Previous topic

Overview: Streams, Scores, Parts, and Measures

Next topic

Overview: Post-Tonal Tools

Table Of Contents

Table Of Contents

This Page

Overview: Importing File and Data Formats

Music21 can import and export a variety of musical data formats. Many examples of these formats are distributed with music21 as part of the corpus module (see music21.corpus).

The converter module, as well as the module function music21.converter.parse() handle importing all supported formats. For complete documentation on file and data formats, see music21.converter.

Parsing MusicXML Files

We can parse a MusicXML file by providing the music21.converter.parse() function with a local file path or an URL to a file path. The function will determine the file format. An appropriate Stream or Stream subclass will be returned. For example, given a MusicXML file stored at the file path “/Volumes/xdisc/_scratch/bwv1007-01.xml”, a Stream can be created from the file with the following.

>>> from music21 import *
>>> sBach = converter.parse('/Volumes/xdisc/_scratch/bwv1007-01.xml') 
>>> sBach.show()  
../_images/overviewFormats-01.png

Alternative, we can provide a URL to the music21.converter.parse() function that points to the desired file. Assuming proper system configuration (see Configuring Environment Settings), the file will be downloaded and parsed.

>>> url = 'http://kern.ccarh.org/cgi-bin/ksdata?l=cc/bach/cello&file=bwv1007-01.krn&f=xml'
>>> sAlt = converter.parse(url) 

Note that presently music21 offers limited support for compressed .mxl MusicXML files; this feature will be expanded in the future.

Getting MusicXML Files

Numerous MusicXML files can be found at the following URLs.

http://www.wikifonia.org

http://kern.ccarh.org

http://www.gutenberg.org

Parsing Humdrum Files

Parsing Humdrum files is exactly as parsing other data formats. Simply call the music21.converter.parse() function on the desired file path or URL.

>>> sLassus = converter.parse('/Volumes/xdisc/_scratch/matona.krn') 

Getting Humdrum Files

Over one hundred thousand Kern files can be found at the following URL.

http://kern.humdrum.net/

Parsing ABC Files

Parsing ABC files is exactly as parsing other data formats. Simply call the music21.converter.parse() function on the desired file path or URL.

>>> from music21 import *
>>> o = converter.parse('/Volumes/xdisc/_scratch/oVenusBant.abc') 

Note that many ABC files define more than one complete musical work. If an ABC file defines more than one work, an Opus object is returned. Opus objects, a Stream subclass, provide convenience methods for accessing multiple Score objects.

Reference work numbers (e.g., the “X:” metadata tag in ABC) are stored in Metadata objects in each contained Score. Access to these numbers from the Opus is available with the music21.stream.Opus.getNumbers() method. Additionally, the Score object can be directly obtained with the getScoreByNumber() method.

>>> from music21 import *
>>> o = corpus.parse('josquin/ovenusbant')
>>> o.getNumbers()
['1', '2', '3']
>>> s = o.getScoreByNumber(2)
>>> s.metadata.title
'O Venus bant'

Direct access to Score objects contained in an Opus by title is available with the getScoreByTitle() method.

>>> from music21 import *
>>> o = corpus.parse('essenFolksong/erk5')
>>> s = o.getScoreByTitle('Vrienden, kommt alle gaere')

In some cases an ABC file may define individual parts each as a separate score. When parsed, these parts can be combined from the Opus into a single Score with the music21.stream.Opus.mergeScores() method.

>>> from music21 import *
>>> o = corpus.parse('josquin/milleRegrets')
>>> s = o.mergeScores()
>>> s.metadata.title
'Mille regrets'
>>> len(s.parts)
4

Getting ABC Files

Large collections of ABC are available from numerous on-line repositories. The following links are just a few of the many resources available.

http://abcnotation.com

http://www.serpentpublications.org

Parsing Musedata Files

Both stage 1 and stage 2 Musedata file formats are supported by Music21. Multi-part Musedata (stage 2) files, zipped archives, and directories containing individual files for each part (stage 1 or stage 2) can be imported with the music21.converter.parse() function on the desired file path or URL.

>>> from music21 import *
>>> s = converter.parse('http://www.musedata.org/cgi-bin/mddata?composer=corelli&edition=chry&genre=trio/op1&work=op1n08&format=stage2&movement=01') 

If a directory or zipped archive is passed to the music21.converter.parse() function, the contained files will be treated as a collection of Musedata parts.

>>> corpus.getWork('bach/artOfFugue_bwv1080/16')  
'/Users/ariza/_x/src/music21/music21/corpus/bach/artOfFugue_bwv1080/16.zip'
>>> s = corpus.parse('bach/artOfFugue_bwv1080/16')

Getting Musedata Files

Large collections of Musedata files are available from musedata.org, sponsored by the Center for Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities at Stanford University.

http://www.musedata.org/

Parsing MIDI Files

MIDI input and output is handled in the same was other formats. Simply call the music21.converter.parse() function on the desired file path or URL.