Studying these cells could lead to new treatments for diseases ranging from gastrointestinal disease to diabetes.
The Dibner Institute for the History of Science and Technology has announced the appointments of 19 senior, 11 postdoctoral and 11 graduate fellows for 1999-2000. Senior fellows and their research topics are:
Associate Professor Davis Baird, Department of Philosophy, University of South Carolina -- scientific instruments.
Professor Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent, Universitï¿½ Paris X -- "Nature and Artifact in Chemical Industries, 1900-2000."
Christine Blondel, Chargï¿½e de Recherche at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France -- "French Amateurs in Electricity at the End of the 18th Century."
Professor David Bloor, University of Edinburgh -- sound-locator equipment as developed by the Germans, British, French and Americans.
Professor Emeritus of History of Science William Brock, University of Leicester, UK -- "Sir William Crookes (1832-1919) and the Business of Science."
Professor of History Kenneth Caneva, University of North Carolina at Greensboro -- "The Reconstruction of Scientific Knowledge: From Personal Conviction to Collective Acceptance."
Associate Professor Claudine Cohen, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris -- the interactions betwen French and American paleontological sciences from 1830-1950.
Professor Jack Copeland, University of Canterbury, New Zealand -- "Synopsis of 'Turing's Machines,' A Work in the History and Philosophy of Computation."
Professor of Science Studies Mor-dechai Feingold, Virginia Polytechnic Institute -- "Cast a Giant Shadow: A History of the Royal Society, 1660-1850, Vol. I: A House Divided, A House Besieged 1660-1727."
Professeur Titulaire Yves Gingras, Department of History, University of Quï¿½bec at Montrï¿½al -- the relationship between the mathematization of physics and the transformation of the notion of substance.
Senior Lecturer Ruth Glasner, Hebrew University -- "The Hebrew Supercommentaries on Aristotle's Physics."
Professor Helen Lang, chair of the philosophy department, Trinity College -- "Place and Extension: The Problems and Language of Ancient Physics."
Research Professor Wenlin Li, Institute of Mathematics, Academia Sinica, Beijing -- mathematical exchanges between China and western countries.
Professor Nancy Nersessian, Program in Cognitive Science, Georgia Institute of Technology -- "Culture in Cognition: Toward an Integrative Analysis of Representation in Science."
Professor William Newman, Indiana University -- the laboratory notebooks of George Starkey and Robert Boyle, and a reconsideration of early modern matter-theory.
Associate Professor Lawrence Principe, Johns Hopkins University -- the importance of experiment in 17th-century alchemy and the influence of George Starkey on Robert Boyle (working with Fellow William Newman).
Assistant Professor Gregor Schiemann, Humboldt Unversitï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½t, Institut fï¿½ï¿½r Philosophie, Berlin -- "Aristotle and Descartes' Concept of Nature and the Transformation of Psychology in the 16th and 17th Centuries."
Assistant Professor Ana Simï¿½es, Department of Physics, University of Lisbon -- a history of quantum chemistry, and a biography of Josï¿½ Correia da Serra (1750-1823), a Portuguese botanist and diplomat.
Associate Professor of Mathematics John Stillwell, Monash University, Australia -- "Exceptional Objects" and their role in the history of mathematics.
Luca Ciancio, "Interpreting the Temple of Serapis. A Case Study in the Relationship between Geology and Antiquarianism (1750-1830)"; Slava Gerovitch, a history of Soviet cybernetics; Michael Gorman, a reappraisal of the origins of Jesuit science practice against the background of the "science policy" of the Jesuit order; Christophe Lecuyer, "From the Lab to the Fab: Physics Research, Manufacturing Practice, and Ion Implantation at High Voltage Engineering Corporation and Fairchild Semiconductor, 1962-1978;" Massimo Mazzotti, "Conservative Thought and Scientific Knowledge: A Socio-Historical Perspective;" Jutta Schickore, "Constructive Constraints: Exploring Errors and Pitfalls in Microscopy;" Brett Steele, Department of History, UCLA, "The Ballistics Revolution: Military and Scientific Change from Robins to Napoleon"; and R. Andre Wakefield, "An Early Modern Chemistry of the Mines, 1710-1800."
The Dibner Institute has reappointed the following to a second year as postdoctoral fellows: Arne Hessenbruch, "Scientific Quantification and Money;" Klaus Staubermann, the scientific practice of astrophoto-metrists G. Mï¿½ï¿½ller, E. Pickering and C. Pritchard at Oxford; and Benno van Dalen, "The Activities of Muslim Astronomers in China During the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty (1260-1368)."
The following 11 PhD candidates at Dibner Institute consortium-member institutions (MIT, Boston University and Harvard University) have been awarded fellowships:
Babak Ashrafi, MIT, "From Relativistic Electrons to Quantum Fields;" David Kaiser, Harvard, "Making Theory: Training American Theoretical Physicists in an Age of Big Science, 1948-1969;" Matthew Jones, Harvard, "The Aesthetics of Inference: The Mathematics of Descartes and Leibniz and the Dream of Systematic Public Knowledge in the 17th Century;" Robert Martello, MIT, Paul Revere's lifelong technological education and his development of America's first copper rolling mill; Benjamin Pinney, MIT, "Organizing Engineering Labor: A History of Project Management to 1970;" Gerald A. Ward, Boston University, "From Merchant Adventurers to Merchants of Light: The Development of English Oceanic Commerce and New World Colonies and the Making of Bacon's Great Instauration;" and Timothy Wolters, MIT, "Carrier Aviation Policy and Procurement in the US Navy, 1936-1955."
A version of this article appeared in the April 28, 1999 issue of MIT Tech Talk (Volume 43, Number 28).