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Sigerist Circle Bibliography on Race and Medicine

The following bibliography was assembled from the thirteen Sigerist Circle bibliographies compiled between 1990 and 1997. It contains entries for books, articles, and dissertations relevant to race and medicine, published from the mid-1980s through early 1997.

The Sigerist Circle is a group of historians and others interested in the history of medicine who wish to bring a left perspective to the discipline. We are committed to advancing studies related to race, class, and gender, and to promoting work using marxist, feminist, and other left-critical methodologies.

We take our name from Henry E. Sigerist, Director of the Johns Hopkins Institute of the History of Medicine in the 1930s and 40s. Sigerist, a Swiss national, came to the United States from Leipzig, Germany, just months before the Nazi seizure of power. A medievalist by training, Sigerist was responsible for the first steps in professionalizing medical history in America. Among other things, he established the Bulletin of the History of Medicine. Sigerist aligned himself with progressive political forces while at Johns Hopkins and became widely known as a tireless crusader for national health insurance. His open left-wing positions made it difficult for him to function in postwar America, and he returned to Switzerland in 1947.

The Sigerist Circle Bibliography is published as a section of the semi-annual Sigerist Circle Newsletter. In addition to race and third world issues, the bibliography attempts to provide citations to current literature relevant to the history of the health left, gender in relationship to medicine and health, history of class issues relating to medicine and health, history of medicine as a means of social control, history of war and medicine, "body history," history of animal rights, and history of children's rights and child abuse.

This bibliography on history of race and medicine is divided into 7 sections:

  1. Racism and racial theory, including eugenics
  2. Medicine, race theory, and fascism
  3. Non-whites as healers and health workers
  4. Health care and health conditions of black people, mainly in the U.S.
  5. Health care and health conditions of native American Indians and Inuits
  6. Health care and health conditions of Hispanic Americans
  7. Health, medicine, and imperialism

The Sigerist Circle Newsletter is edited by Pauline Mazumdar; and bibliographies 1-13 were compiled by Ed Morman (who apologizes for inconsistency in style among entries) while he was at the Johns Hopkins Institute of the History of Medicine. Ted Brown is secretary-treasurer of the group.

For further information about the Sigerist Circle, please contact Ted Brown, 63 Nicholson St., Rochester NY 14620 (brown@prevmed.rochester.edu). To submit material to the Sigerist Circle Newsletter, write to Pauline Mazumdar, The Kent House, 368 Sumach Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4X 1V4 (pmazumda@epas.utoronto.ca). You can write to Ed Morman at:

Associate Librarian for Historical Collection
The New York Academy of Medicine
1216 Fifth Avenue
New York NY 10029
emorman@health.nyam.org

1. Racism and racial theory, including eugenics

Adams, David P. "Malaria, Labor, and Population Distribution in Costa Rica: A Biohistorical Perspective." Journal of Interdisciplinary History 27, no. 1 (1996): 75-85.

"Building on existing scholarship from the biomedical and social sciences, this note treats the relationship between malaria, labor, and sociodemographic patterns on Costa Rica since the early 1500s. Did malarial conditions cause segregation in Costa Rica?"

Adams, Mark B., editor. The Wellborn Science: Eugenics in Germany, France, Brazil, and Russia. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Albiston, Catherine. "The Social Meaning of the Norplant Condition: Constitutional Considerations of Race, Class, and Gender." Berkeley Women's Law Journal 9 (1994): 9-57.

Allen, Theodore. The Invention of the White Race. Vol. 1: Racial Oppression and Social Control. New York: Verso, 1994.

Anderson, Warwick. "Disease, Race, and Empire." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 70.1 (1996): 62-67.

Derived from Anderson's remarks introducing a session on "Race and Acclimatization in Colonial Medicine" at a recent AAHM conference.

-------. "Immunities of Empire: Race, Disease, and the New Tropical Medicine, 1900-1920." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 70.1 (1996): 94-118.

"Historians and the Bell Curve Controversies: A Special Symposium." Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 33, no. 2 (1977): 127-44.

This section reprints three papers given at a session called "About Bell Curves, Bad Science, and Other Sad Things that Keep Happening to Psychology," at the 1994 meeting of Cheiron, the International Society for the History of the Behavioral and Social Sciences. The papers are by Franz Samelson ("On the Uses of History: The Case of the Bell Curve"), Leila Zenderland ("The Bell Curve and the Shape of History"), and Nadine Weidman ("Heredity, Intelligence and Neuropsychology; or, Why The Bell Curve is Good Science").

Barkan, Barkan. "Reevaluating Progressive Eugenics: Herbert Spencer Jennings and the 1924 Immigration Legislation." Journal of the History of Biology, 1991, 24: 91-112.

-----. The Retreat of Scientific Racism: Changing Concepts of Race in Britain and the United States between the World Wars. New York: Cambridge Univcersity Press, 1992.

"The impetus for the shift in ideologies of race came from the inclusion of outsiders (women, Jews, leftists) who infused greater egalitarianism into scientific discourse. But even though the merging view of race was constrained by a scientific language, . . . modern theorists were as much influenced by social and political events as were their predecessors."

Bartley, Mary. "Conflicts in Human Progress: Sexual Selection and the Fisherian `Runaway'." British Journal for the History of Science 27.2 (June 1994): 177-196.

Argues that "Fisher's presentation of sexual selection was strongly influenced by . . . his growing interest in eugenics, the revival of Darwinism, and his reaction to British participation in the First World War." Suggests that "Fisher's understanding of sexual selection theory reflects a strongly held desire to improve the future of the British middle class."

Berry, Mary Frances. "Judging Morality: Sexual Behavior and Legal Consequences in the Late Nineteenth-Century South." Journal of American History, 1991, 78: 835-856.

Bloom, Lisa. "Constructing Whiteness: Popular Science and the National Geographic in the Age of Multiculturalism." Configurations: A Journal of Literature, Science and Technology 2.1 (1994): 15-32.

Bogin, Mary Ellen. "The Meaning of Heredity in American Medicine and Popular Health Advice: 1771-1860." Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell University, 1990.

Braslow, Joel T. "In the Name of Therapeutics: The Practice of Sterilization in a California State Hospital." Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 51.1 (1996): 29-52.

By looking at patient records from Stockton State Hospital, Braslow examines the degree to which mass sterilization of psychiatric patients was, in fact, a eugenic technique.

Broberg, Gunnar, and Nils Roll-Hansen, eds. Eugenics and the Welfare State: Sterilization Policy in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Finland. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1996.

Brunet, Guy. "Populations et Hérédite: à la Croisée des Pistes." Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 67.1 (Jan. 1994): 91-106.

"A population can be defined using different criteria, for example criteria of a geographical or medical nature. . . . Heredity is not only a biological fact; it is also a social fact."

Casalinio, Larry. "Decoding the Human Genome Project: An Interview with Evelyn Fox-Keller." Socialist Review, 1991, 21(2): 111-126.

Clarke, Adele. "Genetic Disorders, Social Order." SocialistReview, 1991, 21: 171-176.

Review of Duster's Backdoor to Eugenics, cited below.

Cocks, Geoffrey. "The International Eugenics Community." Reviews in American History 22.4 (Dec. 1994): 674-678.

Positive review of Stefan Kühl, The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994). Kuhl demonstrates that until the outbreak of World War II, there was great interaction between racist American eugenicists and Nazi race scientists -- and that much of their work was financed by the Pioneer Fund, which is still active supporting research that demonstrates that intelligence is inherited.

"Constructing Race: Differentiating Peoples in the Early Modern World." William and Mary Quarterly 54, no. 1 (1997): 3-352.

Special issue based on the proceedings of a conference held at Williamsburg in October 1994. Unlike most issues of this journal, this one includes articles about the European roots of American history. Although none of the articles pertain directly to medicine, they are all useful in understanding the early history of race thinking in the Atlantic world. Authors include David Brion Davis, Alden T. Vaughan and Virginia Mason Vaughan, Emily C. Bartels, Robin Blackburn, Benjamin Braude, James H. Sweet, Jennifer L. Morgan, Karen Ordahl Kupperman, and Joyce E. Chaplin.

Cook-Degan, Robert M. The Gene Wars: Science, Politics, and the Human Genome. New York: Norton, 1994.

Crook, David Paul. Darwinism, War, and History: The Debate Over the Biology of War From The Origin of Species to the First World War. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Davenport, Randi. "Thomas Malthus and Maternal Bodies Politic: Gender, Race, and Empire." Women's History Review 4, no. 4 (1995): 415-40.

Deacon, Harriet Jane. "Madness, Race and Moral Treatment: Robben Island Lunatic Asylum, Cape Colony, 1846-1890." History of Psychiatry 7, no. 2 (1996): 287-97.

Dijck, José van. "Reading the Human Genome Narrative." Science as Culture 5.2 (1995): 217-47.

Frank Dikotter. "The Discourse of Race and the Medicalization of Public and Private Space in Modern China (1895-1949)." History of Science, 1991, 29: 411-428.

"Significant parts of the modern medical vision were generated and legitimized by the discourse of race. The rise of racial discourse and modern medicine should be put into the larger context of social and cultural changes which have affected China. . . ."

Dowbiggin, Ian. "`An Exodus of Enthusiasm': G. Alder Blumer, Eugenics, and U.S. Psychiatry, 1890-1920." Medical History, 1992, 36: 379-402.

Blumer was editor of the American Journal of Insanity and Director of the Utica State Asylum. Dowbiggin uses the case of Blumer to investigate why physicians, and psychiatrists in particular, were so favoraly disposed towards eugenics.

Dubois, Laurent. "A Spoonful of Blood: Haitians, Racism and AIDS." Science As Culture 6, no. 1 (1996): 7-43.

Dubow, Saul. Scientific Racism in Modern South Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Duster, Troy. Backdoor to Eugenics. New York: Routledge, 1990.

Efron, John M. Defenders of the Race: Jewish Doctors and Race Science in Fin-De-Siècle Europe. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994.

-----. "Images of the Jewish Body: Three Medical Views from the Jewish Enlightenment." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 69.3 (Sept. 1995): 349-366.

Several important Jewish physicians of the eighteenth century "shared a similar view of the condition of the Jews' body: the sorry state in which Jews found themselves was directly attributable to traditional Jewish social and religious culture. . . . For these physicians . . . the retreat of folk culture in the wake of acculturation would lead not only to the amelioration of the civil status of the Jews, but also to . . . their 'physical regeneration.'"

Ehrenström, Phillippe. "Eugénisme et Santé Publique: La Stérilization Légale des Malades Mentaux dans le Canton de Vaud (Suisse)." History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 15.2 (1993): 205-227.

"In 1928 the Canton of Vaud (Switzerland) voted a bill which legalized eugenic sterilization. The sterilization of the mentally ill was a public health measure among others. It fitted in a wide variety of policies whose aims were to increase the physical and psychical well-being of the population. Vaud eugenics was progressive, reformist and non-partisan. This paper examines the intellectual, social and political conditions of the 1928 bill."

Farmer, Paul. AIDS and Accusation: Haiti and the Geography of Blame. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.

Felsenstein, Frank. Anti-Semitic Stereotypes: A Paradigm of Otherness in English Popular Culture, 1660-1830. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.

Fields, Barbara Jeanne. "Slavery, race and ideology in the United States of America." New Left Review, May/June 1990, no. 181: 95-118.

Fletcher, Ronald. Science, Ideology, and the Media: The Cyril Burt Scandal. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1991.

Gamble, Vanessa Northington. "Conversations with History: Women Physicians and their Foremothers." Women's Review of Books 10.5 (Feb. 1993): 30-32.

Part of special section "Women who Teach with the Wolves," on women faculty members in professional schools. Gamble is an African-American physician and historian of medicine.

Gelfand, Toby. "From Religious to Bio-Medical Anti-Semitism: The Career of Jules Soury." In: French Medical Culture in the Nineteenth Century, edited by Ann La Berge and Mordechai Feingold. Clio Medica 25. Amsterdam; Atlanta: Rodopi, 1994.

Geus, Armin. "Die Kontroverse zwischen dem Botaniker Karl Adolf Hansen (1851-1920) und Houston Stewart Chamberlain (1855-1927) über Goethes Metamorphosenlehre." Medizinhistorisches Journal 28.2/3 (1993): 165-172.

Chamberlain was major proto-Nazi race theorist.

Gilman, Sander. The Case of Sigmund Freud: Medicine and Identity at the Fin de Siècle. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.

-----. Freud, Race, and Gender. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.

Gilman here further develops his ideas on the feminized Jew and Freud's reactions to and effects on racial thinking in Europe.

-----. "The Jewish Body: a 'Footnote.'" Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 1990, 64: 588-602.

-----. The Jew's Body. New York: Routledge, 1991.

-----. Franz Kafka, the Jewish Patient. New York: Routledge, 1995.

Goldberg, Ann. "The Limits of Medicalization: Jewish Lunatics and Nineteenth-Century Germany." History of Psychiatry 7, no. 2 (1996): 265-85.

"This essay examines how Jewish patients were 'read' and, on that basis, treated in a German insane asylum of the early twentieth century. Historiographically, it is addressed to the by now extensive literature on medicalization, namely that process by which medicine and medical thinking increased its prestige in the late eighteenth and nineteenth century such that it essentially annexed to itself ever expanding areas of social life."

Goldberg, David Theo, ed. The Anatomy of Racism, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1990.

Nineteen essays, some reprinted, on a wide range of topics including "Biology and the New Racism," by Martin Barker, and "Race and Gender: The Role of Analogy in Science," by Nancy Stepan. Other contributors include Frantz Fanon, Sander Gilman, Julia Kristeva, Edward Said, and Henry Louis Gates, Jr.

Gould, Stephen Jay. The Mismeasure of Man. New York: Norton, 1996.

"Revised and Expanded Edition".

Gould published the first edition of this book over fifteen years ago, and felt obliged to update it in order to refute The Bell Cuirve.

Gradmann, Christoph. "Bazillen, Krankheit Und Krieg." Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 19, no. 2-3 (1996): 81-94.

This issue includes several papers given 23rd Symposium of the Gesellschaft für Wissenschaftsgeschichte, held in May 1996 in Greifswald. The theme of the symposium was "Science and War."

"Analyzes metaphors of bacteriology which were extensively used in Germany during the era of Kaiser Wilhelm II. These display -- in a vivid exchange with the scientific concepts of the age -- a specific popular understanding of disease based on bacteriology. Disease is essentially seen as a war of physicians against microbes. While popularizing science, bacteriological metaphors became part of the political language of their age. At the same time, the prestige of bacteriology was in turn employed to lend credibility to pictures of assumed enemies -- by portraying them as infectious diseases. Although the political language of bacteriology differed from the social darwinism of the age in important structural and semantic aspects, it nevertheless influenced the political language of the time, for example by becoming a blueprint for antisemitic rhetoric."

Greenlee, Greenlee. "Biomedicine and Ideology: a Social History of the Conceptualization and Treatment of Essential Hypertension in the United States." Ph.D. dissertation, Temple University, 1989.

Gökyigit, Emel Aileen. "The Reception of Francis Galton's Hereditary Genius in the Victorian Periodical Press." Journal of the History of Biology 27.2 (June 1994): 215-230.

By demonstrating that Galton's eugenic theorizing conformed well with the racial thinking of the British middle class of 1870, the author seeks to absolve Galton from responsibility for twentieth century racism.

Guillaumin, Charlotte. Racism, Sexism, Power and Ideology. New York: Routledge, 1995.

This book argues that there is nothing "natural" about our ideas of sex and race. It examines the evolution of these ideas, contending that the crystallization of ideas on human "races" can be grasped through the study of signs and their systems. The author argues nonetheless that race and sex are in no way purely symbolic phemonena, but rather the hard fatcs of society. To be a member of a particular race or sex does not bring with it the same opportunities, the rights or the same restrauints.

Hall, Stephen Ray. "Oscar McCulloch and Indiana Eugenics." Diss.: Virginia Commonwealth University, 1993.

Haller, John. Outcasts From Evolution: Scientific Attitudes of Racial Inferiority, 1859-1900. Carbondale: University of Southern Illinois Press, 1995.

Reprint, with new preface of book originally published in 1971.

Hammar, Lawrence. "The Dark Side to Donovanosis: Color, Climate, Race and Racism in American South Venerology." Journal of Medical Humanities 18, no. 1 (1997): 29-57.

"Medical experimentation on humans with 'classic' venereal diseases (e.g., syphilis, gonorrhea) is not generally well-known, but experimentation with others such as Granuloma inguinale, or Donovanosis, is even less so. Endemic to non-existent here, hyper-epidemic there, between 1880 and 1950 Donovanosis was linguistically and morally 'constructed' as a disease of poor, sexually profligate, tropical, darkly-skinned persons. It was also experimentally produced on and in African-American patients in many charity hospitals in the American South. This essay analyzes Donovanosis literature of the period that heavily featured skin color, climate and tropicality, venereal sin and racial susceptibility. It then recounts the history of human experimentation with it and its biomedical experimental history in terms of 'disease narratives' produced not only by but for venereologists."

Hannaford, Ivan. Race: The History of an Idea in the West. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Harding, Sandra, ed. The `Racial' Economy of Science: Toward a Democratic Future. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993.

A wonderful anthology, largely of previously-published pieces; eminently suitable for textbook use in courses on race and science (it is available in paperback). Included are chapters from Martin Bernal's Black Athena, Stephen Jay Gould's The Mismeasure of Man, Donna Haraway's Primate Visions, James Jones's Bad Blood, Richard Levins and Richard Lewontin's Dialectical Biologist, Lewontin, Steven Rose and Leon Kamins's Not in Our Genes, Kenneth Manning's Black Apollo of Science, Joseph Needham's The Grand Titration, Robert Proctor's Racial Hygiene, and Sharon Traweek's Beamtimes and Lifetimes. This volume also reprints three key works on the social construction of race and the struggle against scientific racism: Nancy Krieger and Mary Bassett's "The Health of Black Folk" (from Monthly Review 1986), Nancy Stepan's "Race and Gender: The Role of Analogy in Science" (from Isis 1986), and Nancy Stepan and Sander Gilman's "Appropriating the Idioms of Science: The Rejection of Scientific Racism" (from The Bounds of Race: Perspectives on Hegemony and Resistance edited by Domonick LaCapra, [Cornell, 1991]).

Harris, Ruth. "The 'Child of the Barbarian': Rape, Race and Nationalism in France During the First World War." Past & Present .141 (1993): 170-206.

Harrison, Mark. "'The Tender Frame of Man': Disease, Climate, and Racial Differences in India and the West Indies, 1760-1860." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 70.1 (1996): 68-93.

"[H]ow as it that Europeans came to see themselves as fundamentally different from and superior to the peoples over which they ruled? What part, if any, did medicine play in the process by which difference and hierarchy were conceived? This article explores these questions through a study of British medical texts written in India and the West Indies between 1760 and 1860." Much of the material in this article also appears in Harrison's book, Public Health in British India (Cambridge, 1994).

Harrowitz, Nancy A. and Barbara Hyams, ed. Jews & Gender: Responses to Otto Weininger. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1995.

Weininger was a turn-of-the-century Austrian Jewish convert to Protestantism who, at age 23, published a scholarly antisemitic and mysogynistic tract. He committed suicide shortly thereafter.

Hartouni, Valerie. "Breached Birth: Reflections on Race, Gender, and Reproductive Discourse in the 1980s." Configurations: A Journal of Literature, Science, and Technology 2.1 (1994): 73-88.

Hasian, Marouf Arif. The Rhetoric of Eugenics in Anglo-American Thought. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1996.

Heilke, Thomas W. Voegelin on the Idea of Race: An Analysis of Modern European Racism. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1990.

Eric Voegelin was an anti-racist German political thinker who fled Nazism in 1938.

Higginbotham, Evelyn Brooks. "African-American Women's History and the Metalanguage of Race." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 1992, 17: 251-274.

Cites the work of several Black scholars of past generations, including Charles Richard Drew, who laid the groundwork for anti-essentialist feminist scholarship by demonstrating that race is a social and not a biological category. Drew was the African American physician and scientist who did crucial work in the development of blood banks.

Higgs, Edward. "The Statistical Big Bang of 1911: Ideology, Technological Innovation and the Production of Medical Statistics." Social History of Medicine 9, no. 3 (1966): 409-26.

"This paper examines the relationship between intellectual debate, technologies for analysing information, and the production of statistics in the General Register Office (GRO) in London in the early twentieth century. It argues that the controversy between eugenicists and public health officials respecting the cause and effect of class-specific variations in fertility led to the introduction of questions on the 1911 census on marital fertility. The increased complexity of the census necessitated a shift from manual to mechanised forms of data prcessing within the GRO. . . ."

"Historians and the Bell Curve Controversies: A Special Symposium." Jounral of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 33, no. 2 (1977): 127-44.

This section reprints three papers given at a session called "About Bell Curves, Bad Science, and Other Sad Things that Keep Happening to Psychology," at the 1994 meeting of Cheiron, the International Society for the History of the Behavioral and Social Sciences. The papers are by Franz Samelson ("On the Uses of History: The Case of the Bell Curve"), Leila Zenderland ("The Bell Curve and the Shape of History"), and Nadine Weidman ("Heredity, Intelligence and Neuropsychology; or, Why The Bell Curve is Good Science").

Hodgeson, Dennis. "Ideological Currents and the Interpretation of Demographic Trends: The Case of Francis Amasa Walker." Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 1992, 28: 28-44.

"Late nineteenth-century influences on American population thought are highlighted by focusing on Francis Amasa Walker's theory of native American [i.e. white people of British ancestry] fertility decline. Malthusianism, Darwinism, and racism combined to produce a new biological Malthusianism that identified a population calamity more harmful than overpopulation--biological deterioration."

Hommel, Andrea. "Herman Rohleder (1866-1934) und die Anfänge der künstlichen Befruchtung in Deutschland." Medizinhistorisches Journal 29.2 (1994): 121-148.

Howell, Joel D. "The History of Eugenics and the Future of Gene Therapy." Journal of Clinical Ethics 2.4 (Dec. 1991): 274-278.

"I suggest that there are justified reasons to think about the social consequences of gene therapy. I do not hold that we ought to stop the program now, but I do believe that scientists, physicians, and the public ought to be aware of the slippery slope on which we as a society . . . have embarked."

Huertas, Rafael, and José Martinez-Perez. "Disease and Crime in Spanish Positivist Psychiatry." History of Psychiatry 4.4 (Dec. 1993): 459-481.

". . . forensic psychiatry in Spain followed a path similar to the one it took in Europe. After a few years during which they encountered fierce resistance to the accpetance of their diagnoses in the courts, Spanish psychiatrists found in the doctrines of degeneracy and criminal anthropology more substantial arguments in support of their opinions. . . ."

Hughes, John S.. "Labeling and Treating Black Mental Illness in Alabama, 1861-1910." Journal of Southern History, 1992, 58: 435-460.

Jones, Greta. "Women and Eugenics in Britain: The Case of Mary Scharlieb, Elizabeth Sloan Chesser, and Stella Browne." Annals of Science 52.5 (Sept. 1995): 481-502.

"Existing literature on eugenics only touches briefly upon the role played by women. This article sets out to examine the reason for the high participation of women in the British eugenics movement by focusing on the role of three individuals in the early part of the twentieth century. It concludes that an important objective of women in eugenics was the 'feminization' of its social agenda."

Kamminga, Harmke, and Andrew Cunningham, eds. The Science and Culture of Nutrition, 1840-1940. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1995.

". . . looks at the ways in which scientific theories and investigations of nutrition have made their impact on a range of social practices and ideologies, and how these in turn have shaped the priorities and practices of the science of nutrition. In these reciprocal interactions, nutrition science has affected medical practice, government policy, science funding, and popular thinking." Articles include Kamminga on Jacob Moleschott and humanist science, Mark Finlay on marketing Liebig's extract, Dietirch Milles on "rational physical economy," Thomas Schlich on Jewish dietary laws and nutrition, Rima Apple on gender and nutrition science in the U.S., L. Margaret Barnett on dietetic fads, Mark Weatherall on newspapers and nutrition, Mikulás Teich on British and German nutrition science during WWI, Sally Horrocks on nutrition science and business in Britain, Fernando Salmon on dietetics in 1930s Spain, David Smith and Malcolm Nicolson on nutrition and social class, and Paul Weindling on international organizations and nutritional standards.

Kamrat-Lang, Debora. "Healing Society: Medical Language in American Eugenics." Science in Context 8.1 (Mar. 1995): 175-196.

Kevles, Daniel J. "Is the Past Prologue? Eugenics and the Human Genome Project." Contention: Debates in Society, Culture, and Science 2.3 (Mar. 1993): 21-37.

Contention is a relatively new journal that publishes "debates" rather than individual articles. The spring 1993 issue includes an exchange called "Questioning our Genes." This article by Kevles is the first of four on the Human Genome Project. The other articles are by Clifford F. Brunk, Francisco J. Ayala, and Margaret C. Jacob.

"Telling how in the past, and still among a few governments, the pseudo-science of eugenics resulted in various discriminatory policies, most extremely in Nazi Germany, Kevles is nonetheless optimistic that the new Genome project is likely to produce more good than ill."

Kohn, Marek. The Race Gallery: The Return of Racial Science. London: Jonathan Cape, 1995.

Koven, Seth and Sonya Michel, editors. Mothers of a New World: Maternalist Politics and the Origins of Welfare States. New York: Routledge, 1993.

Kraepelin, Emil, and Eric J. Engstrom trans. "Psychiatric Observations on Contemporary Issues." History of Psychiatry 3.2 (1992): 253-269.

Kraepelin (1856-1926) was a major figure of the generation before Freud. This article is a nationalistic, social-Darwinist appeal for the restoration of a biologically fit, elite political leadership in Germany. It characterizes the (often Jewish) leaders of World War I era working-class movements as hysterical, psychopathic, and genetically inferior. The translation is published with an introduction by Eric J. Egstrom.

Kraut, Alan M. Silent Travelers: Germs, Genes, and the "Immigrant Menace." New York: Basic Books, 1994.

Krieger, Nancy. "Sicknesses of Society: Gender, Race, Class and Epidemiology." Women's Review of Books 10.5 (Feb. 1993): 18-20.

Part of a special section, "Women who Teach with the Wolves," on women faculty members in professional schools.

-----. "Shades of difference: theoretical underpinnings of the medical controversy on black/white differences in the United States, 1830-1870." International Journal of Health Services, 1987, 17: 259-278.

Kudlien, Fridolf. "The Belief in 'Race' and the Fight against Hereditary Diseases and Defects." History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences, 1990, 12: 271-75.

Essay review of four German-language and two English-language books on race, eugenics and euthanasia.

Kühl, Stefan. The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Suggests that the American eugenics movement provided much of the intellectual basis for Nazi race-science.

Larson, Edward J. Sex, Race and Science: Eugenics in the Deep South. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.

Larson makes the point that certain methods of eugenics, such as compulsory sterilization, came to the South later than other states, precisely because the South was "backward" and resistant to the progressive reforms.

-----. "The Rhetoric of Eugenics: Expert Authority and the Mental Deficiency Bill." British Journal of the History of Science, 1991, 24: 45-60.

Leon, Juan Enrique. "A Literary History of Eugenic Terror in England and America." Diss.: Harvard University, 1989.

Lerner, Barron H. "Constructing Medical Indications: The Sterilization of Women with Heart Disease or Tuberculosis, 1905- 1935." Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 49.3 (July 1994): 362-279.

Lerner, Richard M. Final Solutions: Biology, Prejudice, and Genocide. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1992.

Links the biological determinism of Lorenzian ethology and modern sociobiology to Nazi views of race and gender.

Lewontin, Richard. Biology as Ideology: the Doctrine of DNA. New York: HarperPerenial, 1992. Not really historical; but an important statement by a major contemporary biologist on problems with biological determinism.

Lilienthal, Georg. "Die jüdischen 'Rassenmerkmale': Zur Geschichte der Anthropologie der Juden." Medizinhistorisches Journal 28.2/3 (1993): 173-198.

Lippman, Abby. "Led (Astray) by Genetic Maps: The Cartography of the Human Genome and Health Care." Social Science and Medicine 35.12 (1992): 1469-1476.

-----. "Mother Matters: A Fresh Look at Prenatal Genetic Testing." Issues in Reproductive and Genetic Engineering 5.2 (1992): 141- 154.

-----. "Prenatal Genetic Testing and Screening: Constructing Needs and Reinforcing Inequities." American Journal of Law and Medicine 17.1/2 (1991): 15-50.

Litt, Jacquelyn. "Mothering, Medicalization, and Jewish Identity, 1928-1940." Gender & Society 1- , no. 2 (1996): 185-98.

Luker, Kristin. Dubious Conceptions: The Politics of Teenage Pregnancy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996.

Malchow, H. L. "Frankenstein's Monster and Images of Race in Nineteenth Century Britain." Past & Present .139 (1993): 90-112.

Manderson, Lenore. "Colonial Desires: Sexuality, Race, and Gender in British Malaya." Journal of the History of Sexuality 7, no. 2 (1997): 372-88.

"In this article, I consider the history of prostitution and sexually transmitted disease (STD) in colonial Malaya. . . .".

Markel, Howard. "'Knocking Out the Cholera': Cholera, Class, and Quarantine in New York City, 1892." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 69.3 (Sept. 1995): 420-457.

Deals not only with class aspects, but also anti-Jewish prejudice that informed the 1892 cholera scare in New York.

Mazumdar, Pauline M. H. "Two Models for Human Genetics: Blood Grouping and Psychiatry in Germany Between the Wars." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 70, no. 4 (1966): 609-57.

In Germany, human genetics was the site of a debate between Mendelian mathematical modelers and empiricists. Mathematical mendelism almost disappeared after the Nazi accession to power.

-----. Eugenics, Human Genetics and Human Failings: The Eugenics Society, Its Source and Its Critics in Britain. New York: Routledge, 1992.

McLaren, Angus. Our Own Master Race: Eugenics in Canada, 1885-1945. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1990.

Mitchell, Harvey, and Samuel S. Kottek. "An Eighteenth-Century Medical View of the Diseases of the Jews in Northeastern France: Medical Anthropology and the Politics of Jewish Emancipation." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 67.2 (June 1993): 248-281.

Presents and discusses a document prepared in 1781 by an obscure doctor in Lorraine, in order to illustrate the state of medical anthropolgy and political discourse on the eve of the emancipation of the Jews. The document also is an example of"the causal uncertainty . . . of the realtionship between the individual, the environment, and acquired and inherited traits." Moreover it suggests that Jews had an "ambiguous identity" between European and non-European.

Mörgeli, Christoph. "Chirurgischer Eingriff gegen die Übervölkerung: Professor Weinholds Vorhaut-Infibulation." Gesnerus 50.3/4 (1993): 264-271.

"One of the most bizarre and forgotten suggestions to have developed from the discussion of pauperism in the 19th century was the infibulation of impoverished men. A communication in 1827 from the Halle professor of surgery, Carl August Weinhold (1782-1829), raised indignation and caused ironic as well as angry reactions. Despite such a heated response, Weinhold's proposed method of population control soon fell into oblivion, a fate considered by his contemporaries as `highly desirable.'" [Male infibulation is a method of making sexual intercourse impossible by attaching a ring to the external sex organs].

Murphy, John M. "'To Create a Race of Thoroughbreds:' Margaret Sanger and The Birth Control Review," Women's Studies in Communication, 1990, 13: 23-45.

Murphy, Timothy F. and Marc A. Lappé, editors. Justice and the Human Genome Project. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

Nelkin, Dorothy, and Susan Lindee. The DNA Mystique: The Gene As Cultural Icon. New York: Freeman, 1995.

Nestel, Sheryl. "'Other Mothers': Race and Representation in Natural Childbirth Discourse." Resources for Feminist Research = Documentation Sur La Recherche Feministe 23.1 (1994-1995): 5-19.

From a special issue on "Race, Gender and Knowledge Production."

Noll, Steven. "Southern Strategies for Treating the Black Feeble-Minded: From Social Control to Profound Indifference." Journal of Policy History, 1991, 3: 130-151.

Paul, Diane B. Controlling Human Heredity: 1865 to the Present. Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities Press, 1995.

-----. "Enthusiastic Claims." Science, 1991, 252: 142-143.

An essay review of three popular books about the human genome project and its purported goals of improved health. Diane Paul clearly demonstrates the "cheerleading" function of science journalists when they write about big science, and she points out that the "most significant health risks for newborns in the United States result not from genetic defects but from environmental factors that produce low birth weights."

Pauly, Philip J. "Essay Review: The Eugenics Industry -- Growth or Restructuring?" Journal of the History of Biology 26.1 (Mar. 1993): 131-145.

A review of six recent books on eugenics, all of which have previously been cited in this bibliography, with a generally commentary on the historiography of eugenics.

Peniston, Reginald L. and Otelio S. Randall. "Coronary Artery Disease in Black Americans 1920-1960: the Shaping of Medical Opinion." Journal of the National Medical Association, 1989, 81: 591-600.

Pernick, Martin. The Black Stork: Eugenics and the Death of "Defective" Babies in American Medicine and Motion Pictures Since 1915. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Robb, George. "The Way of All Flesh: Degeneration, Eugenics, and the Gospel of Free Love." Journal of the History of Sexuality 6, no. 4 (1996): 590-603.

Rushton, Alan R. Genetics and Medicine in the United States, 1800 to 1922. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994.

Rushton, J. Philippe. Race, Evolution, and Behavior: A Life History Perspective. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1995.

Not a historical book, but one of the most scurrilous products of the current wave of scientific racism. Rushton purports to show how natural selection has acted to make East Asians brighter than whites, and whites brighter than blacks. Do not confuse this book (or this author) with Alan R. Rushton's Genetics and Medicine in the United States, 1800 to 1922 (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994), which is a serious and creditable historical work.

Samelson, Franz, "Rescuing the Reputation of Sir Cyril [Burt]." Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 1992, 28: 221-233.

Burt was leader in British intelligence testing, well-known for his studies demonstrating the inheritance of intellectual capacity. Within a few years of his death in 1971, evidence of scientific fraud surfaced and Burt's life and work were attacked in a series of articles and books. This article is a review of two recent books (The Burt Affair by Robert B. Joynson, and Science, Ideology and the Media: The Cyril Burt Scandal) which attempt to restore Burt's pace in psychology. Samelson, a retired academic psychologist, writes that these books fail to disprove the charges that Burt fabricated data.

Sappol, Michael. "Sammy Tubbs and Dr. Hubbs: Anatomical Dissection, Minstrelry, and the Technology of Self-Making in Postbellum America." Configurations: A Journal of Literature, Science, and Technology 4, no. 2 (1996): 131-84.

"This article is about a postbellum physiologist, Dr. Edward Bliss Foote, and his now-obscure but extraordinary "novelty in literature" Sammy Tubbs, the Boy Doctor, and "Sponsie," the Troublesome Monkey. . . . The Sammy Tubbs series, designed to help juvenile readers acquire an anatomical conception of self, exemplifies the exuberant and sometimes transgressive cultural politics that developed out of the anatomico-physiological project, and the difficulties and limitations of that politics. Within physiology, as in other discursive areans, the boundaries and content of the bourgeois self were sharply contested. . . . A close reading of the . . . series, then, should serve to demonstrate the central project of nineteenth-century physiological discourse -- the production of bourgeois social identity via anatomical embodiment -- and its attendant contradictions and possibilities. Some 1,200-odd pages long and profusely illustrated, the series is a complicated read, brimming over with figurations of nation, society, cosmos and self, and commentaries on race, gender, eugenics, corporal punishment, diet, child labor, medical licensure, philanthropy, and physical fitness (to name but a few topics); the anatomical body fairly bursts with meaning."

Sengoopta, Chandak. "Science, Sexuality, and Gender in the Fin de Siecle: Otto Weininger as Baedeker." History of Science, 1992, 30: 249-279.

"Otto Weininger (1880-1903) is well-known as the Jewish intellectual of Vienna who, at the age of twenty-three, published a long, scathing attack on his own race and on women (Geschlecht und Charackter, 1903) and committed suicide shortly thereafter."

Shipman, Pat. The Evolution of Racism: Human Differences and the Use and Abuse of Science. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994.

Shipman is a physical anthropologist who believes in the biological reality of races, but thinks that racism is not a necessary corollary of either that belief or of racial differences.

Smedley, Audrey. Race in North America: Origin and Evolution of a Worldview. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1993.

Covers the Age of Exploration through the twentieth century. Discusses the interaction between slavery, science and medicine, and racism.

Smith, J. David. The Eugenic Assault on America: Science in Red, White, and Black. Fairfax, Va.: George Mason University Press, 1993.

Smith, John David, ed. The Biblical and `Scientific' Defense of Slavery. New York: Garland, 1993.

A volume in Garland's series "Anti-Black Thought, 1863-1925," a collection of racist writing with introductions by modern historians.

-------. Racial Determinism and the Fear of Miscegenation, post-1900. New York: Garland, 1993.

2 volumes.

Part of Garland's series "Anti-Black Thought, 1863-1925," which is a collection of racist writings with introductions by contemporary historians.

Solinger, Rickie. "Race and `Value': Black and White Illegitimate Babies in the U.S.A., 1945-1965." Gender & History 4.3 (1992): 343-363.

Solinger's argument about the differential treatment of black and white unwed mothers before Roe v. Wade is presented in her book Wake Up Little Susie, cited in an earlier bibliography in this series.

-----. Wake Up Little Susie: Single Pregnancy and Race before Roe v. Wade. New York: Routledge, 1992.

Emphasizes the different social perceptions of white and black single mothers.

Solomon, Martha. "The Rhetoric of Dehumanization: an Analysis of Medical Reports of the Tuskegee Syphilis Project." Western Journal of Speech Communication, 1985, 49: 233-47.

Soloway, Richard A. "The 'Perfect Contraceptive': Eugenics and Birth Control in Britain and America in the Interwar Years." Journal of Contemporary History 34, no. 4 (1995).

-----. Demography and Degeneration: Eugenics and the Declining Birthrate in Twentieth-Century Britain. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990.

Somerville, Siobhan. "Scientific Racism and the Emergence of the Homosexual Body." Journal of the History of Sexuality 5.2 (Oct. 1994): 243-266.

Speaker, Susan L., and M. Susan Lindee. A Guide to the Human Genome Project: Technologies, People, and Institutions. Philadelphia: Chemical Heritage FOundation, 1993.

Stepan, Nancy Leys. The Hour of Eugenics: Race, Gender, and Nation in Latin America. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991.

Swartz, Sally. "Colonizing the Insane: Causes of Insanity in the Cape, 1891-1920." History of the Human Sciences 8.4 (1995): 39-57.

"In a colonial society, where 'degeneration' contained within it the prospect of 'going native,' being no better than the subjugated race, prevention of the spread of insanity was an urgent matter, intimately related to the dentity of the colonizers as rulers. Records from the asylums of the Cape suggest that the fear of 'going native' had to do with more than simply the desire to maintain social distance between black and white."

Tapper, Melbourne. "Interrogating Bodies: Medico-Racial Knowledge, Politics, and the Study of a Disease." Comparative Studies in Society and History 37.1 (Jan. 1995): 76-93.

"In this essay I want to show how sickling became inscribed within a racialist discourse network, thus investing this network with a remarkable efficacy as a marker of racial difference. I will show how sickling came to be used in safeguarding and [re]producing racial bodies and their differential signs; how sickling became a litmus test to specify who is black and who is white and as an instrument for policing the boundaries between one group of people defined as black and another defined as white. My point is not to deny that certain diseases are present in some populations while absent in others but, rather, to identify the discourses that make it possible to account for such a distribution of disease in terms of race."

Telarolli, Rodolpho Jr. "Imigração e Epidemias No Estado De São Paulo." Manguinhos: História, Ciêcias, Saùde 3, no. 2 (1996): 265-83.

"This article discusses sanitation issues as aspects of foreign immigration in Sao Paulo state during the first decade after the Proclamation of the Republic. The text also shows the relationships between the wave of immigration and the structuring of state sanitation services and the devising of the technoassistance model adopted by these services as the 1890s. At a time when yellow fever was the most common and lethal of the epidemics plaguing that state -- killing mainly foreigners -- one of the lodestars of public health action was the defense of this inflow of immigrants. The interests of coffee growers, expansion of the railroads, and yellow fever all come into play when the oligarchies then in power in Sao Paulo defined what direction sanitation would take. The Brazilian government's authoritarian organization left no room for individual health assistance initiatives. Long a demand of both urban and rural populations, forms of individual health assistance became widespread only in the 1930s, when Brazil developed its social health-care system.".

Tennant, Margaret. "Children's Health Camps in New Zealand: The Making of a Movement, 1919-1940." Social History of Medicine 9, no. 1 (1996): 69-87.

"The children's health camp movement in New Zealand was the product of early twentieth-century concerns about national efficiency and racial strength. . . . Although health camps had a strong socialization function, it was easier for doctors and laypersons to intervene in children's lives in the name of health, than under any other rubric. . . ."

Teslow, Tracy Lang. "Representing Race: Artistic and Scientific Realism." Science as Culture 5.1 (1995): 12-38.

Traces the history of attitudes about the "Races of Mankind" exhibit originally mounted at the Field Museum on Chicago, from it being regarded as mainstream physical anthropology in the 1930, to political protest about its inherent racism, to recent comments which see it as demonstrating the "glorious diversity" of our species.

Tobach, Ethel and Betty Rosoff, editors. Challenging Racism and Sexism: Alternatives to Genetic Explanations. New York: Feminist Press at the City University of New York, 1994.

Treichler, Paula A., and Lisa Cartwright. "Introduction: Imaging Techologies, Inscribing Science." Camera Obscura: A Journal of Feminism and Film Theory .28 (Jan. 1992): 5-20.

Treichler and Cartwright edited this special issue, which contains several articles on AIDS, breast cancer, cosmetic surgery, and race.

Tucker, William H. "Re-Reconsidering Burt: Beyond a Reasonable Doubt." Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 33, no. 2 (1997): 145-62.

For a long time, Sir Cyril Burt's findings were a crucial part of the armamentarium of hereditarians. For some twenty years, however, hereditarians and environmentalists have struggled over possible fraud on Burt's part. "The Burt controversy has taken a number of strange twists and turns, leading many observers to conclude that he has been exonerated of the accusation that he fabricated his data on monozygotic twins reared apart. A comparison of his twin samples with that from other well-documented studies, however, leaves little doubt that he comitted fraud.".

-----. The Science and Politics of Racial Research. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994.

-----. "Fact and Fiction in the Discovery of Sir Cyril Burt's Flaws." Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 30.4 (Oct. 1994): 335-347.

"Athough there is still controversy over whether British educational psychologist Sir Cyril Burt committed fraud in his famous studies of the intelligence of separated twins, most agree that his data have no scientific merit. The flaws which produced this judgment were first noted by Leon Kamin, an animal reseracher. Evidence suggestes that this revelation by an `outsider' was embarrassing to some psychometric specialists who had revered Burt's work as the best of its kind, so they attempted to deprive Kamin of credit for the discovery. This episode raises a disturbing question -- whether research results which agree with established beliefs of professionals in a field are held to the usual standards of science."

Umansky, Lauri. "The Sisters Reply: Black Nationalist Pronatalism, Black Feminism, and the Quest for a Multiracial Women's Movement, 1965-1974." Critical Matrix 8.2 (1994): 19-50.

Vazakas, Susan Malamate. "Genetic Discrimination and the Americans with Disabilities Act." Diss.: Boston Univ., 1993.

Vogel, Amy. "Regulating Degeneracy: Eugenic Sterilization in Iowa, 1911-1977." Annals of Iowa 54 (1995): 119-43.

Wailoo, Keith. "Genetic Marker of Segregation: Sickle Cell Anemia, Thalassemia, and Racial Ideology in American Medical Writing, 1920-1950." History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 18, no. 3 (1996): 305-20.

"This paper focuses on sickle cell anemia and thalassemia as case studies of genetic disease in America. Before 1950 these two diseases were perceived by many physicians as closely related (indeed, by some, as indistinguishable). Sickle cell anemia was defined by most physicians as a Mendelian dominant disorder specific to African-Americans. As such, it could be 'spread' by any individual parent 'carrier' through reproduction. This view of the disease fed into (and was supported by) prevalent social concerns about miscegenation and, more generally, the dangers inherent in 'negro blood.' A particularly thorny problem for American physicians was how to explain cases of 'sickle cell anemia in white patients.' This paper examines how views about race, blood, and mendelian genetics informed broader debates about the nature of hereditary disease and social relations in America from 1910 to 1950."

Warner, John Harley. "Cultural Nationalism and Tropical Fevers: Models of Colonial Medicine in the American South, 1840-1860." In: Mundialización de la Ciencia y Cultura Nacional, edited by A. LaFuente et al. Madrid: Doce Calles, 1993. 511-518.

"[T]his paper begins to explore how white southern doctors before the American Civil War . . . addressed the theme of colonialism."

Weikart, Richard. "The Origins of Social Darwinism in Germany, 1859-1895." Journal of the History of Ideas 53.4 (July 1993): 469-488.

Weindling, Paul. Darwinism and Social Darwinism in Imperial Germany: The Contribution of the Cell Biologist Oscar Hertwig (1849-1922). Stuttgart; New York: G. Fischer, 1991.

Weingart, Peter. "Eugenics -- Medical or Social Science?" Science in Context 8.1 (Mar. 1995): 197-207.

Weir, Robert F., Susan C. Lawrence, and Evan Fales, editors. Genes and Human Self-Knowledge: Historical and Philosophical Reflection on Modern Genetics. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1994.

Weissman, Gerald. Democracy and DNA: American Dreams and Medical Progress. New York: Hill & Wang, 1995.

Wilkie, Tom. Perilous Knowledge: The Human Genome Project and its Implications. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

Wilkinson, Doris Y. and Gary King. "Conceptual and methodological issues in the use of race as a variable: policy implications." Milbank Quarterly, 1987 65 (suppl. 1): 56-71.

Williams, Elizabeth A. The Physical and the Moral: Anthropology, Physiology, and Philosophical Medicine in France, 1750-1850. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Wilmoth, John R. "Arguments and Action in the Life of a Social Problem: A Case Study of 'Overpopulation.'" Social Problems 42 (1995): 318-43.

Zihni, Lilian. "Raised Parental Age and the Occurrence of Down's Syndrome." History of Psychiatry 5.1 (17) (Mar. 1994): 71-88.

The racial classification of mental defectives which developed in the mid-nineteenth century intersected with etiological speculations about Down's syndrome.

Zimmerman, Susan. "Industrial Capitalism's Hostility to Childbirth, Responsible Childbearing, and Eugenic Reproductive Policies in the First Third of the Twentieth Century." Issues in Reproductive and Genetic Engineering: Journal of International Feminist Analysis, 1990, 3: 191-200.

2. Medicine, race theory, and fascism

Adelsberger, Lucie. Auschwitz: A Doctor's Story. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1995.

Aly, Götz. Vordenker der Vernichtung: Auschwitz und die Deutschen Pläne für eine neue Europäische Ordnung. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Taschenbuch, 1993.

Population policy under the Nazis.

-------, Peter Chroust, and Christian Pross. Cleansing the Fatherland: Nazi Medicine and Racial Hygiene. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994.

----- and Suzanne Heim. Vordenker der Vernichtung: Auschitz und die deutschen Plne fur eine neue europaische Ordnung. Hamburg: Hoffmann und Campe, 1991.

Aly and Heim argue that demographers, economists, historians and statisticians created a rationale, based on eugenic ideas, for euthanasia and genocide in Nazi Germany.

Annas, George J., and Michael A. Grodin eds. The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code: Human Rights in Human Experimentation. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Die Auschwitz-Hefte: Texte der polnischen Zeitschrift "Przeglad lekarski" uber historische, psychische und medizinische Aspekte des Lebens und Sterbens in Auschwitz, edited by the Hamburger Institut fur Sozialforschung; translated from the Polish by Jochen August et al. Weinheim: Beltz Verlag, 1987.

German translation of Polish-language articles about medical aspects of life at the Auschwitz concentration camp.

Bastian, Till ed., and Karl Bonhoeffer ed. Thema: Erinnern . . . : Medizin und Massenvernichtung. Stuttgart: Hinzel, 1992.

Bäumer, Anne. NS-Biologie. Stuttgart: Hirzel, 1990.

Blady Szwajger, Adina. I remember nothing more: The Warsaw Children's Hospital and the Jewish resistance. New York: Pantheon Books, 1990.

Recollections of a Polish Jewish nurse and resistance leader who became a physician after the end of the war.

Blasius, Dirk. "Psychiatrie in der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus." Sudhoffs Archiv: Zeitschrift fur Wissenschaftsgeschichte, 1991, 75: 90-105

Burleigh, Michael. "Survey of Developments in the Social History of Medicine: III. 'Euthanasia' in the Third Reich: Some Recent Literature." Social History of Medicine, 1991, 4: 317-328.

---------. Death and Deliverance: "Euthanasia" in German c. 1900-1945. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

-----. "Psychiatry, German Society, and the Nazi `Euthanasia' Programme." Social History of Medicine 7.2 (Aug. 1994): 213-228.

"This paper begins by establishing the position of psychiatry after the First World War, concentrating on the interplay between economic measures and limited reform during the Weimar Republic. Each therapeutic advance involved the definition of irremediable subgroups within the alrady socially marginalized psychiatric constituency. Nazi policy towards psychiatric patients during the 1930s involved further economic measures, and the introduction of negative eugenic strategies, were similar in kind if not degree, to those pursued in some other countries at that tme. The decision to kill the mentally ill and physically disabled was taken by Hitler in order to clear the decks for war, and was justified with the aid of crude utilitarian arguments, as well as what limited evidence there was regarding popular attitudes on these issues. Many health porfessionals and psychiatrists accommodated themselves to policies which a few years later became one of the components of the `Final Solution of the Jewish Question,' i.e. Hitler's vengeance against the Jewish people in circumstances of war he had envisaged much earlier."

Bussche, Hendrik van den, ed. Medizinische Wissenschaft im Dritten Reich: Kontinuitt, Anpassung und Opposition an der Hamburger medizinischen Fakulät. Berlin: Reimer, 1989.

The effects of Nazism on medical science at the University of Hamburg.

Cocks, Geoffrey. "The International Eugenics Community." Reviews in American History 22.4 (Dec. 1994): 674-678.

Positive review of Stefan Kühl, The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994). Kuhl demonstrates that until the outbreak of World War II, there was great interaction between racist American eugenicists and Nazi race scientists -- and that much of their work was financed by the Pioneer Fund, which is still active supporting research that demonstrates that intelligence is inherited.

Delius, Peter, and Horst Dilling. "The End of the Strecknitz Asylum at Lübeck -- A Contribution to the Social History of Psychiatry during National Socialism." History of Psychiatry 6.3 (Sept. 1995): 267-281.

Eveleth, Donna. "Vichy France and the Continuity of Medical Nationalism." Social History of Medicine 8.1 (Apr. 1995): 95- 116.

"This paper reviews the rise of medical nationalism and protectionism in France from the end of the nineteenth century through to the 1940s, with an emphasis on the Vichy period. It presents this nationalism as part of a continuity, showing its beginnings well before the coming of the Vichy government, its exptremes under this government, and its continuation after the fall of the Vichy government, although retreating from its more extreme positions.

Friedlander, Henry. The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.

Ganssmuller, Christian. Die Erbgesundheitspolitik des Dritten Reiches: Planung, Durchfuhrung und Durchsetzung. Koln: Bohlau, 1987.

Health planning, abortion policy and euthanasia in the Third Reich.

Geuter, Ulfried. Die Professionalisierung der deutschen Psychologie im Nationalsozialismus. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1988.

Grossman, Atina. "New Women in Exile: German Women Doctors and the Emigration." Betwen Sorrow and Strength: Women Refugees of the Nazi Period. ed Sibylle Quack, 215-38. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

-----. Reforming Sex: The German Movement for Birth Control and Abortion Reform, 1920-1950. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Guggenbichler, Norbert. Zahnmedizin unter dem Hakenkreuz: Zahnarzteopposition vor 1933; NS-Standespolitik, 1933-1939. Frankfurt: Mabuse, 1988.

The fate of dentistry and anti-Nazi dentists in the Nazi period.

Harding, Sandra, ed. The `Racial' Economy of Science: Toward a Democratic Future. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993.

A wonderful anthology, largely of previously-published pieces; eminently suitable for textbook use in courses on race and science (it is available in paperback). Included are chapters from Martin Bernal's Black Athena, Stephen Jay Gould's The Mismeasure of Man, Donna Haraway's Primate Visions, James Jones's Bad Blood, Richard Levins and Richard Lewontin's Dialectical Biologist, Lewontin, Steven Rose and Leon Kamins's Not in Our Genes, Kenneth Manning's Black Apollo of Science, Joseph Needham's The Grand Titration, Robert Proctor's Racial Hygiene, and Sharon Traweek's Beamtimes and Lifetimes. This volume also reprints three key works on the social construction of race and the struggle against scientific racism: Nancy Krieger and Mary Bassett's "The Health of Black Folk" (from Monthly Review 1986), Nancy Stepan's "Race and Gender: The Role of Analogy in Science" (from Isis 1986), and Nancy Stepan and Sander Gilman's "Appropriating the Idioms of Science: The Rejection of Scientific Racism" (from The Bounds of Race: Perspectives on Hegemony and Resistance edited by Domonick LaCapra, [Cornell, 1991]).

Harrington, Anne. Reenchanted Science: Holism in German Culture From Wilhelm II to Hitler. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996.

Heesch, Eckhard, ed. Heilkunst in unheilvoler Zeit: Beiträge zur Geschichte der Medizin im Nationalsozialismus. Franfurt: Mabuse, 1993.

Heim, Suzanne, and Götz Aly, editors. Bevolkerungsstruktur und Massenmord: Neue Dokumente zur deutschen Politik der Jahre 1938-1945. Berlin: Rotbuch Verlag, 1991.

Hohendorf, Gerrit, and Achim Magull-Seltenreich, ed. Von der Heilkunde zur Massentötung: Medizin im Nationalsozialismus. Heidelberg: Wunderhorn, 1990.

Horn, David G. Social Bodies: Science, Reproduction, and Italian Modernity. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.

Jasper, Hinrich. Maximinian de Crinis (1889-1945): eine Studie zur Psychiatrie im Nationalsozialismus. Husum: Matthiesen, 1991.

Jellonnek, Burkhard. Homosexuelle unter dem Hakenkreuz: die Verfolgung von Homosexuellen im Dritten Reich. Paderborn: Schöningh, 1990.

Junker, Thomas, and Hannelore Landsberg. "Die zwei Tode eines Naturforschers: Der Weg Julius Schusters (1886-1949) von der Botanik zur Biologie-geschichte." Medizinhistorisches Journal 29.2 (1994): 149-170.

Kaiser, Wolfram. "Die `Judenfrage' an der Medizinischen Fakultät der Universität Halle-Wittenberg." Medizinhistorisches Journal 29.1 (1994): 3-22.

Traces the restrictions placed on Jews at the medical school in Halle, Germany, from the nineteenth century through the Nazi period.

Kroner, Hans-Peter. "Zwischen Arbeitslosigkeit und Berufsverbot: Die deutschsprachige Arzte-Emigration nach Palastina 1933-1945." Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte, 1991, 14: 1-14.

Deals with the social problems caused by the arrival of a large number of highly qualified German-Jewish professionals in British-occupied Palestine.

Kühl, Stefan. The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Suggests that the American eugenics movement provided much of the intellectual basis for Nazi race-science.

Lagnado, Lucette Matalon. Children of the Flames: Dr. Josef Mengele and the Untold Story of the Twins of Auschwitz. New York: Morrow, 1991.

Lifton, Lifton. The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide. New York: Basic Books, 1986.

Mangin-Lazarus, Carolilne. Maurice-Dide, Paris 1873 - Buchenwald 1944: Un Psychiatre et la Guerre. Toulouse: Erès, 1994.

Mazumdar, Pauline M. H. "Two Models for Human Genetics: Blood Grouping and Psychiatry in Germany Between the Wars." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 70, no. 4 (1966): 609-57.

In Germany, human genetics was the site of a debate between Mendelian mathematical modelers and empiricists. Mathematical mendelism almost disappeared after the Nazi accession to power.

-----. "Blood and Soil: The Serology of the Aryan Racial State." Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 1990, 64: 187-219.

Medizin im Nationalsozialismus. Munich: Oldenburg, 1988.

Proceedings of a conference held at the Munich Institute for Contemporary History.

Meinel, Christoph, and Peter Voswinckel, editors. Medizin, Naturwissenschaft, Technik und Nationalsozialismus: Kontinuitäten und Diskontinuitäten. Stuttgat: Verlag für Geschichte der Medizin, Naturwissenschaften und der Technik, 1994.

Muller-Hill, Benno. Murderous Science: Elimination by Scientific Selection of Jews, Gypsies, and Others, Germany 1933-1945. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Neumärker, Klaus Jürgen. Karl Bonhoeffer: Leben und Werk eines deutschen Psychiaters und Neurologen in seiner Zeit. Berlin; New York: Springer-Verlag, 1990.

Bonhoeffer was an anti-Nazi psychiatrist, brother of the theologian Dietrich Bonhoeffer.

Proctor, Robert. Racial Hygiene: Medicine under the Nazis. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1988.

"Proctor persuasively argues that physicians and medical scientists not only helped to foster the concepts and ideology of racial hygiene . . . but also actively participated in the administration of critical aspects of Nazi racial policies."

Pross, Christian, and Götz Aly, ed. The Value of the Human Being; Medicine in Germany 1918-1945. Berlin: Arztekammer Berlin, 1991.

Catalog of an exhibit originally mounted in Berlin, and then translated into English and shown at various American sites.

Richarz, Bernhard. Heilen, Pflegen, Toten: zur Alltagsgeschichte einer Heil- und Pflegeanstalt bis zum Ende des Nationalsozialismus. Gottingen: Verlag fur Medizinische Psychologie im Verlag Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1987.

Sterilization and murder of psychiatric patients under Nazism.

Richter, Gabriel. Blindheit und Eugenik (1918-1945). Freiburg: Schulz, 1986.

Blindness and eugenics in Weimer and Nazi Germany.

Roelcke, Volker. "'Zivilizationsschäden am Menschen' und ihre Behandlung: das Projekt einer 'seelischen Gesundheitsführung' im Nationalsozialismus." Medizinhistorisches Journal 231, no. 1-2 (1996): 3-48.

-----, Gerrit Hohendorf, and Maike Rotzoll. "Psychiatric Research and `Euthanasia': The Case of the Psychiatric Department at the University of Heidelberg, 1941- 1945." History of Psychiatry 5 .4 (Dec. 1994): 517-532.

Presents the first results of a project intended to reconstruct the activities of the research team of Professor Carl Schneider at Heidelberg.

Roland, Charles G. Courage under Siege: Starvation, Disease, and Death in the Warsaw Ghetto. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Rothmaler, Christiane. Sterilization nach dem "Gesetz zur Verhutung erbkranken Nachwuchses" vom 14, Juli 1933: eine Untersuchung zur Tatigkeit des Erbgesundheitsgerichtes und zur Durchfurhrung des Gestzez in Hamburg in der Zeit zwischen 1934 und 1944. Husum: Matthiesen, 1991.

Eugenic sterilization in Nazi Germany.

Schabel, Elmer. Soziale Hygiene zwischen sozialer Reform und sozialer Biologie: Fritz Rott (1878-1959) und die Säuglingsfürsorge in Deutschland. Husum: Matthiesen, 1995.

Das Schicksal der Medizin im Faschismus: Auftrag und Verpflichtung zur Bewahrung von Humanismus und Frieden: Internationales wissenschaftliches Symposium europaischer Sektionen der IPPNW, 17.-20. November 1988, Erfurt/Weimar DDR, edited by Samuel Mitja Rapoport und Achim Thom. Berlin: VEB Verlag Volk und Gesundheit, 1989.

Schleiermacher, Sabine. "Racial Hygiene and Deliberate Parenthood: Two Sides of Demographer Hans Harmsen's Population Policy." Issues in Reproductive and Genetic Engineering: Journal of International Feminist Analysis, 1990, 3: 201-210.

Schmuhl, Hans-Walter. Rassenhygiene, Nationalsozialismus, Euthanasie; Von der Verhtung zur Vernichtung 'lebensunwerten Lebens,' 1890-1945. Göttingen: Vandenhoek & Ruprecht, 1987.

Seidelman, William E. "Medical Selection: Auschwitz Antecedents and Effluent." International Journal of Health Services, 1991, 3: 435-448.

"Medical selection in Auschwitz represents the penultimate application of the traditional paradigm of medicine: the physician as gatekeeper and decision maker." This article reviews the historical evolution of that role in the context of public health, medical police, quarantine and immigration.

--------. "Mengele Medicus: Medicine's Nazi Heritage." Milbank Quarterly, 1988, 66: 221-239.

Reprinted in International Journal of Health Services, 1989, 19; 599-610.

Seithe, Horst. Das Deutsche Rote Kreuz im Dritten Reich (1933- 1939). Frankfurt: Mabuse, 1993.

Steinberg, Deborah Lynn. "Genes and Racial Hygiene: Studies of Science under National Socialism." Science as Culture, 1992, 3: 116-129.

Essay review of Robert J. Lifton's The Nazi Doctors (1986) and Robert Proctor's Racial Hygiene (1988).

Steppe, Hilde. "Nursing in the Third Reich." History of Nursing Society Journal, 1991, 3(4): 21-37.

-------. Krankenpflege im Nationalsozialismus. Frankfurt: Mabuse, 1993.

Seventh edition of a standard work on nursing in the Third Reich.

Thom, Achim, and Genadii Ivanovich Caregorodcev, eds. Medizin unterm Hakenkreuz. Berlin: VEB Volk und Gesundheit, 1989.

Volk und Gesundheit: Heilen und Vernichten in Nationalsozialismus. 3rd ed. Frankfurt: Mabuse-Verlag, 1990.

Documents and discussions relating to medicine in Nazi Germany.

Weindling, Paul. "Medicine and the Holocaust: The Case of Typhus." Medicine and Change: Historical and Sociological Studies of Medical Innovation. ed Ilana Löwy, 447-64. London and Paris: John Libbey and Company, 1993.

-----. Health, Race and German Politics between National Unification and Nazism, 1870-1945. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Weiss, Sheila Faith. "Race and Class in Fritz Lenz's Eugenics." Medizinhistorisches Journal, 1992, 27: 5-25.

"Like all race theorists, Lenz viewed Nordic blood as a necessary if not sufficient condition for a vigorous and culturally efficient nation. Yet an examination of Lenz's discourse surrounding the topic of race, especially his beloved Nordic race, reveals that 'race' was really little more than a projection of class prejudices -- the prejudices of the German Bildingsbürgertum and mandarin academic elite to which he belonged." Weiss concludes that non-Nazi conservative academics such as Lenz provided the justification for Nazi racial and social programs.

-----. Race Hygiene and National Efficiency: the Eugenics of Wilhelm Schallmayer. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.

White, Lawrence. "The Nazi Doctors and the Medical Community; Honor or Censure? The Case of Hans Sewering." Journal of Medical Humanities 17, no. 2 (1996): 119-35.

During the Nazi era, most German physicians abrograted their responsibilities to individual patients, and instead chose to advocate the interests of an evil regime. In doing so, several bioethical principles were violated. Despite gross violation of individual rights, many physicians went on to have successful careers, and in many cases were honored. This paper will review the case of Hans Sewering, a participant in the Nazi euthanasia program who became President-elect of the World Medical Association. The appropriate stance for the medical and scientific community toward those who violate human rights and ignore fundamental ethical principles of the healing profession will be considered."

Winau, Rolfed., and Heinz Muller-Dietzed. "Medizin für den Staat, Medicine für den Krieg": Aspekte zwischen 1914 und 1945: gesammelte Aufsätze. Husum: Matthiesen, 1994.

Wunder, Michael. Euthanasie in den letzten Kriegsjahren: die Jahre 1944 und 1945 in der Heil- und Pflegeanstalt Hamburg- Langenhorn. Hosum: Matthiesen, 1992.

Euthanasia and mental patients just before the end of the Nazi era.

3. Non-whites as healers and health workers

Adams, Eugene W. The Legacy: A History of the Tuskegee University School of Veterinary Medicine. Tuskegee, Ala.: Media Center Press, 1995.

Adeloye, Adelola. Doctor James Africanus Beale: West African Medical Scientist of the 19th Century. Pittsburgh: Dorrance, 1992.

Alexander, Philip. "John H. Rapier, Jr. amd the Medical Profession in Jamaica, 1861-1862." Jamaica Journal 24 (Feb. 1993): 37-46.

-----.. "John H. Rapier, Jr. and the Medical Profession in Jamaica, 1861-1862." Jamaica Journal 25 (Oct. 1993): 55-62.

Rapier, an African American frustrated by racial barriers in the United States, sought professional opportunity overseas -- first in Haiti, then in Jamaica. Following his return to the U.S. in 1862, he served as an acting assistant surgeon in the Union Army.

Baer, Hans A. and Yvonne Jones, ed. African Americans in the South: Issues of Race, Class, and Gender. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1992.

Baer and Jones's introduction is titled "Economic Survival, Health Maintenance, and Religious Identity in the South." Other articles related to health and medicine include "Reproduction and Transformation of Health Praxis and Knowledge among Southern Blacks," by Carole E. Hill; "Killing the Medical Self-Help Tradition among African Americans: The Case of Lay Midwifery in North Carolina, 1912-1983," by Holly F. Mathews; "Community AIDS education: Trials and Tribulation in Raising Consciousness for Prevention," by Ira E. Harrison; and "In Search of Soul Food and Meaning: Culture, Food, and Health," by Tony L. Whitehead.

Barnett, Rex, producer. Charles Drew -- Determined to Succeed. VHS format, 30 minutes. History on Video, Inc., Atlanta, 1995. videocassette.

Sadly, the Sigerist Circle bibliographer cannot recommend this poorly produced, historically naive account of the life and accomplishments of the originator of blood banking.

Beidemann, Ronald P. "Louise B. Clague: Breaking Color and Gender." Chiropractic History 14.2 (Dec. 1994): 11.

A very brief notice on the first black woman chiropractor.

Bell, Pege L. "`Making Do' with the Midwife: Arkansas's Mamie O. Hale in the 1940s." Nursing History Review 1 (1993): 155-169.

Contributions of Ms. Hale, an African-American nurse-midwife, to a statewide training program for traditional granny midwives.

Bellingham, Bruce, and Mary Pugh Mathis. "Race, Citizenship, and the Bio-politics of the Maternalist Welfare State: 'Traditional' Midwifery in the American South under the Sheppard-Towner Act, 1921-29." Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State, and Society 1.2 (June 1994): 157-189.

Bragg, Janet Harmon. Soaring Above Setbacks: The Autobiography of Janet Harmon Bragg, Afican American Aviator. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1996.

Besides flying airplanes, Bragg (1907-1993) was also a trained nurse and the proprietor of a nursing home.

Cabak, Melani A., Mark D. Groover, and Scott J Wagers. "Health Care and the Wayman A.M.E. Church." Historical Archaeology 29.2 (1995): 55-76.

Camino, Linda Anne. "Ethnomedical Illnesses and Non-Orthodox Healing Practices in a Black Neighborhood in the American South: How They Work and What They Mean." Ph.D. thesis, University of Virginia, 1986.

Mary Elizabeth Carnegie. The Path We Tread: Blacks in Nursing, 1854-1990. Second edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1991.

New edition of a work originally published in 1986.

Ben Carson. Gifted Hands. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1990

Carson is an African American neurosurgeon at Johns Hopkins who achieved particular fame in 1987 when he separated conjoint twins who were joined at the head. This book is religious in tone.

Chesnutt, Charles Waddell. The Conjure Woman, and Other Conjure Tales. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1993.

Chesnutt, who died in 932, incorporated aspect of African American folk healing into his fiction.

Clinton, Myrtle M. "Black Psychiatric Nurses: Historical Perspectives, 1964 to 1984." Journal of Black Studies 24 (Dec. 1993): 213-231.

Epps, Charles H., Jr., David G. Johnson, and Audrey Vaughan. African-American Medical Pioneers. Rockville, Md.: Betz Pub. Co., 1994.

Epps, Howard R. "The Howard University Medical Department in the Flexner Era: 1910-1929." Journal of the National Medical Association, 1989, 81: 885-911.

Fnch, Charles S. The African Background to Medical Science: Essays on African History, Science and Civilizations. London: Karnak House: 1991.

Fink, Leon, and Brian Greenberg. Upheaval in the Quiet Zone: A History of Hospital Workers' Union, Local 1199. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989.

Foner, Nancy. The Caregiving Dilemma: Work in an American Nursing Home. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

Fontenot, Wanda. Secret Doctors: Ethnomedicine of African Americans. Westport, Conn.: Bergin & Garvey, 1994.

Gamble, Vanessa Northington. "Conversations with History: Women Physicians and their Foremothers." Women's Review of Books 10.5 (Feb. 1993): 30-32.

Part of special section "Women who Teach with the Wolves," on women faculty members in professional schools.

-----. Making a Place for Ourselves: the Black Hospital Movement, 1920-1945. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

----------. The Black Community Hospital: An Historical Perspective. New York: Garland, 1989.

-----. "The Negro Hospital Renaissance; the Black Hospital Movement, 1920-1945." In Diana Elizabeth Long and Janet Golden, ed., The American General Hospital. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1989. pp. 82-105.

-----. "On becoming a physician: a dream not deferred." In: Evelyn C. White, editor, The Black Woman's Health Book: Speaking for Ourselves. Seattle: Seal Press, 1990. Pp. 52-64.

-----. "The Provident Hospital Project: An Experiment in Race Relations and Medical Education." Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 1991, 65: 457-475.

Gibbons, Russell W., and Glenda Wiese. "Fred Rubel: The First Black Chiropractor?" Chiropractic History, 1991, 11(1): 8-9.

Goodwill, Jean Cuthand. "Indian and Inuit Nurses of Canada: Profiles," CWS/CR: Canadian Woman Studies / Les Cahiers de la Femme, Summer/Fall 1989, 10(2/3): 117-24.

Greenberg, Brian. "Coming of Age: Local 1199 in the 1960s." In: Long, Diana Elizabeth and Janet Golden, ed, The American General Hospital. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1989. pp. 170-187.

Harding, Sandra, ed. The `Racial' Economy of Science: Toward a Democratic Future. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993.

A wonderful anthology, largely of previously-published pieces; eminently suitable for textbook use in courses on race and science (it is available in paperback). Included are chapters from Martin Bernal's Black Athena, Stephen Jay Gould's The Mismeasure of Man, Donna Haraway's Primate Visions, James Jones's Bad Blood, Richard Levins and Richard Lewontin's Dialectical Biologist, Lewontin, Steven Rose and Leon Kamins's Not in Our Genes, Kenneth Manning's Black Apollo of Science, Joseph Needham's The Grand Titration, Robert Proctor's Racial Hygiene, and Sharon Traweek's Beamtimes and Lifetimes. This volume also reprints three key works on the social construction of race and the struggle against scientific racism: Nancy Krieger and Mary Bassett's "The Health of Black Folk" (from Monthly Review 1986), Nancy Stepan's "Race and Gender: The Role of Analogy in Science" (from Isis 1986), and Nancy Stepan and Sander Gilman's "Appropriating the Idioms of Science: The Rejection of Scientific Racism" (from The Bounds of Race: Perspectives on Hegemony and Resistance edited by Domonick LaCapra, [Cornell, 1991]).

Hayden, Robert C. 11 African-American Doctors. Frederick, MD: Twenty-First Century Books, 1992.

A children's book.

Hill, Ruth Edmons, ed. The Black Women Oral History Project: From the Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library in the History of Women in America, Radcliffe College. Westport, Conn,: Meckler, 1991.

Several of the ten volumes in this series include oral histories of physicans and other health workers.

Hine, Darlene Clark. Black Women in White: Racial Conflict and Cooperation in th Nursing Profession 1890-1950. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.

Hirtle, Peter B., and Diane E. Rothenberg, compilers. Blacks in American Medicine: A Bibliography of Secondary Sources, 1970-1987. Bethesda, MD: National Library of Medicine, 1988.

An update for 1988-89 was later published.

Holland, Endesha Ida Mae. "Granny Midwives." Ms. Magazine, June 1987: 48-51, 73-74.

Holmes, Linda Janet. "African American Midwives in the South." In: The American Way of Birth, edited by Pamela S. Eakins. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986. Pp. 273-291.

-----. "Thank you Jesus to myself: The life of a traditional Black midwife." In: Evelyn C. White, editor, The Black Woman's Health Book: Speaking for Ourselves. Seattle: Seal Press, 1990. Pp. 98-116.

Jacobs, Claude F. "Benevolent societies of New Orleans Blacks during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries." Louisiana History, 1988, 29: 21-33.

-----. "Healing and Prophecy in the Black Spiritual Churches: A Need for Re-examination." Medical Anthropology, 1990, 12: 349-370.

"The beliefs and healing and prophecy rituals of the New Orleans black Spiritual churches are similar to those of Spiritualism, a largely white movement, and Espiritismo and Santeria among Hispanics. Whereas researchers have criticized or ignored the Spritual churches' therapeutic efforts, they have often described the others as beneficial. This article compares the religions and suggests that the therapy provided by the Spiritual churches be re-examined."

Lichstein, Peter R. "Rootwork from the Clinician's Perspective." In Herbal and Magical Medicine: Traditional Healing Today, edited by James Kirkland, et al. Durham: Duke University Press, 1992. Pp. 99-117.

Lightfoot, Sara Lawrence. Balm in Gilead: Journey of a Healer. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., 1988.

A biography of Dr. Margaret Morgan Lawrence, an African American psychiatrist.

Logan, Onnie Lee, and Katherine Clark. Motherwit: An Alabama Midwife's Story. New York: Dutton, 1989.

Love, Spencie. One Blood: The Death and Resurrection of Charles R. Drew. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Love starts with the rumor, false but widely-held among African Americans, that the leading African American surgeon was allowed to bleed to death outside a segregated hospital. She then relates the story of an obscure black man who did die for just this reason within a few months of Drew's death, in a nearby area of North Carolina. Behind the legend of Drew's death "lies a multilayered historical and cultural reality stretching back almost four centuries."

-----. "One Blood: The Charles R. Drew Legend and the Trauma of Race in America." Ph.D. Dissertation, Duke University, 1990.

-----. "`Noted Physician Fatally Injured': Charles Drew and the Legend that Will Not Die." Washington History 4 (Sept. 1992): 4-19.

Discusses the circumstances of the death of Charles Richard Drew following an automobile accident.

Macey, David. "Frantz Fanon 1925-1961." History of Psychiatry 7, no. 4 (1996): 489-97.

Biographical sketch and bibliography, part of special section on Fanon.

McBride, David. "The Henry Phipps Institute, 1903-1937: pioneering tuberculosis work with an urban minority." Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 1987, 61: 78-97.

-----. Integrating the City of Medicine: Blacks in Philadelphia Health Care 1910-1965. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989.

Makinde, M. Akin. African Philosophy, Culture, and Traditional Medicine. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies, 1988. 154p.

Mallock, Lesley. "Indian Medicine, Indian Health: Study between Red and White Medicine." CWS/CR: Canadian Woman Studies / Les Cahiers de la Femme, Summer/Fall 1989, 10(2/3): 105-14.

Marks, Shula. Divided Sisterhood: Race, Class, and Gender in the South African Nursing Profession. New York: St. Martin's, 1994.

Mason, Barbara. "Medical Biographies Exhibit at the Pearson Museum." Caduceus: A Museum Journal for the Health Sciences, 1992, 8: 54-55.

Review of "The Afro-American Presence in Medicine, 1850-1030," an exhibit prepared by Doris Y. Wilkinson, Professor of SOciology at the University of Kentucky.

Mathews, Holly F. "Doctors and Root Doctors: Patients Who Use Both." In Herbal and Magical Medicine: Traditional Healing Today, edited by James Kirkland, et al. Durham: Duke University Press, 1992. Pp. 68-98.

Moldow, Gloria. Women Doctors in Gilded-Age Washington: Race, Gender, and Professionalization. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987.

Moldow looks at the women graduates of Howard University medical school, a "Black" medical school that was actually rather integrated both by race and gender.

Payne-Jackson, Arvilla, and Lee John. Folk Wisdom and Mother Wit: John Lee, an African American Herbal Healer. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1993.

Peek, Monica Elizabeth. "Traditional African Medicine." The Pharos 58.2 (Mar. 1995): 24-29.

Postel, J. "Frantz Fanon -- Looking Back." History of Psychiatry 7, no. 4 (1996): 487.

Introduction to a special section on the life and work of Frantz Fanon (1925-1961), the radical anti-colonialist black francophone West Indian psychiatrist who practiced in Algeria.

Razanajao, Cl, J Postel, and D. F.Allen. "The Life and Psychiatric Work of Frantz Fanon." History of Psychiatry 7, no. 4 (1996): 499-524.

Part of special section on Fanon.

Rice, Mitchell F., and Woodrow Jones, Jr. . Public Policy and the Black Hospital: From Slavery to Segregation to Integration. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1994.

This work makes little use, and does not meet the standards, of Vanessa Gamble's work on black hospitals (see above).

Rose, Kenneth W. comp, et al. A Survey of Sources at the Rockefeller Archive Center for the Study of African-American history and Race Relations. Indianapolis: Indiana University Center on Philanthropy, 1993.

Salt, Karen. "African-American Midwifery: Past, Present, and Future." Midwifery Today and Childbirth Education, no. 38 (1996): 23-.

Sacks, Karen. Caring by the Hour: Women, Work, and Organizing at Duke Medical Center. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988.

Savitt, Todd. "'A Journal of Our Own': The Medical and Surgical Observer and the Beginnings of an African-American Medical Profession in Late 19th-Century America." Journal of the National Medical Association 88, no. 1; 2 (1996): 52-60, 115-22.

The Medical and Surgical Observer was the first medical journal owned and edited by an African American (Miles V. Link, M.D., Meharry 1891) and oriented towards the black medical professional community. It lasted for fourteen issues in 1892, 1893 and 1894.

-----. "Abraham Flexner and the Black Medical School." In: Beyond Flexner: Medical Education in the Twentieth Century, edited by Barbara Barzansky and Norman Gevitz. New York: Greenwood Press, 1992. Pp. 65-82

-------. "Entering a White Profession: Black Physicians in the New South, 1880-1920. Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 1987, 61: 507-540.

-----. "Slave health and Southern distinctiveness." In: Todd L. Savitt and James Harvey Young, ed., Disease and Distinctiveness in the American South. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1988. pp. 120-53. (Also published as "Black health on the plantation: masters, slaves and physicians." In: Judith Walzer Leavitt and Ronald L. Numbers, Sickness and Health in America: Readings in the History of Medicine and Public Health, Second edition, revised. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985. pp. 313-330.)

Seacole, Mary. Wonderful Adventures of Mrs. Seacole in Many Lands. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

First published in 1857, this is the memoirs of a "mixed-blood" middle-class West Indian woman who traveled to Crimea and aided in the medical effort in the British army camps.

Shaw, Stephanie J. What a Woman Ought to Be and to Do: Black Professional Women Workers During the Jim Crow Era. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Sinnette, Calvin H. "Rudolph Fisher, Harlem Renaissance Physician-Writer," Pharos, Spring 1990, 53(2): 27-30.

Smith, Susan L. "Neither Victim nor Villain: Nurse Eunice Rivers, the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, and Public Health Work." Journal of Women's History 8, no. 1 (1996): 95-113.

-----. "White Nurses, Black Midwives, and Public Health in Mississippi, 1920-1950." Nursing History Review 2 (1994): 29- 49.

-----. Sick and Tired of Being Sick and Tired: Black Women's Health Activism in America, 1890-1950. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995.

Recommended by the compiler of this bibliography as a good text for undergraduate courses.

Snow, Loudell F. Walkin' over Medicine. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1993.

"The material on African-American traditional medicine presented in this book spans a time period of more than 20 years. It is derived from . . . community-based studies in Arizona and Michigan, work in two prenatal clinics, conversations and written communications with traditional healers, and . . . several years experience as a behavioral scientist in a pediatrics clinic. It includes examples of folklore collected by . . . students in a university class and, of course, is augmented by the work of other scholars."

Susie, Debra Anne. In the Way of Our Grandmothers: A Cultural View of Twentieth Century Midwifery in Florida. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1988.

Talley-Ross, Nancy C. Jagged Edges: Black Professional Women in White Male Worlds. New York: Peter Lang, 1995.

Terrell, Suzanne. This Other Kind of Doctors: Traditional Medical Systems in Black Neighborhoods in Austin, Texas. New York: AMS Press, 1990.

Thompson, Lisa E. "Two Strikes: The Role of Black Women in Medicine before 1920." The Pharos 58.1 (Dec. 1995): 12-15.

Tutashinda, Kweli. "African Americans, Chiropractic and Social Change, 1895-1945." Chiropractic History 15.2 (1995): 115-17.

Tyler, Varro E. "The Elusive History of High John the Conqueror Root." Pharmacy in History, 1991, 33: 164-166.

High John the Conqueror is a herbal remedy, also known as John de Conker or Conkah, used in voodoo healing. This article seeks to identify it botanically and to trace the origin of its name.

Youssel, Hanafy A., and Salah A Fadl. "Frantz Fanon and Political Psychiatry." History of Psychiatry 7, no. 4 (1996): 525-32.

Part of a special section on Fanon.

Wiedman, Dennis. "Big and Little Moon Peyotism as Health Care Delivery Systems." Medical Anthropology, 1990, 12: 371-387.

"Big Moon Peyotism was introduced in the 1880s to the Delaware, Osage and Quapaw of Northeast Oklahoma. . . . This form of Peyotism and the Little Moon ritual developed by the Apache, Kiowa, and Comanche of Southwest Oklahoma formed the basis of the two major variation of this religion. . . . An ethnographic and historic comparison of these religious traditions . . . presents these as health care delivery systems"

Wiese, Glenda. "Beyond the `Jim Crow' Experience: Blacks in Chiropractic Education." Chiropractic History 14.1 (June 1994): 15-20.

"Although the first chiropractic adjustment was given . . . to a black man in 1895, within two decades attendance at the Palmer School of Chiropractic was forbidden to blacks. . . . This paper explores the social, historical and economic factors influencing the exclusion of blacks from medical education, and concludes that chiropractic education is at the stage medical education was twenty-five years years ago in its attempts to recruit black students."

Wolfe, Rinna Evelyn. Charles Richard Drew, M.D. New York: Franklin Watts, 1991.

A children's biography of the innovator of blood banking.

Wynes, Charles E. Charles Richard Drew: the Man and the Myth. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988. 132p.

Yellowtail, Thomas, and Michael Oren Fitzgerald. Yellowtail, Crow Medicine Man and Sun Dance Chief: An Autobiography as told to Michael Oren Fitzgerald. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994.

Young, David E., Grant Ingram, and Lise Swartz. Cry of the Eagle: Encounters with a Cree Healer. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1989.

4. Health care for and health conditions of Black people

Beardsley, Edward H. "Good-bye to Jim Crow: the Desegregation of Southern Hospitals, 1945-70." Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 1986, 60: 367-86.

-----. A History of Neglect: Health Care for Blacks and Mill Workers in the Twentieth-Century South. Beardsley. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1987.

Baer, Hans, and Yvonne Jones, eds. African Americans in the South: Issues of Race, Class, and Gender. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1992.

Baer and Jones's introduction is titled "Economic Survival, Health Maintenance, and Religious Identity in the South." Other articles related to health and medicine include "Reproduction and Transformation of Health Praxis and Knowledge among Southern Blacks," by Carole E. Hill; "Killing the Medical Self-Help Tradition among African Americans: The Case of Lay Midwifery in North Carolina, 1912-1983," by Holly F. Mathews; "Community AIDS education: Trials and Tribulation in Raising Consciousness for Prevention," by Ira E. Harrison; and "In Search of Soul Food and Meaning: Culture, Food, and Health," by Tony L. Whitehead.

Bailey, Eric J. Urban African American Health Care. Lanham, Md: University Press of America, 1991.

Bell, Pege L. "`Making Do' with the Midwife: Arkansas's Mamie O. Hale in the 1940s." Nursing History Review 1 (1993): 155-169.

Contributions of Ms. Hale, an African-American nurse-midwife, to a statewide training program for traditional granny midwives.

Bone, Margaret S. Capital Crime: Black Infant Mortality in America. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1989.

Braithwaite, Ronald L., and Sandra E. Taylor. Health Issues in the Black Community. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1992.

Byrd, W. Michael. "Race, Biology, and Health Care: Reassessing a Relationship." Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 1990, 3: 278-96.

Cabak, Melani A., Mark D. Groover, and Scott J Wagers. "Health Care and the Wayman A.M.E. Church." Historical Archaeology 29.2 (1995): 55-76.

Camino, Linda Anne. "Ethnomedical Illnesses and Non-Orthodox Healing Practices in a Black Neighborhood in the American South: How They Work and What They Mean." Ph.D. thesis, University of Virginia, 1986.

Chesnutt, Charles Waddell. The Conjure Woman, and Other Conjure Tales. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1993.

Chesnutt, who died in 1932, incorporated aspect of African American folk healing into his fiction.

Codipopoy, Joseph F. Negroid Race: Subject, Reference & Research Guidebook. Washington, D.C.: ABBE Publishers Association, 1987.

A peculiar book from a publisher of peculiar bibliographies. It can be of some help in bibliographic work.

Curtin, Philip D. "The Slavery Hypothesis for Hypertension among African Americans: The Historical Evidence." American Journal of Public Health 82.12 (Dec. 1992): 1681-1686.

"The slavery hypothesis for hypertension has stated that the high blood pressures sometimes measured in African Americans are caused by one or more of these conditions: first, salt deficiency in the parts of Africa that supplied slaves for the Americas; second, the trauma of the slave trade itself; third, conditions of slavery in the United States. A review of the historical evidence shows that there was no salt deficiency in those parts of Africa, nor do present-day West Africans have a high incidence of hypertension. Historical evidence does not support the hypothesis that deaths aboard slave ships were caused mainly by conditions that might be conducive to hypertension, such as salt- depleting diseases. Finally the hypothesis has depended heavily on evidence from the West Indies, which is not relevant for the United States. There is no evidence that diet or the resulting pattern of disease and demography among slaves in the American South were significantly different from thse of other poor southerners."

Derickson, Alan. "Industrial Refugees: the Migration of Silicotics from the Mines of North America and South Africa in the Early 20th Century." Labor History, 1988, 29: 66-89.

Dubois, Laurent. "A Spoonful of Blood: Haitians, Racism and AIDS." Science As Culture 6, no. 1 (1996): 7-43.

Ewbank, Douglas C. "History of Black Mortality and Health before 1940." Milbank Quarterly, 1987 65 (suppl. 1): 100-128.

Fee, Elizabeth. "Public Health in Baltimore: Childhood Lead Paint Poisoning, 1930-1970." Maryland Historical Magazine 87 (Sept. 1992): 267-293.

Finelman, Paul, ed. Medicine, Nutrition, Demography and Slavery, New York: Garland, 1989. (Articles on Amerian Slavery, v. 15)

Flack, Harley E., and Edmund D. Pellegrino, eds. African-American Perspectives on Biomedical Ethics. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 1992.

Fontenot, Wanda. Secret Doctors: Ethnomedicine of African Americans. Westport, Conn.: Bergin & Garvey, 1994.

Stuart Galishoff. "A Bleak History of Black Health Care." Medical Humanities Review, 1992, 6: 50-543.

A generally positive review of David MacBride, From TB to AIDS: Epidemics among Urban Blacks since 1900 (Albany: SUNY Press, 1991).

Gamble, Vanessa Northington. Making a Place for Ourselves: the Black Hospital Movement, 1920-1945. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

-----. "The Provident Hospital Project: An Experiment in Race Relations and Medical Education." Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 1991, 65: 457-475.

Gibbs, Tyson, compiler. A Guide to Ethnic Health Collections in the United States. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood press, 1996.

A preliminary survey of libraries and other repositories for collections relevant to the health of non-white ethnic groups.

Graham, Sandra Lauderdale. "Slavery's Impasse: Slave Prostitutes, Small-Time Mistresses, and the Brazilian Law of 1871." Comparative Studies in Society and History, 1991, 33: 669-694.

Gutmann, Myron P., and Kenneth H Fliess. "The Social Context of Child Mortality in the American Southwest." Journal of Interdisciplinary History 26.4 (1996): 589-614.

"This article is a report about the social context of infant and childhood mortality levels in six rural counties in Texas. . . . Our goal is to show the nature of social differences in childhood mortality in Texas. The idea of social difference goes beyond the common descriptors, social status and occupational socioeconomicdescription. In Texas, as in much of the South . . ., racial and ethnic differences were major determinants of the demographic experiences of population groups. Blacks and whites, differed, of course, but so did important groups within the white population." A very quantitative piece of history.

Hammar, Lawrence. "The Dark Side to Donovanosis: Color, Climate, Race and Racism in American South Venerology." Journal of Medical Humanities 18, no. 1 (1997): 29-57.

"Medical experimentation on humans with 'classic' venereal diseases (e.g., syphilis, gonorrhea) is not generally well-known, but experimentation with others such as Granuloma inguinale, or Donovanosis, is even less so. Endemic to non-existent here, hyper-epidemic there, between 1880 and 1950 Donovanosis was linguistically and morally 'constructed' as a disease of poor, sexually profligate, tropical, darkly-skinned persons. It was also experimentally produced on and in African-American patients in many charity hospitals in the American South. This essay analyzes Donovanosis literature of the period that heavily featured skin color, climate and tropicality, venereal sin and racial susceptibility. It then recounts the history of human experimentation with it and its biomedical experimental history in terms of 'disease narratives' produced not only by but for venereologists."

Harding, Sandra, ed. The `Racial' Economy of Science: Toward a Democratic Future. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993.

A wonderful anthology, largely of previously-published pieces; eminently suitable for textbook use in courses on race and science (it is available in paperback). Included are chapters from Martin Bernal's Black Athena, Stephen Jay Gould's The Mismeasure of Man, Donna Haraway's Primate Visions, James Jones's Bad Blood, Richard Levins and Richard Lewontin's Dialectical Biologist, Lewontin, Steven Rose and Leon Kamins's Not in Our Genes, Kenneth Manning's Black Apollo of Science, Joseph Needham's The Grand Titration, Robert Proctor's Racial Hygiene, and Sharon Traweek's Beamtimes and Lifetimes. This volume also reprints three key works on the social construction of race and the struggle against scientific racism: Nancy Krieger and Mary Bassett's "The Health of Black Folk" (from Monthly Review 1986), Nancy Stepan's "Race and Gender: The Role of Analogy in Science" (from Isis 1986), and Nancy Stepan and Sander Gilman's "Appropriating the Idioms of Science: The Rejection of Scientific Racism" (from The Bounds of Race: Perspectives on Hegemony and Resistance edited by Domonick LaCapra, [Cornell, 1991]).

Herndl, Diane Price. "The Invisible (Invalid) Woman: African-American Women, Illness, and Nineteenth-Century Narrative." Women's Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal 24.6 (1995): 553-72.

From a special issue of this journal on women and medicine.

Hill, Shirley A. "Motherhood and the Obfuscation of Medical Knowledge: The Case of Sickle Cell Disease." Gender & Society 8.1 (Mar. 1994): 29-47.

Hirtle, Peter B., and Diane E. Rothenberg, compilers. Blacks in American Medicine: A Bibliography of Secondary Sources, 1970-1987. Bethesda, MD: National Library of Medicine, 1988.

An update for 1988-89 was later published.

Hogue, Carol J. Roland, and Martha A. Hargraves. "Class, Race, and Infant Mortality in the United States." American Journal of Public Health 83.1 (Jan. 1993): 9-11.

As a result of Sweden's efforts to eliminate poverty and to provide comprehensive health care, there are only small social class differences in infant mortality. The wider social differences in US infant mortality are a consequence of less consistent and thorough attempts at social equity and universal health care. . . . Public health research should examine the role of racism in infant mortality and develop interventions to eliminate racism and its effects on the health of Black Americans.

Howell, Joel D., and Catherine G. McLaughlin. "Race, Income, and the Purchase of Medical Care by Selected 1917 Urban Working-Class Urban Families." Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Scieences, 1992, 47: 439-461.

Hughes, John S. "Labeling and Treating Black Mental Illness in Alabama, 1861-1910." Journal of Southern History, 1992, 58: 435-460.

Jacobs, C. F. "Benevolent Societies of New Orleans Blacks during the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries." Louisiana History, 1988, 29: 21-33.

Katz, Elaine N. The White Death: Silicosis on the Witwatersrand Gold Mines, 1886-1910. Johannesburg, South Africa: Witwatersrand University Press, 1994.

Kiple, Kenneth, ed. The African Exchange: Toward a Biological History of Black People. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1987.

Klepp, Susan E. "Seasoning and Society: Racial Differences in Mortality in Eighteenth-Century Philadelphia." William and Mary Quarterly 51.3 (July 1994): 473-506.

"The evidence examined here reveals that enslaved Africans faced substantially higher risk of death in Philadelphia than did free or dependent whites. Nor can the supposed good treatment of slaves be sustained. . . . Africans suffered far greater disadvantages in the New World than did even the poorest Eureopean servants. The physical environment, with its unfamiliar climate and Eurasian diseases was one threat, but the social environment of northern slavery, where the customary maltreatment of inferior persons by their social superiors was carried to extremes, posed an ever greater danger to Africans in Philadelphia.

Komlos, John, and Bjorn Alecke. "The Economics of Antebellum Slave Heights Reconsidered." Journal of Interdisciplinary History 26.3 (1996): 437-57.

Supports the thesis, first propounded by Richard Steckel in 1979, that adult African-American slaves were indeed "tall relative to their African brethren, or even compared to the common people of Europe." Also supports the corollary, that "the high productivity of slave labor provided masters with the incentive to supply sufficient, basic alimentation to their human chattel" and, therefore, "the biological well being of even the lowest segments of American society fared well in international comparison -- the oppressive nature of the system notwithstanding -- than one would have anticipated a priori."

Love, Spencie. One Blood: The Death and Resurrection of Charles R. Drew. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Love starts with the rumor, false but widely-held among African Americans, that Drew was allowed to bleed to death outside a segregated hospital. She then relates the story of much more obscure black man who did die for just this reason within a few months of Drew's death. Behind the legend of Drew's death "lies a multilayered historical and cultural reality stretching back almost four centuries."

McBride, David. "The Henry Phipps Institute, 1903-1937: Pioneering Tuberculosis Work with an Urban Minority." Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 1987, 61: 78-97.

-----. From TB to AIDS: Epidemics among Urban Blacks since 1900. Albany: Satate University of New York Press, 1991.

-----. Integrating the City of Medicine: Blacks in Philadelphia Health Care 1910-1965. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989.

McDaniel, Antonio. Swing Low, Sweet Chariot: The Mortality Cost of Colonizing Liberia During the Nineteenth Century. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

McMillen, Sally G. "'No Uncommon Disease': Neonatal Tetanus, Slave Infants, and the Southern Medical Profession." Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 1991, 46: 291-314.

Navarro, Vicente. "Race or Class or Race and Class: Growing Mortality Differential in the United States," International Journal of Health Services, 1991, 21: 229-225.

Nol, Steven. "Southern Strategies for Treating the Black Feeble-Minded: From Social Control to Profound Indifference." Journal of Policy History, 1991, 3: 130-151.

Owsley, D. W., et al. "Demography and pathology of an urban slave population from New Orleans." American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 1987, 74: 185-197.

Packard, Randall M. White Plague, Black Labor: Tuberculosis and the Political Economy of Health and Disease in South Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.

Peniston, Reginald L., and Otelio S. Randall. "Coronary Artery Disease in Black Americans 1920-1960: the Shaping of Medical Opinion." Journal of the National Medical Association, 1989, 81: 591-600.

Rathbun, T. A. "Health and disease at a South Carolina plantation: 1840-1870." American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 1987, 74: 239-53.

Reynolds, P. Preston. Watts Hospital of Durham, North Carolina, 1895-1976: Keeping the Doors Open. Durham: Fund for the Advancement of Science and Mathematics Education in North Carolina, 1991.

"An adaptation of her dissertation: "Watts Hospital, 1895-1976: Paternalism and Race, the Evolution of a Southern Institution in Durham, North Carolina."

Rice, Mitchell F., and Woodrow Jones, Jr. Public Policy and the Black Hospital: From Slavery to Segregation to Integration. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1994.

This work makes little use, and does not meet the standards, of Vanessa Gamble's work on black hospitals listed above.

----- and -----, compilers. Health of Black Americans from Post Reconstruction to Integration, 1871-1960. New York: Greenwood Press, 1990.

Rodrique, Jessie M. "The Afro-American Community and the Birth Control Movement, 1918-1942." Diss. Amherst: University of Massachusetts, 1991.

Rose, Kenneth W., compiler. A Survey of Sources at the Rockefeller Archive Center for the Study of African-American History and Race Relations. Indianapolis: Indiana University Center on Philanthropy, 1993.

Rosner, David, and Gerald Markowitz. Children, Race and Power: Kenneth and Mamie Clark's Northside Center. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1996.

Ross, Loretta J. "African-American Women and Abortion: A Neglected History" [Guest editorial]. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 1992, 3: 274-284.

"The history of African-American women's efforts to control their fertility is largely unknown. From slavery to the present, the growth rate of the African-American population has been cut in half. Demographers and historians frequently attribute this change to external factors such as poverty, disease, and coerced birth control, rather than the deliberate agency of African-American women. This essay assembles a brief historical record record of the ways African-American women have sought to control their fertility through the use of abortion and birth control. It also examines the activism of African-American women in the establishment of family planning clinics and in defense of abortion rights."

Salber, Eva J. The Mind is Not the Heart: Recollections of a Woman Physician. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1989.

Dr. Salber began her career in South Africa and ended it in Boston. In both places she committed herself to improving the health of people of color and other medically underserved populations.

Savitt, Todd L. "Slave Health and Southern Distinctiveness." In: Todd L. Savitt and James Harvey Young, editors. Disease and Distinctiveness in the American South. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1988. pp. 120-53.

Secundy, Marian Gray, ed. Trials, Tribulations, and Celebrations: African-American Perspectives on Health, Illness, Aging, and Loss. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press, 1992.

Literary selections reflecting the African American point of view.

Sheridan, Richard B. Doctors and Slaves: a Medical and Demographic History of Slavery in the British West Indies, 1680-1834. Sheridan. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

Skolnik, Neil S. On the Ledge: A Doctor's Stories From the Inner City. Boston: Faber and Faber, 1996.

Dedication in North Philadelphia.

Smith, Susan L. Sick and Tired of Being Sick and Tired: Black Women's Health Activism in America, 1890-1950. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995.

Recommended by the compiler of this bibliography as a good text for undergraduate courses.

-----. "White Nurses, Black Midwives, and Public Health in Mississippi, 1920-1950." Nursing History Review 2 (1994): 29- 49.

Snow, Loudell F. Walkin' over Medicine. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1993.

"The material on African-American traditional medicine presented in this book spans a time period of more than 20 years. It is derived from . . . community-based studies in Arizona and Michigan, work in two prenatal clinics, conversations and written communications with traditional healers, and . . . several years experience as a behavioral scientist in a pediatrics clinic. It includes examples of folklore collected by . . . students in a university class and, of course, is augmented by the work of other scholars."

Solinger, Rickie. "Race and `Value': Black and White Illegitimate Babies in the U.S.A., 1945-1965." Gender & History 4.3 (1992): 343-363.

Solinger's argument about the differential treatment of black and white unwed mothers before Roe v. Wade is presented in her book Wake Up Little Susie, cited in an earlier bibliography in this series.

Stanford, Ann Folwell. "Mechanisms of Disease: African-American Women Writers, Social Pathologies, and the Limits of Medicine." NWSA Journal 6.1 (Mar. 1994): 28-47.

Stecklel, Richard H. "A dreadful childhood: the excess mortality of American slaves." Social Science History, 1986, 10: 427-66.

-----. "Growth depression and recovery: the remarkable case of American slaves." Annals of Human Biology, 1987, 14; 111-32.

----- and Richard A. Jensen. "New evidence on the cause of slave and crew mortality in the Atlantic slave trade." Journal of Economic History, 1986, 46: 57-77.

Stewart, L. "The Edge of Utility: Slaves and Smallpox in the Early Eighteenth Century." Medical History, 1985, 29: 54-71.

Tapper, Melbourne. "Interrogating Bodies: Medico-Racial Knowledge, Politics, and the Study of a Disease." Comparative Studies in Society and History 37.1 (Jan. 1995): 76-93.

"In this essay I want to show how sickling became inscribed within a racialist discourse network, thus investing this network with a remarkable efficacy as a marker of racial difference. I will show how sickling came to be used in safeguarding and [re]producing racial bodies and their differential signs; how sickling became a litmus test to specify who is black and who is white and as an instrument for policing the boundaries between one group of people defined as black and another defined as white. My point is not to deny that certain diseases are present in some populations while absent in others but, rather, to identify the discourses that make it possible to account for such a distribution of disease in terms of race."

Thomas, Stephen B., and Sandra Crouse Quinn. "The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 1932 to 1972: Implications for HIV Education and AIDS Risk Education Programs in the Black Community." American Journal of Public Health, 1991, 81: 1498-1505.

Umansky, Lauri. "The Sisters Reply: Black Nationalist Pronatalism, Black Feminism, and the Quest for a Multiracial Women's Movement, 1965-1974." Critical Matrix 8.2 (1994): 19-50.

Wailoo, Keith. "Drawing Blood: Medical Conception of Disease in 20th Century American from Chlorisis to Sickle Cell Anemia." Diss. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1992.

Weiss, Hedy. "The Critic's Perspective on the Use of Drama." Caduceus: A Museum Journal for the Health Sciences, 1992, 8: 23-28.

A discussion of "Miss Evers' Boys," a drama based on the Tuskegee study.

White, Evelyn C., ed. The Black Women's Health Book: Speaking for Ourselves. Seattle: Seal Press, 1990.

5. Health care for health conditions of Native North American Indians and Inuits

Abel, Emily K, and Nancy Reifel. "Interactions Between Public Health Nurses and Clients on American Indian Reservations During the 1930s." Social History of Medicine 9, no. 1 (1996): 89-108.

". . . One of the key missions of the public health nurses was to inculcate Euro-American beliefs. They assumed that American Indians would follow a linear progression from understanding the 'rules of health' to eradication of all traditional practices. . . ."

Adauir, John, Kurt Deuschle, and Clifford Barnett. The people's health: medicine and anthropology in a Navajo community, with an additional chapter by Clifford R. Barnett in collaboration with David L. Rabin. Rev. and expanded ed. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1988.

The interpenetration of traditional healing and western biomedicine among the Navajos.

Aitken, Larry P.and Edwin W. Haller. Two cultures meet: pathways for American Indians to medicine. Duluth: University of Minnesota--Duluth; Garrett Park, MD : Distributed by Garrett Park Press, 1990.

Alchon, Suzanne Austin. Native Society and Disease in Colonial Ecuador. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Baca, Oswald G. "Analysis of Deaths in New Mexico's Rio Abajo During the Late Spanish Colonial and Mexican Periods, 1793-1846." New Mexico Historical Review 70 (1995): 237-55.

Berlinguer, Giovanni. "The Interchange of Disease and Health between the Old and New Worlds." International Journal of the Health Services 23.4 (1993): 703-716.

". . . To evaluate the multiple aspects of the interchange between the Old and New Worlds this article discusses the following: the causes of the rapid decline of the original American populations; the diffusion of communicable diseases between the two civilizations; the health consequences of the nutritional changes on both sides of the Atlantic; drug addictions, as they developed through the centuries and as they exist today; the ways diseases were and are evaluated, prevented, diagnosed, and treated; and the mutual impact of different models of health services. . . ."

Brooks, Francis J. "Revising the Conquest of Mexico: Smallpox, Sources, and Population." Journal of Interdisciplinary History 24.1 (June 1993): 1-29.

Disputes the contention that smallpox killed off a majority of Native Meso-Americans living in Mexico at the time of the Spanish conquest, and suggests that the population of Mexico at the end of the fifteenth century was smaller than is generally estimated.

Claymore, Betty J. and Marian A. Taylor. "AIDS--Tribal Nations Face the Newest Communicable Disease: An Aberdeen Area Perspective." American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 1989, 13: 21-31.

Cook, Noble David, and W. George Lovell, editors. "Secret Judgements of God": Old World Disease in Colonial Spanish America. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1992.

Croom, Edward M., Jr. "Herbal Medicine among the Lumbee Indians." In Herbal and Magical Medicine: Traditional Healing Today, edited by James Kirkland, et al. Durham: Duke University Press, 1992. Pp. 137-169.

Dorris, Michael. The Broken Cord. New York: Harper & Row, 1989.

Personal narrative an anthropologist who adopted a child of native American background suffering from fetal alcohol syndrome. Dorris's efforts led to greater recognition of the extent of this problem.

Fisher, Richard, Allen Brands, and Rick Herrier. "History of the Indian Health Service Model of Pharmacy Practice: Innovations in Pharmaceutical Care." Pharmacy in History 37.3 (1995): 107-122.

Gibbs, Tyson, compiler. A Guide to Ethnic Health Collections in the United States. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood press, 1996.

A preliminary survey of libraries and other repositories for collections relevant to the health of non-white ethnic groups.

Goodwill, Jean Cuthand, "Indian and Inuit Nurses of Canada: Profiles." CWS/CR: Canadian Woman Studies / Les Cahiers de la Femme, Summer/Fall 1989, 10(2/3): 117-24.

Grygier, Pat Sandiford. A Long Way from Home: the Tuberculosis Epidemic among the Inuit. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1994.

Hagey, Rebecca. "The Native Diabetes Program: Rhetorical Process and Praxis." Medical Anthropology, 1989, 12: 7-33.

Discusses a diabetes education program among urban Native Canadians.

Hammerschlag, Carl A. The Dancing Healers: A Doctor's Journey of Healing with Native Americans. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1988.

Hauser, Raymond E. "The Healing Arts and the Illinois Indian Tribe." Caduceus: A Museum Journal for the Health Sciences 8.3 (Dec. 1992): 25-44.

Hultkrantz, Åke. Shamanic Healing and Ritual Drama: Health and Medicine in Native North American Religious Traditions. New York: Crossroad, 1992.

Jackson, Mary Percy. Suitable for the Wilds: Letters From Northern Alberta, 1929-1931. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1995.

Jarrell, Robin H. "Native American Women and Forced Sterilization, 1973-1976." Caduceus: A Museum Journal for the Health Sciences 8.3 (Dec. 1992): 45-58.

"Between 1973 and 1976, more than 3,400 Native American women were sterilized in health service facilities operated by the United States government. Were these sterilizations . . . abusive to Native American women? Has there been a fully conscious policy, plan, or attempt by the United States Government to commit racial, ethnic or cultural genocide?"

Joralemon, Donald, and Douglas Sharon. Sorcery and Shamanism: Curanderos and Clients in Northern Peru. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1993.

Kattapong, V. J., T. M. Becker, and F. D. Gilliland. "Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality in American Indians, Hispanics, and Non-Hispanic Whites in New Mexico, 1958-1992." American Indian Culture and Research Journal 19.2 (1995): 31-43.

Patricia A. Kaufert and John D. O'Neil. "Cooptation and Control: The Reconstruction of Inuit Birth." Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 1990, 4: 427-442.

Medicalization of childbirth in the Canadian Arctic resulted in decreases in perinatal mortality, which in turn was used to symbolize the beneficence of a government presence in the North.

Kunitz, Stephen J. "The History and Politics of U.S. Health Care Policy for American Indians and Alaskan Natives." American Journal of Public Health 86, no. 10 (1996): 1464-73.

Lang, Gretchen Chesley. "'Making Sense' about Diabetes: Dakota Narratives of Illness." Medical Anthropology, 1989, 11: 305-327.

McCaa, Robert. "Spanish and Nahuatl Views on Smallpox and Demographic Catastrophe in Mexico." Journal of Interdisciplinary History 25.3 (Dec. 1995): 397-431.

Argues against revisionist historians who claim that smallpox did not kill a large proportion of the Aztec population.

McGinnis, Janice Dickin. "'My Life in Keg River" by Mary Percy Jackson." Canadian Bulletin of Medical History = Bulletin Canadien d'Histoire de la Médecine 12.1 (1995): 169-186.

Mary Percy Jackson practiced medicine among the Metis people of the Keg River district of Northern Alberta in the 1930s. This is a reprint of a speech she gave in 1956, with an introduction by the editor.

Mallock, Lesley. "Indian Medicine, Indian Health: Study between Red and White Medicine." CWS/CR: Canadian Woman Studies / Les Cahiers de la Femme, Summer/Fall 1989, 10(2/3): 105-14.

Mancall, Peter C. Deadly Medicine: Indians and Alcohol in Early America. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995.

Mathiasen, Helle, and Joseph S. Albert. "'Don't Point at Rainbows': Western Medicine in Zuni Pueblo." Pharos, Winter 1991, 54(1): 22-25.

Miller, Jay. "Native Healing in Puget Sound." Caduceus: A Museum Journal for the Health Sciences 8.3 (Dec. 1992): 1-15.

Monroe, Mark. An Indian in White America. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994.

Ortiz de Montellano, Bernard. Aztec Medicine, Health and Nutrition. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1990.

A skeptical doctor reviewed this book, claiming it "loses few opportunities to disparage present-day medicine by comparison with Aztec practice."

Owsley, Douglas W., and Richard L. Jantz, ed. Skeletal Biology in the Great Plains: Migration, Warfare, Health, and Subsistence. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994.

Pauly, Philip J. "How Did the Effects of Alcohol on Reproduction Become Scientifically Uninteresting?" Journal of the History of Biology 29, no. 1 (1996): 1-28.

"Biologists' beliefs about alcohol and reproduction changed significantly from 1910 to 1930 as a consequence of a definite sequence of experimental and political transformation." Interest in alcohol and reproduction resumed "around 1970 as a population of heavy drinkers (Native Americans) intersected research-oriented physicians in a mass-consumption medical environment. . . ."

Ritenbaugh, Cheryl, and Carol-Sue Goodby. "Beyond the Thrifty Gene: Metabolic Implications of Prehistoric Migration into the New World." Medical Anthropology, 1989, 11: 227-236.

Anthropological examination of the reasons for high prevalence of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and other diseases among native Americans.

St. Pierre, Mark. Madonna Swan: A Lakota Woman's Story. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991.

Incorporates a discussion of tuberculosis from the American Indian patient's point of view.

Sakokwenonkas. "Pregnancies and the Mohawk Tradition." CWS/CR: Canadian Woman Studies / Les Cahiers de la Femme, Summer/Fall 1989, 10(2/3): 115-6.

Spieldoch, Rachel L. "Uranium Is in My Body." American Indian Culture and Research Journal 20, no. 2 (1996): 173-85.

Sproule-Jones, Megan. "Crusading for the Forgotten: Dr. Peter Bryce, Public Health, and Prairie Native Residential Schools." Canadian Bulletin of Medical History = Buletin Canadien D'Histoire De La Médicine 13, no. 2 (1996): 199-224.

"This article examines the rise of the public health mvement and its impact on native affairs in Canada at the turn of the century. It focuses on the efforts of Peter Bryce, Chief Medical Officer for the Departments of the Interior and Indian Affairs, to improve conditions in native schools and on reserves. In 1907, Bryce released his controversial Report on the Indian Schools of Manitoba and the North West Territories , revealing that 24 percent of all native residential school students had died of tuberculosis. Believing firmly that the state was responsible for promoting the health and welfare of its people, Bryce insisted that the federal governemnt address this high death rate. His tireless crusade on behalf of the native population demonstrated the extent to which native affairs were influenced by the broader social, political, and economic agendas of the day, and anticipated the federal government's changing role in social services following World War I."

Russell Thornton. The Cherokees: A Population History. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990.

Twohig, Peter L. "Colonial Care: Medical Attendance Among the Mi'Kmaq in Nova Scotia." Canadian Bulletin of Medical History = Bulletin Canadien D'Histoire De La Médecine 13, no. 2 (1996): 333-53.

"In Nova Scotia before Confederation, medical care for native peoples formed an integral part of the fledgling Indian administration. As the colonial authorities became more involved in all aspects of native life, an opportunity for self-advancement was presented to the doctors. Practitioners among the Mi'kmaq came from the emerging medical elite. This article argues that their service to the Mi'kmaq was part of a broader and widespread reform effort. Doctors not only delivered care to the Mi'kmaq, but they also served the needs of a colonial administration actively seeking to settle natives in reserve comunities. The activities of doctors, however, did not go uncontested. This study illustrates the complex interaction among the native administration, the Mi'kmaq population, and a medical community struggling to organize.".

Vanast, Walter J. "'Ignorant of any Rational Method": European Assessments of Indigenous Healing Practices in the North American Arctic. Canadian Bulletin of Medical History / Bulletin Canadien d'Histoire de la Medecine, 1992, 9: 57-69.

"By focussing on a single therapy -- surgical treatment of headache -- this article defines the broad pattern of early white reactions to native healing in the North American Arctic. Many Europeans, particularly those with medical training, denied the value of indigenous surgery. Missionaries, to the contrary, recognized its success, and thought its suppression necessary: 'cutting' reinforced native religious concepts by providing an exit for illness-causing spirits. When they could not deny the efficacy of traditional therapy, Europeans resorted to naturalistic explanations. In practice, they realized, there was little difference between indigenous arctic and European surface surgery: both produced bleeding and counterirritation. Native healers, it followed were unwittingly applying contemporary European treatments; alternatively, they had learned effective procedures through contact with whites. Only very rarely did newcomers incorporate indigenous therapeutic concepts into their treatment of native patients. With few exceptions, Europeans failed to recognize inherent value in traditional northern healing."

Verano, John W. and Douglas H. Ubelaker, ed. Disease and Demography in the Americas. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992.

Papers given at a symposium held at the Smithsonian in 1989, largely on the health and population size of native American societies before and after European contact.

Waldram, James B. "Access to Traditional Medicine in a Western Canadian City." Medical Anthropology, 1990, 12: 325-348.

"This paper examines the question of access to traditional Indian medical systems in the western Canadian city of Saskatoon. The data demonstrate that many Natives desire such access, and do not see difficulties in havuiing Indian healers available in Western-style biomedical clinics. . . . It is argued that a lack of access to traditional Indian medical services represents a legitimate health need."

Weiss, Kenneth M., et al. "Diabetes Mellitus in American Indian: Characteristics, Origins and Preventive Health Care Implications." Medical Anthropology, 1989, 11: 283-304.

Whitmore, Thomas M. Disease and Death in Early Colonial Mexico: Simulating Amerindian Depopulation. Boulder: Westview, 1992.

Iedman, Dennis Williams. "Adiposity or Longevity: Which Factor Accounts for the Increase in Type II Diabetes Mellitus When Populations Acculturate to an Industrial Technology." Medical Anthropology, 1989, 11: 237-253.

An empirical study comparing several native American groups in Oklahoma and Arkansas.

Yellowtail, Thomas, and Michael Oren Fitzgerald. Yellowtail, Crow Medicine Man and Sun Dance Chief: An Autobiography as told to Michael Oren Fitzgerald. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994.

Young, T. Kue. Health Care and Cultural Change: The Indian Experience in the Central Subarctic. Toronto; University of Toronto Press, 1988.

Concludes that ecological and socio-cultural factors, rather than medical care, have been the major determinants of disease patterns among the northern Cree and Ojibway. The author proposes a broad strrategy for improving the health of Indians in the Canadian subarctic.

6. Health care for and health conditions of Hispanic Americans

Baca, Oswald G. "Analysis of Deaths in New Mexico's Rio Abajo During the Late Spanish Colonial and Mexican Periods, 1793-1846." New Mexico Historical Review 70 (1995): 237-55.

Fox, Steve. Toxic Work: Women Workers at GTE Lenkurt. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991.

"This book chronicles the battles of a female and mostly Hispanic high-tech labor force to win compensation for severe medical problems acquired on their jobs at the GTE Lenkurt plant in Albuquerque." [Extract from a fairly positive review by Amy S. Wharton in Signs].

Gibbs, Tyson, compiler. A Guide to Ethnic Health Collections in the United States. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood press, 1996.

A preliminary survey of libraries and other repositories for collections relevant to the health of non-white ethnic groups.

Gutmann, Myron P., and Kenneth H Fliess. "The Social Context of Child Mortality in the American Southwest." Journal of Interdisciplinary History 26.4 (1996): 589-614.

"This article is a report about the social context of infant and childhood mortality levels in six rural counties in Texas. . . . Our goal is to show the nature of social differences in childhood mortality in Texas. The idea of social difference goes beyond the common descriptors, social status and occupational socioeconomic description. In Texas, as in much of the South . . ., racial and ethnic differences were major determinants of the demographic experiences of population groups. Blacks and whites, differed, of course, but so did important groups within the white population." A very quantitative piece of history.

Kattapong, V. J., T. M. Becker, and F. D. Gilliland. "Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality in American Indians, Hispanics, and Non-Hispanic Whites in New Mexico, 1958-1992." American Indian Culture and Research Journal 19.2 (1995): 31-43.

7. Health, medicine, and imperialism

Abel, Christopher. "External Philanthropy and Domestic Change in Colombian Health Care: The Role of the Rockefeller Foundation, Ca. 1920-1950." Hispanic American Historical Review 75.3 (1995): 339-76.

Adams, David P. "Malaria, Labor, and Population Distribution in Costa Rica: A Biohistorical Perspective." Journal of Interdisciplinary History 27, no. 1 (1996): 75-85.

"Building on existing scholarship from the biomedical and social sciences, this note treats the relationship between malaria, labor, and sociodemographic patterns on Costa Rica since the early 1500s. Did malarial conditions cause segregation in Costa Rica?"

Adeloye, Adelola. Doctor James Africanus Beale: West African Medical Scientist of the 19th Century. Pittsburgh: Dorrance, 1992.

Alchon, Suzanne Austin. Native Society and Disease in Colonial Ecuador. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Alexander, Philip N. "John H. Rapier, Jr. and the Medical Profession in Jamaica, 1861-1862." Jamaica Journal 24 (Feb. 1993): 37-46; 25 (Oct. 1993): 55-62.

Rapier, an African American frustrated by racial barriers in the United States, sought professional opportunity overseas -- first in Haiti, then in Jamaica. Following his return to the U.S. in 1862, he served as an acting assistant surgeon in the Union Army.

Anderson, Warwick. "Disease, Race, and Empire." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 70.1 (1996): 62-67.

Derived from Anderson's remarks introducing a session on "Race and Acclimatization in Colonial Medicine" at a recent AAHM conference.

-----. "Immunities of Empire: Race, Disease, and the New Tropical Medicine, 1900-1920." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 70.1 (1996): 94-118.

-----. "Colonial Pathologies: American Medicine in the Philippines, 1898-1921." Diss. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1992.

Andrews, Bridie J. "Tuberculosis and the Assimilation of Germ Theory in China." Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 52, no. 1 (1997): 114-57.

Part of a special issue on "Rethinking the Reception of the Germ Theory."

Arnold, David. Colonizing the Body: State Medicine and Epidemic Disease in Nineteenth-Century India. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

-----, ed. Warm Climates and Western Medicine: The Emergence of Tropical Medicine, 1500-1900. Atlanta: Rodopi, 1996.

-----. "Social Crisis and Epidemic Disease in the Famines of Nineteenth-Century India." Social History of Medicine 6.3 (Dec. 1993): 385-404.

"The onset of famine in nineteenth-century India resulted in the breakdown of normal social relations and produced a series of often dysfunctional behavioural responses. Survival strategies like the use of `famine foods' and migration in search of food and work facilitated the spread of such epidemic diseases as cholera, dysentery, malaria, and smallpox. Although many of these diseases are not normally thought of as having a synergistic relationship with malnutrition and hunger, they were linked to it . . . through abnormal social and environmental conditions caused by drought and an extreme crisis of subsistence."

-----, editor. Imperial Medicine and Indigenous Societies. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1988.

Badri, Amna E., and Edith H. Grotberg. "AIDS and Women in Sudan." The Ahfad Journal: Women and Change 10, no. 2 (1993): 15-26.

Baca, Oswald G. "Analysis of Deaths in New Mexico's Rio Abajo During the Late Spanish Colonial and Mexican Periods, 1793-1846." New Mexico Historical Review 70 (1995): 237-55.

Bala, Poonam. Imperialism and Medicine in Bengal: A Socio-Historical Perspective. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1991.

Bastien, Joseph W. Drum and Stethoscope: Integrating Ethnomedicine and Biomedicine in Bolivia. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1992.

Bégué, Jean-Michel. "French Psychiatry in Algeria (1830-1962)." History of Psychiatry 7, no. 4 (1996): 533-48.

Part of special section on Frantz Fanon.

Bendick, Christoph. Emil Kraepelins Forschungsreise nach Java im Jahre 1904: ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Ethnopsychiatrie. Koln: Institut fur Geschichte der Medizin der Universitat zu Koln, 1989.

Kraepelin was major figure in German psychiatry at the turn of the century. His trip to Java helped found ethnopsychiatry.

Berlinguer, Giovanni. "The Interchange of Disease and Health between the Old and New Worlds." International Journal of the Health Services 23.4 (1993): 703-716.

". . . To evaluate the multiple aspects of the interchange between the Old and New Worlds this article discusses the following: the causes of the rapid decline of the original American populations; the diffusion of communicable diseases between the two civilizations; the health consequences of the nutritional changes on both sides of the Atlantic; drug addictions, as they developed through the centuries and as they exist today; the ways diseases were and are evaluated, prevented, diagnosed, and treated; and the mutual impact of different models of health services. . . ."

Birn, Anne Emanuelle. "Local Health and Foreign Wealth; the Rockefeller Foundation's Public Health Programs in Mexico, 1924- 1951." Diss. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1993.

-----. "El Pasado Como Presagio?: México, La Salud Pública y La Fundación Rockefeller." In: Memorias Del Sexto Congreso Latinoamericano De Medicina Social, edited by Leticia Robles Silva and Francisco Javier Mercado. Guadalajara, Mexico: University of Guadalajara Press, 1995.

-----. "Public Health or Public Menace? The Rockefeller Foundation and Public Health in Mexico, 1920-1950." Voluntas 7.1 (1995): 35-56.

Boletin Mexicano de Historia y Filosofia de la Medicina. 1990, 13: (1-4).

This entire volume is devoted to the Society's 6th colloquium, held in November 1989, at which a major theme was the relationship between folk and traditional medicine and the Mexican medical system.

Brooks, Francis J. "Revising the Conquest of Mexico: Smallpox, Sources, and Population." Journal of Interdisciplinary History 24.1 (June 1993): 1-29.

Disputes the contention that smallpox killed off a majority of Native Meso-Americans living in Mexico at the time of the Spanish conquest, and suggests that the population of Mexico at the end of the fifteenth century was smaller than is generally estimated.

Brown, Spencer H. "British Army Surgeons Commissioned 1840-1909 with West Indian/West African Service: A Prosopographical Evaluation." Medical History 37.3 (Oct. 1993): 411-431.

The health risks of British Army surgeons in the tropics diminished greatly during the period covered by this article.

Bruijn, Iris D. B. "The Health Care Organization of the Dutch East India Company at Home." Social History of Medicine 7.3 (Dec. 1994): 359-381.

"The Dutch East India Company ('VOC') organized a health care service on board its vessels as well as its home bases and in its factories in Asia. This health care service was based initially on the Dutch navy model. This study addresses the problems manifesting in the VOC health care in the 200 years of its activities, framed within the general concept of the transition in tht period from individual to mass health care. . . ."

Bushnell, Oswald A. The Gifts of Civilization: Germs and Genocide in Hawai'i. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1993.

Infectious diseases introduced since Captain James Cook first visited Hawaii in 1778 have claimed more Hawaiian lives than all other causes of death combined.

Cairncross, Sandy, Jorge E. Hardoy, and David Satterthwaite, eds. The Poor Die Young: Housing and Health in Third World Cities. London: Earthscan, 1990.

Camau, Michel. Etat de Santé: Besoin Medical et Enjeux Politiques en Tunisie. Paris: Presses de CNRS, 1990.

Campbell, Kristine A. "Knots in the Fabric: Richard Pearson Strong and the Bilibid Prison Vaccine Trials, 1905-1906." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 68.4 (Dec. 1994): 600-638.

American occupation forces in the Philippines conducted Haffkine cholera vaccination experiments on prisoners "merely to provide clinical documentation of the problems associated with the Haffkine vaccine."

Cantor, David. "Cortisone and the Politics of Empire: Imperialism and British Medicine, 1918-1945." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 67.3 (Sept. 1993): 463-493.

Suggests that by looking at the metropolis and not only the "periphery of empire," historians of twentieth-century medicine can enlarge their understanding of how medical science was used as a cultural force in service of imperialism.

Cook, G. C. "Correspondence from Dr George Carmichael Low to Dr Patrick Manson during the first Ugandan Sleeping Sickness Expedition." Journal of Medical Biography 1.4 (Nov. 1993): 215- 229.

-----. "William Osler's Fascination with Diseases of Warm Climates." Journal of Medical Biography 3.1 (Feb. 1995): 20-29.

Cook, Noble David, and W. George Lovell, editors. "Secret Judgements of God": Old World Disease in Colonial SPanish America. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1992.

Coovadia, H.M., and S.R. Benatar. A Century of Tuberculosis: South African Perspectives. Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Crandon-Malamud, Libbet. From the Fat of Our Souls: Social Change, Political Process, and Medical Pluralism in Bolivia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.

Cranefield, Paul F. Science and Empire: East Coast Fever in Rhodesia and the Transvaal. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Crosby, Alfred W. Ecological Imperialism: the Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

-----. Germs, Seeds & Animals: Studies in Ecological History. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 1994.

A compilation of some of Crosby's work on "ecological imperialism"; that is, the degree to which biological factors contributed to the success of the imperialist enterprise -- such as transmission of previously unknown infectious diseases to new population.

Cueto, Marcos. "Laboratory Styles in Argentine Physiology." Isis 85.2 (June 1994): 228-246.

Among other things, discusses "the impact of the Rockefeller Foundation and of military authoritarianism" on the laboratory style of Bernardo A. Houssay, the Argentine Nobel laureate in physiology.

-----, ed. Missionaries of Science: The Rockefeller Foundation and Latin America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994.

-----. "Tropical Medicine and Bacteriology in Boston and Peru: Studies of Carrión's Disease in the Early Twentieth Century." Medical History 40, no. 3 (1996): 344-64.

A contribution to the study of tropical medicine as "a tool of empire." Contrasts the findings regarding human bartonellosis (Carrión's disease) developed by poorly-supported Peruvian investigators in the early twentieth century with those of Harvard scientists on an expedition to South America.

-----, and Anne-Emanuelle Birn. "Syllabus Del Curso: Historia Social De La Salud Pública En América Latina." Manguinhos 3, no. 1 (1996): 181-93.

Readings for an eleven-week course on the social history of public health in Latin America. Many of the readings are not specific to Latin America, many are in English, and some are translations into Spanish of works originally published in English. A useful guide put together by two Sigerist Circle members, one of them the editor of Sigerist Shorts.

Curtin, Philip D. Death by Migration: Europe's Encounter with the Tropical World in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Curtin illuminates important aspects of British and French imperialism in this study of the military health records in colonized tropical countries.

-----. "The End of the 'White Man's Grave'? Nineteenth-Century Mortality in West Africa." Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 1990, 21: 63-88.

Davenport, Randi. "Thomas Malthus and Maternal Bodies Politic: Gender, Race, and Empire." Women's History Review 4, no. 4 (1995): 415-40.

De Bevoise, Ken. Agents of Apocalypse: Epidemic Disease in the Colonial Philippines. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995.

----------. "Until God Knows When: Smallpox in Late-Colonial Philippines." Pacific Historical Review, 1990, 59: 149-185.

Deacon, Harriet Jane. "Madness, Race and Moral Treatment: Robben Island Lunatic Asylum, Cape Colony, 1846-1890." History of Psychiatry 7, no. 2 (1996): 287-97.

Digby, Anne. "'A Medical El Dorado'? Colonial Medical Incomes and Practice at the Cape." Social History of Medicine 8.3 (1995): 463-79.

"This article suggests that Britain was exporting some of its problems -- in the form of an oversupply of medical practitioners -- to its empire."

Dikötter, Frank. Sex, Culture and Modernity in China: Medical Science and the Construction of Sexual Identities in the Early Republican Period. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1995.

-----. "The Discourse of Race and the Medicalization of Public and Private Space in Modern China (1895-1949)." History of Science, 1991, 29: 411-428.

"Significant parts of the modern medical vision were generated and legitimized by the discourse of race. The rise of racial discourse and modern medicine should be put into the larger context of social and cultural changes which have affected China. . . ."

Doury, Paul. "Henry Foley et Lyautey, et l'Action Médicale au Maroc à la Phase Initiale du Protectorat." Histoire des Sciences Médicales 28.2 (1994): 161-166.

The work of two European physicians early in the era of scientific medicine working in Morocco newly under French domination. This issue, incidentally, has a number of articles relevant to medicine in the Islamic world.

Dubois, Laurent. "A Spoonful of Blood: Haitians, Racism and AIDS." Science As Culture 6, no. 1 (1996): 7-43.

Dubow, Saul. Scientific Racism in Modern South Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Ebijuwa, Yamisaren. "Abortion, Women and National Development: The Nigerian Experience." The Ahfad Journal: Women and Change 10, no. 1 (1993): 33-43.

Eckart, Wolfgang U. Deutsche Arzte in China 1897-1914: Medicine als Kulturmission im Zweiten Deutschen Kaiserreich. Stuttgart: Fischer, 1989.

--------. "Die Medizin und das 'Grossere Deutschland': Kolonialpolitik und Tropenmedicine in Deutschland, 1884-1914." Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte, 1990, 13: 129-139.

Discusses the interdependency of colonial politics and tropical medicine in Germany during the period when Germany was attempting to colonize tropical countries, especially the question of how to make white Europeans less vulnerable to tropical diseases.

Ernst, Waltraud. "European Madness and Gender in Nineteenth-Century India." Social History of Medicine 9, no. 3 (1996): 357-82.

"The aim of this article is to explore whether gender was a linchpin in the construction of Europeans' mental health in nineteenth-century British India. A relational model of gender will be employed which places emphasis on the complementarity of men's and women's mental problems within the socio-economic, political and cultural confines of nineteenth century colonialism. The postulate of a 'female malady' which has been promulgated in recent accounts of women's mental health will be shown to be inapplicable in the context of the raj."

-----. Mad Tales from the Raj: the European Insane in British India, 1800-1858. London: Routledge, 1991.

Evans, Harriet. "Defining Difference: The 'Scientific' Construction of Sexuality and Gender in the People's Republic of China." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 20.2 (Dec. 1995): 357-394.

Farley, John. Bilharzia: A History of Imperial Tropical Medicine. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Farmer, Paul. AIDS and Accusation: Haiti and the Geography of Blame. Berkeley: University of Califormnia Press, 1992.

Feierman, Steven, and John M. Janzen, eds. The Social Basis of Health and Healing in Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.

Eighteen essays under the following rubrics: the decline and rise of African population, precolonial medicine, colonial medicine, twentieth-century African medicine, and postcolonial medicine.

Feldman, Lawrence H. "Active Measures in the War against Epidemics in Colonial Guatemala, 1519-1821." Caduceus: A Museum Journal for the Health Sciences, Winter 1991, 7 (3): 1-11.

This entire issue is devoted to epidemics in Guatemala, and includes translations of seven documents from the colonial period.

Fetter, Bruce, ed. Demography from Scanty Evidence: Central Africa in the Colonial Era. Boulder, Colo.: L. Rienner, 1990.

Finch, Charles. The African Background to Medical Science: Essays on African History, Science & Civilization. London: Karnak House, 1990.

Fink, Helga. Religion, Disease, and Healing in Ghana: A Case Study of Traditional Dormaa Medicine. Munich: Trickster Wissenschaft, 1990.

Finkler, Kaja. Women in Pain, Gender and Morbidity in Mexico. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1994.

Fisher, Lawrence E. Colonial Madness: Mental Health in the Barbadian Social Order. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1985.

Fitzgerald, Maureen H. "The Interplay of Culture and Symptoms: Menstrual Symptoms among Samoans." Medical Anthropology, 1990, 12: 145-167.

Garcia, Diego. "The Historical Setting of Latin American Bioethics." Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 21, no. 6 (1996): 593-609.

Part of a special issue, "Bioethical Perspectives from Ibero-America."

"The historical stages through which Latin American society has passed are at least four: the first, dominated by a particular sort of ethics I have termed the 'ethic of the gift'; then the period of conquest, in which the prevalent ethic was one of war and subjugation by force, which I call the 'ethic of despotism'; followed by the colonial age, in which a new ethical model of 'paternalism' emerged; and finally the stage of the 'ethic of autonomy,' which began with the independence movements of the 18th and 19th centuiries and is far from ended. Independence was won by criollos from European domination with very little participation by the Indian population. The latter was left out of the democratic process and saw itself relegated to a worse situation than in the centiruies of colonial rule, for it was no longer protected by the Law of the Indies of 1542. This is the reason for the division of the Latin American society of the last cenbtury into two quite different social strata: one bourgeois, which has assimilated the liberal revolution, and enjoys a health care quite similar to that available in any other Western country and hence faces the same bioethical problems as any developed Western society; the other a very poor stratum, without any economic or social power and hence unable to exercise its civil rights, such as the rights to life and humane treatment. In this population sector, which is numerically the larger, the major bioethical problems are those of justice and the distribution of scarce resources. The study of Latin American medical ethics can earn for these subjects, whose deplorable condition has been essentially ignored in the bioethics of the first-world countries, the importance they merit."

Gillett, Mary C. "U.S. Army Medical Officers and Public Health in the Philippines in the Wake of the Spanish-American WAr, 1898-1905." Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 1990, 64: 567-87.

Graham, Sandra Lauderdale. "Slavery's Impasse: Slave Prostitutes, Small-Time Mistresses, and the Brazilian Law of 1871." Comparative Studies in Society and History, 1991, 33: 669-694.

Green, December. "Reassessing the Sacred Trust: Health in the Cameroons during the Period of Mandate and Trusteeship." Ph.D. thesis, University of South Carolina, 1988.

Green, Edward C., Annemarie Jurg, and Armando Dgedge. "Sexually-Transmitted Diseases, AIDS and Traditional Healers in Mozambique." Medical Anthropology 15.3 (1993): 261-281.

Greenhalgh, Susan. "The Social Construction of Population Science: An Intellectual, Institutional, and Political History of Twentieth-Century Demography." Comparative Studies in Society and History 38.1 (1966): 26-66.

"In this essay I outline a social constructionist approach to the knowledge production in twentieth-century demography. This approach starts with the proposition that nothing in the nature of the subject made it inevitable that demography would develop as a highly mathematical field weak on social theory. Other demographies could have emerged; other scripts for population studies could have been staged."

Grogono, Basil J. S. "Sir David and Lady Bruce. Part I: A Superb Combination in the Elucidation and Prevention of Devastating Diseases." Journal of Medical Biography 3.2 (May 1995): 79-83.

"Mary Elizabeth Steele and David Bruce, who married in 1883 . . . [made] outstanding contributions to medical science. . . . Sir David Bruce always gave recognition to his wife's work, and her name apears on at least 30 of his 172 published papers." Sir David and Lady Bruce worked in the Mediterranean and Africa, and did key work on Malta fever and sleeping sickness.

Grove, Richard. Green Imperialism: Colonial Expansion, and the Origins of Environmentalism, 1600-1860. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Guénel, Annick. "Lutte Contre La Variole En Indochine: Variolisation Contre Vaccination?" History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 17.1 (1995): 55-79.

"To the technical and administrative difficulties encountered by the propagation of Jennerian vaccination among Indochinese populations since the beginning of French colonization, was opposed the will to impose a western prophylactic method. This led to some aberrations, such as attempts of compulsive mass-vaccination with an ineffective and/or unsafe product. There was also an inherent contradiction between the French medical service's proclaimed wish to apply vaccination to the entire Indochinese population and its supicious attitude concerning the know-how of local practitioners. But the important small-pox endemicity in Indochina also made this tropical area a great ground for experience because it led to advances in vaccine production methods, e.g., from buffaloes, and even in the 'science of immunization.'"

Gutierrez, Ana Teresa. "La Busqueda de una Ilusion: La Investigascion sobre Malaria en Venezuela." Quipu: Revista Latinoamericasno de historia de las Ciencias y la Tecnologia, 1991, 8: 171-200.

A DDT campaign, sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation, succeeded in eradicating malaria in Venezuela. As a consequence there arose a widespread that it would be possible to eradicate malaria around the world. This led to a decline in malaria research.

Harding, Sandra, ed. The `Racial' Economy of Science: Toward a Democratic Future. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993.

A wonderful anthology, largely of previously-published pieces; eminently suitable for textbook use in courses on race and science (it is available in paperback). Included are chapters from Martin Bernal's Black Athena, Stephen Jay Gould's The Mismeasure of Man, Donna Haraway's Primate Visions, James Jones's Bad Blood, Richard Levins and Richard Lewontin's Dialectical Biologist, Lewontin, Steven Rose and Leon Kamins's Not in Our Genes, Kenneth Manning's Black Apollo of Science, Joseph Needham's The Grand Titration, Robert Proctor's Racial Hygiene, and Sharon Traweek's Beamtimes and Lifetimes. This volume also reprints three key works on the social construction of race and the struggle against scientific racism: Nancy Krieger and Mary Bassett's "The Health of Black Folk" (from Monthly Review 1986), Nancy Stepan's "Race and Gender: The Role of Analogy in Science" (from Isis 1986), and Nancy Stepan and Sander Gilman's "Appropriating the Idioms of Science: The Rejection of Scientific Racism" (from The Bounds of Race: Perspectives on Hegemony and Resistance edited by Domonick LaCapra, [Cornell, 1991]).

Hardy, Anne. "Beriberi, Vitamin B1 and World Food Policy, 1925- 1970." Medical History 39.1 (Jan. 1995): 61-77.

Harrison, Mark. "Medicine and the Culture of Command: the Case of Malaria Control in the British Army During the Two World Wars." Medical History 40, no. 4 (1996): 437-52.

-----. "'The Tender Frame of Man': Disease, Climate, and Racial Differences in India and the West Indies, 1760-1860." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 70.1 (1996): 68-93.

"[H]ow as it that Europeans came to see themselves as fundamentally different from and superior to the peoples over which they ruled? What part, if any, did medicine play in the process by which difference and hierarchy were conceived? This article explores these questions through a study of British medical texts written in India and the West Indies between 1760 and 1860." Much of the material in this article also appears in Harrison's book, Public Health in British India (Cambridge, 1994).

-----. Public Health in British India: Anglo-Indian Preventive Medicine, 1859-1914. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

-----. "Tropical Medicine in Nineteenth-Century India." British Journal of the History of Science, 1992, 25: 299-318.

"[T]he European perspective of existing histories of 'tropical medicine' has obscured important developments in the understanding of diseases of the tropics which took place prior to 1890; most of which occurred in the colonies themselves -- and especially in India."

Haynes, Douglas Melvin. "From the Periphery ot the Center: Patrick Manson and the Development of Tropical Medicine as a Medical Specialty in Britain, 1870-1900." Diss.: University of California, Berkeley, 1992.

Herbert, Daniel. Sexuality, Politics, and AIDS in Brazil: In Another World? Washington: Falmer Press, 1993.

Hewa, Soma. "The Hookworm Epidemic on the Plantations in Colonial Sri Lanka." Medical History 38.1 (1994): 73-90.

Holmes, Timothy. Journey to Livingstone: Exploration of an Imperial Myth. Edinburgh: Canongate, 1993.

Hunter, Ernest. Aboriginal Health and History: Power and Prejudice in Remote Australia. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Imperato, Pascal James. "Smallpox and Measles in Mali: Contrasting Control Strategies and Outcomes." Caduceus: A Humanities Journal for Medicine and the Health Sciences 12, no. 1 (1996): 61-72.

Janssens, P. G., M. Kivits, and J Vuylsteke, eds. Médecine et Hygiène en Afrique Centrale de 1885 à Nos Jours. Brussels: Fondation Roi Baudouin, 1992.

Janzen, John M. Ngoma: Discourses of Healing in Central and Southern Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.

Joe, Jennie R., and Robert S. Young, eds. Diabetes as a Disease of Civilization: The Impact of Culture Change on Indigenous Peoples. New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1994.

Jong, Joop T. V. M. de. A Descent into African Psychiatry. Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute, 1987.

De Jong directed the establishment of Guinea-Bissau's first national health center. In this book he describes the progressive character of Guinea Bissau's mental health care network, which is part of the national health system but also sensitive to traditional health practices.

Joralemon, Donald, and Douglas Sharon. Sorcery and Shamanism: Curanderos and Clients in Northern Peru. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1993.

Joshi, P. C., and Anil Mahajan. Studies in Medical Anthropology. New Delhi: Reliance, 1990.

A collection of articles by and about South Asians.

Katz, Elaine N. The White Death: Silicosis on the Witwatersrand Gold Mines, 1886-1910. Johannesburg, South Africa: Witwatersrand University Press, 1994.

Killingray, David. "The Influenza Pandemic of 1918-19 in the British Caribbean." Social History of Medicine 7.1 (Apr. 1994): 59-87.

"The influenza pandemic swept through the Caribbean during the period October 1918 to March 1919 and resulted in c.100,000 deaths. . . . Although all sections of the population were very vulnerable, the heaviest mortality rates were among the very poor, East Asian immigrant labourers, and native Americans. . . . In London influenza was added to the official list of British 'imperial diseases', and although it was recognized that poverty provided the conditions for the spread of disease, the resources in the Caribbean were barely used to improve standards of living and nutrition."

Kiple, Kenneth, ed. The African Exchange: Toward a Biological History of Black People. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1987.

Kipp, Rita Smith. "The Evangelical Uses of Leprosy." Social Science and Medicine 39.2 (1994): 165-178.

"The history of leprosy treatment among the Karo of Sumatra illustrates how leprosy afforded missionaries an eveangelical opprtunity, and how that opportunity eroded in the twentieth century with changing therapies for the illness. Becuase it symbolized Christian charity, leprosy care drew donations and support for the missionary movement of the nineteenth century. In Karoland, as elsewhere, leprosy patienents were attracted to the missionaries' religion because therapy entailed separation from kin and community and then incorporation into a new kind of community, an asylum, where the authority structure, the dispensation of resources, and the constructed spaces of everyday life made the idea of a supreme deity an experienced reality. When therapies of leprosy shifted to an out-patient system, one of the older missionaries to the Karo struggled to maintain control of the leprosarium that had been one of the few pockets of conversion in this mission field."

Komlos, John. The Biological Standard of Living on Three Continents: Further Explorations in Anthropometric History. Boulder: Westview Press, 1995.

Includes articles on the nineteenth-century Irish famines, relations between income and body size in various countries, articles on nutrition in various demographic and occupational groups, and one article on Indonesia.

Kua, Ee Heok. "Amok in Nineteenth-Century British Malaya History." History of Psychiatry, 1991, 3: 429-436.

Kunitz, Stephen J. Disease and Social Diversity: The European Impact on the Health of Non-Europeans. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Covers the Pacific Islands and the Americas. The subject of the Sigerist Circle scholarly session in Pittsburgh, May 1995.

Lal, Maneesha. "The Politics of Gender and Medicine in Colonial India: The Countess of Dufferin's Fund, 1885-1888." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 68.1 (Mar. 1994): 29-66.

"The . . . Dufferin Fund . . . was the first systematic attempt to extend Western medicine to Indian women. Established in 1885 by Lady Dufferin, wife of the new viceroy of India, the Dufferin Fund constituted the single most important institutionalization of gender in the history of colonial medicine in India, An analysis of the attitudes and ideologies that informed the design and structure of the fund, and the relation of these to the entry of women into the medical profession in India and Great Britain, forms the central theme of this paper."

Lane, Sandra D., and et al. "Sociocultural Aspects of Blindness in an Egyptian Delta Hamlet: Visual Impariment vs. Visual Disability." Medical Anthropology 15.3 (1993): 245-260.

"Through ophthalmological exams, structured interviews and participant observation, this study examines the experience of blindness in rural Egypt, and finds that villagers' subjective assessments of the vision differ substantially from ophthalmic measurements. . . . While they may agree that thy have `weak eyesight,' they do not perceive themselves to be disabled. . . ."

Lambrecht, Frank L., In the Shade of the Acacia Tree: Memoirs of a Health Officer in Africa, 1945-1959. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1991.

Lyons, John B. Surgeon-Major Parke's African Journey, 1887-89. Dublin: Lilliput, 1994.

Lyons, Maryinez. The Colonial Disease: Social history of Sleeping Sickness in Northern Zaire, 1900-1940. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

López-Ríos Fernández, Fernando. Historia Médica de las Navegaciones Colombinas: 1492-1504. Valladolid [Spain]: Universidad de Valladolid, Secretariado de Piblicaciones, 1993.

MacLeod, Roy, and Milton Lewis, eds. Disease, Medicine and Empire: Perspectives on Western Medicine and the Experience of European Expansion. New York: Routledge, 1988.

MacLeod, Roy, and Donald Denoon, eds. Health and Healing in Tropical Australia and Papua New Guinea. Townsville [Australia]: James Cook University, 1991.

Proceedings of a conference on tropical medicine.

Macey, David. "Frantz Fanon 1925-1961." History of Psychiatry 7, no. 4 (1996): 489-97.

Biographical sketch and bibliography, part of special section on Fanon.

Maharatna, Arup. The Demography of Famines: An Indian Historical Perspective. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Makinde, M. Akin. African Philosophy, Culture, and Traditional Medicine. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies, 1988. 154p.

Manderson, Lenore. "Colonial Desires: Sexuality, Race, and Gender in British Malaya." Journal of the History of Sexuality 7, no. 2 (1997): 372-88.

"In this article, I consider the history of prostitution and sexually transmitted disease (STD) in colonial Malaya. . . ."

-----. "Health Services and the Legitimation of the Colonial State: British Malaya 1786-1941." International Journal of Health Services, 1987, 17: 91-112.

Marks, Shula. "South Africa's Early Experiments in Social Medicine: Its Pioneers and Politics." American Journal of Public Health 87, no. 3 (1997): 452-59.

-----. Divided Sisterhood: Race, Class, and Gender in the South African Nursing Profession. New York: St. Martin's, 1994.

McCaa, Robert. "Spanish and Nahuatl Views on Smallpox and Demographic Catastrophe in Mexico." Journal of Interdisciplinary History 25.3 (Dec. 1995): 397-431.

Argues against revisionist historians who claim that smallpox did not kill a large proportion of the Aztec population.

McClellan, James E.. Colonialism and Science: Saint Domingue in the Old Regime. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.

McCulloch, Jock. Colonial Psychiatry and the "African Mind." New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

-----. "The Empire's New Clothes: Ethnopsychiatry in Colonial Africa." History of the Human Sciences 6.2 (May 1993): 35-52.

"The term ethnopsychiatry was used throughout the colonial period to describe the study of the psychology and behaviour of non-western peoples. . . . In the mid-1960s ethnopsychiatry managed to change its name and the term now preferred by practitioners is transcultural psychiatry. That change in terminology was significant since it expressed a desire by psychiatrists to distance themselves from their discipline's own history. Invariably the social setting for ethnopsychiatric research has been colonial and . . . it is impossible to separate the story of the profession from the colonial enterprise."

McDaniel, Antonio. Swing Low, Sweet Chariot: The Mortality Cost of Colonizing Liberia During the Nineteenth Century. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Meade, Teresa, and Mark Walker, eds. Science, Medicine, and Cultural Imperialism. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991.

Moussiaoui, D., O. Battas, and A. Chakib. "Histoire de la Medecine au Maroc pendant le Protectorat." Histoire des Sciences Medicales 26.4 (1992): 291-299.

One of several papers on Morocco given at a session of the French Society of the History of Medicine. This article argues that under French rule the institutions of sanitation and contagious disease control were developed, but that organization of the indigenous medical profession awaited independence. .

Muraleedharan, V. R., and D. Veeraraghavan. "Anti-Malarial Policy in the Madras Presidency: An Overview of the Early Decades of the Twentieth Century." Medical History, 1992, 36: 290-305.

Ng, Vivien W. Madness in Late Imperial China: From Illness to Deviance. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990.

Oosthuizen, G. C. The Healer-Prophet in Afro-Christian Churches. Leiden; New York: Brill, 1992.

Ordunez-Garcia, Pedro O., et al. "Cuban Epidemic Neuropathy, 1991 to 1994: History Repeats Itself a Century After the 'Amblyopia of the Blockade'." American Journal of Public Health 86, no. 5 (1996): 738-43.

Osborne, Michael A. Nature, the Exotic, and the Science of French Colonialism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994.

Palladino, Paolo, and Michael Worboys. "Science and Imperialism." Isis 84.1 (Mar. 1993): 91-102.

A discussion of Lewis Pyenson's writings, over the past decade, on science and imperialism. Palladino and Worboys credit Pyenson with encouraging interest in this field and with broadening discussion to empires other than the British. They fault him, however, for his "desire to arrest what he sees as the steady disintegration of the program for the history of science set forth earlier this century by William Osler, George Sarton, and Max Weber." In brief, Pyenson pays no attention to the political dimensions of imperialism, and sees science unproblematically as a tool that Europeans used to establish their cultural superiority.

Patton, Adell. Physicians, Colonial Racism, and Diaspora in West Africa. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1996.

Peek, Monica Elizabeth. "Traditional African Medicine." The Pharos 58.2 (Mar. 1995): 24-29.

Phoofolo, Pule. "Epidemics and Revolution: The Rinderpest Epidemic in Late Nineteenth Century South Africa." Past & Present .138 (1993): 112-43.

Postel, J. "Frantz Fanon -- Looking Back." History of Psychiatry 7, no. 4 (1996): 487.

Introduction to a special section on the life and work of Frantz Fanon (1925-1961), the radical anti-colonialist black francophone West Indian psychiatrist who practiced in Algeria.

Power, Helen. "The Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine: Institutionalizing Medical Research in the Periphery." Medical History 40, no. 2 (1996): 197-214.

"The involvement of some sections of the Indian middle class in Calcutta [in the creation of the Calcutta School of Tropical medicine] supports David Arnold's view" that India's emerging elites took up Western medicine "as part of their own hegemonic project."

-----. "Sir Leonard Rogers FRS (1868-1962): Tropical Medicine in the Indian Medical Service." Ph.D. diss: University of London, 1993.

Prins, Gwyn. "Pero, de Que Enfermedad se Trataba? El Estado Actual de los Estudios sobre la Salud y la Curacion en Africa." Dynamis: Acta Hispanica ad Medicinae Scientiarumque Historiam Illustrandum, 1991, 11: 361-386.

"This article offers an approach to the history of medicine and therapeutic practice in modern Africa. It argues that the traditional bio-medical histories of the colonial era are necessary but not sufficient to fulfill this task. Neither are the ethnographic studies of indigenous therapeutic practice. The most important recent developments in analysis are respectively, macro-epidemiological histories, for example on the Tsetse fly, and the study of pluralistic therapeutic contexts. They illustrate a central argument of the article which is that the study of therapy is one of the most efficient and reliable ways to investigate the cultural complexities of a post-colonial situation. Such studies also help to pierce the curtain of stereotype and prejudice which, since early European contact, has hung over the African continent viewed form the European perspective."

Pyenson, Lewis. "Cultural Imperialism and Exact Sciences Revisited." Isis 84.1 (Mar. 1993): 103-108.

Pyenson's response to the article by Palladino and Worboys cited above.

Quevedo V., Emilio. "La Institucionalizatión De La Educación Médica En La América Hispano-Lusitana." Quipu: Revista Latinoamericana De Historia De Las Ciencias y La Tecnología 10.2 (1993): 165-88.

"From an interdisciplinary and comparative point of view, this article intends to show how a unitary metropolitan sanitary policy is transformed into multiple and different medical institutionalizing processes in the different Latin American regions during the Colonial Period, according to the geographic, demographic, social, economic, and cultural local contexts, and how the final results depend on a negotiational process between those local contextual realities and metropolitan interests."

Rabí, Miguel. "Un Capítulo Inéditto: El Traslado Del Hopital Del Espíritu Santo De Limo a Bellavista (1750)." Asclepio: Revista De Historia De La Medicine y De La Ciencia 47.1 (1995): 123-33.

Discusses the transfer of the Hospital of the Sacred Spirit from Lima to Bellavista, in the context of a study on Peruvian medical assistance and sanitary politics from the 16th to the 19th century.

Ramusack, Barbara N.. "Embattled Advocates: the Debate over Birth Control in India, 1920-40." Journal of Women's History, Fall 1989, 1(2): 34-64.

Ramenofsky, Ann F. Vectors of Death: the Archaeology of European Contact. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1987.

Razanajao, Cl, J. Postel, and D.F. Allen. "The Life and Psychiatric Work of Frantz Fanon." History of Psychiatry 7, no. 4 (1996): 499-524.

Part of special section on Fanon.

Reiss, Nira. The Health Care of the Arabs in Israel. Boulder: Westview Press, 1991.

Riedmann, Agnes Czerwinski. Science that Colonizes: A Critique of Fertility Studies in Africa. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993.

Robertson, Claire. "Grassroots in Kenya: Women, Genital Mutilation and Collective Action, 1920-1990." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 21.3 (1996): 615-42.

Rodrigues de Faria, Lina. "Os Primeiros Anas da Reforma Sanitária no Brasil e a Atuação Da Fundação Rockefeller (1915-1920)." Physis 5, no. 1 (1995): 109-29.

Rosenbaum, Thomas. The Archives of the China Medical Board and the Peking Union Medical College at the Rockefeller Archive Center: Some Sources on the Transfer of Western Science, Medicine, and Technology to China during the Republican Period. New York: Rockefeller Archives Center, 1989.

Ruxin, Joshua Nalibow. "Magic Bullet: The History of Oral Rehydration Therapy." Medical History 38.4 (Oct. 1994): 363-397.

Describes North-South tensions in the process of adopting oral rehydration therapy, "an extraordinarily simple solution consisting of sugar, salts and water to save the lives of severely dehydrated adults, children and infants."

Sadowsky, Jonathan. "The Confinements of Isaac O.: A Case of 'Acute Mania' in Colonial Nigeria." History of Psychiatry 7, no. 1 (1996): 91-112.

A possible case of bi-polar disorder in the 1930s.

Said, Hakim Mohammed. "Orientalists and the Islamic Medicine." Studies in History of Medicine & Science (New Delhi), 1986-87 (published 1991), 10-11:81-93.

A devout Muslim scholar examines the treatment of Islamic medicine by western scholars. Polemical historiography.

Samian, Abdul Latif. "Colonial Science in Malaya: The Case of the Medical Research Institute (IMR)." Hamdard Medicus 36.1 (Jan. 1993): 53-65.

"The case study on IMR indicates that British imperialism in the `Islamic' Malaya had, above all, the enlistment of pure science to the practical end of commercial and political exploitation."

Scott, Peter Dale. Cocaine Politics: Drugs, Armies, and the CIA in Central America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.

Shiva, Vandana, and Mira Shiva. "India's Human Guinea Pigs: Human v. Property Rights." Science as Culture, 1991, 2: 59-81.

Discusses changes in science and technology policy that "give full freedom to governments and corporations of industrialized countries to treat this vast subcontinent as a laboratory and its people as human guinea pigs for testing and marketing genetically engineered organisms." Two cases are examined, one involving vaccines, the other seeds.

Slikkerveer, Leendert, and Jan Slikkerveer. Plural Medical Systems in the Horn of Africa: The Legacy of 'Sheikh' Hippocrates. New York: Kegan Paul International, 1990.

Solorzano, Armando. "La Influencia de la Fundacion Rockefeller en la Confirmacion de la Profesion Medica Mexicana, 1921-1949." Revista Mexicana de Sociologia (1996).

-----. "Sowing the Seeds of Neo-Imperialism: The Rockefeller Foundation's Yellow Fever Campaign in Mexico." International Journal of the Health Services 22.3 (1992): 529- 554.

"The Rockefeller Foundation's campaign [of the 920s] against yellow fever in Mexico sought to advance the economic and political interests of U.S. capitalism. The campaign was implemented at a time of strong anti-American sentiments on the part of the Mexican people. With no diplomatic relationships between Mexico and the United States, the Rockefeller Foundation presented its campaign as an international commitment. Thus Founation doctors became the most salient U.S. diplomats. At the same time they made sure that the Mexican yellow fever would not pread to the United States. Special techniques to combat the vectors allowed the Rockefeller Foundation's brigades to change the anti-American sentiments of the people. Mexican doctors adopting a pro-American attitude also allied with the Rockefeller Foundation to gain reputation and power within the emerging Mexican state."

Stebbins, Kenyon Rainier. "Garbage Imperialism: Health Implications of Dumping Hazardous Wastes in Third World Countries." Medical Anthropology 15.1 (1992): 81-102.

"This paper calls for studies of the potential health implications of today's hazardous waste disposal practices, and suggests that such studies are urgently needed in Third World countries where industrial nations are increasingly dumping their unwanted waste materials. . . . [T]his paper suggests that global health would be better served by reducing hazardous waste production, encouraging reusing and recycling, and restricting or banning international shipments of toxic wastes."

Summers, Carol. "Intimate Colonialism: The Imperial Production of Reproduction in Uganda, 1907-1925." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 1991, 16: 787-807.

Summers, William C. "Cholera and Plague in India: The Bacteriophage Inquiry of 1927-1936." Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 48.3 (July 1993): 275-301.

Sutphen, Mary P. "Not What, but Where: Bubonic Plague and the Reception of Germ Theories in Hong Kong and Calcutta, 1894-1897." Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 52, no. 1 (1997): 81-113.

Part of a special issue on "Rethinking the Reception of the Germ Theory of Disease."

Swartz, Sally. "Colonizing the Insane: Causes of Insanity in the Cape, 1891-1920." History of the Human Sciences 8.4 (1995): 39-57.

"In a colonial society, where 'degeneration' contained within it the prospect of 'going native,' being no better than the subjugated race, prevention of the spread of insanity was an urgent matter, intimately related to the dentity of the colonizers as rulers. Records from the asylums of the Cape suggest that the fear of 'going native' had to do with more than simply the desire to maintain social distance between black and white."

Telarolli, Rodolpho Jr. "Imigração e Epidemias no Estado de São Paulo." Manguinhos: História, Ciêcias, Saùde 3, no. 2 (1996): 265-83.

"This article discusses sanitation issues as aspects of foreign immigration in Sao Paulo state during the first decade after the Proclamation of the Republic. The text also shows the relationships between the wave of immigration and the structuring of state sanitation services and the devising of the technoassistance model adopted by these services as the 1890s. At a time when yellow fever was the most common and lethal of the epidemics plaguing that state -- killing mainly foreigners -- one of the lodestars of public health action was the defense of this inflow of immigrants. The interests of coffee growers, expansion of the railroads, and yellow fever all come into play when the oligarchies then in power in Sao Paulo defined what direction sanitation would take. The Brazilian government's authoritarian organization left no room for individual health assistance initiatives. Long a demand of both urban and rural populations, forms of individual health assistance became widespread only in the 1930s, when Brazil developed its social health-care system."

Thomas, Lynn M. "'Ngaitana (I Will Circumcise Myself)': The Gender and Generational Politics of the 1956 Ban on Clitoridectomy in Meru, Kenya." Gender & History 8, no. 3 (1996): 338-63.

Turner, Edith L. B. Experiencing Ritual: A New Interpretation of African Healing. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992.

Uragoda, C. C. "Sir William Kynsey and the Development of Health Care in Sri Lanka." Journal of Medical Biography 1.3 (Aug. 1993): 129-136.

Kynsey (1840-1904) was a major figure in the development of British health policy in Ceylon, and infrastructure set up by the British is retained in present-day Sri Lanka. This is somewhat of a hagiographic tribute to Kynsey.

Vaughan, Megan. Curing the Ills: Colonial Power and African Illness. Stanford, : Stanfird University Press, 1991.

-----. "Healing and Curing: Issues in Social History and Anthropology of Medicine in Africa." Social History of Medicine 7.2 (Aug. 1994): 283-295.

Waite, Gloria Martha. A History of Traditional Medicine and Health Care in Pre-Colonial East-Central Africa. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edward Mellen, 1992.

Warner, John Harley. "Cultural Nationalism and Tropical Fevers: Models of Colonial Medicine in the American South, 1840-1860." In:Mundialización de la Ciencia y Cultura Nacional edited by A. LaFuente, A. Elena, A and M. L. Ortega, 511-518.

"[T]his paper begins to explore how white southern doctors before the American Civil War . . . addressed the theme of colonialism."

Webb, Stephen. Paleopathology of Aboriginal Australians: Health and Disease across a Hunter-Gatherer Continent. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

West, Michael O. "Nationalism, Race, and Gender: The Politics of Family Planning in Zimbabwe." Social History of Medicine 7.3 (Dec. 1994): 447-471.

Traces debates over family limitation over the period from British rule through the white minority government of Rhodesia, to the current situation. Black nationalist leaders who formerly opposed family planning have come to accept it, but "without any real input by African women."

White, Luise. "'They Could Make Their Victims Dull": Genders and Genres, Fantasies and Cures in Colonial Southern Uganda." American Historical Review 100.5 (1995): 1379-402.

"Uses rumors of vampirism associated with colonial medical technology to analyze responses to Western biomedicine among the peoples of southern Uganda. . . . White develops her argument through a creative analysis of written medical misssionary sources about medicine in colonial southern Uganda together with local Africans' oral accounts that white people captured them and took their blood. She concludes that reading both sets of sources as fantastic and formulaic stories.... allows historians to see what was new about colonial medicine and which of its innovations had power because they replicated African methods of healing."

Whitehead, Judy. "Bodies Clean and Unclean: Prostitution, Sanitary Legislation, and Respectable Femininity in Colonial North India." Gender & History 7.1 (Apr. 1995): 41-63.

Whitmore, Thomas M. Disease and Death in Early Colonial Mexico: Simulating Amerindian Depopulation. Boulder: Westview, 1992.

Williams, N. R. "Che Guevera: a Revolutionary Physician." Journal of Medical Biography 1.4 (Nov. 1993): 236-240.

Winkelman, Michael. "Ethnobotanical Treatments of Diabetes in Baja California Norte." Medical Anthropology, 1989, 11: 255-268.

Yach, Derek, and Steve Tollman. "Public Health Initiatives in South Africa in the 1940s and 1950s: Lessons for a Post-Apartheid Era." American Journal of Public Health 83.7 (July 1993): 1037- 1050.

Youssel, Hanafy A., and Salah A Fadl. "Frantz Fanon and Political Psychiatry." History of Psychiatry 7, no. 4 (1996): 525-32.

Part of a special section on Fanon.

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