page-layout><page-height>4000</page-height>'
...    + '        <page-margins><left-margin>20</left-margin>'
...    + '                 <right-margin>30.25</right-margin></page-margins>'
...    + '</page-layout></print>')
>>> pl = MP.xmlPrintToPageLayout(mxPrint)
>>> pl.isNew
True
>>> pl.rightMargin
30.25
>>> pl.leftMargin
20
>>> pl.pageNumber
5
>>> pl.pageHeight
4000
XMLParserBase.xmlPrintToSystemLayout(mxPrint, inputM21=None)

Given an mxPrint object, set object data

>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import fromstring as El
>>> MP = musicxml.xmlToM21.MeasureParser()
>>> mxPrint = El('<print new-system="yes">'
...    + '    <system-layout><system-distance>55</system-distance>'
...    + '        <system-margins><left-margin>20</left-margin>'
...    + '                 <right-margin>30.25</right-margin></system-margins>'
...    + '</system-layout></print>')
>>> sl = MP.xmlPrintToSystemLayout(mxPrint)
>>> sl.isNew
True
>>> sl.rightMargin
30.25
>>> sl.leftMargin
20
>>> sl.distance
55
XMLParserBase.xmlStaffLayoutToStaffLayout(mxStaffLayout, inputM21=None)

get a StaffLayout object from an <staff-layout> tag

In music21, the <staff-layout> and <staff-details> are intertwined in a StaffLayout object.

XMLParserBase.xmlSystemLayoutToSystemLayout(mxSystemLayout, inputM21=None)

get a SystemLayout object from an <system-layout> element

Called out from xmlPrintToSystemLayout because it is also used in the <defaults> tag