Primary Sources




Morris, Frank L. The Jensen Hypothesis: Social Science Research or Social Science Racism. Monograph 2. Los Angeles: Center for Afro-American Studies, 1971.

Jensen, Arthur. "Race and the Genetics of Intelligence." In The IQ Controversy: A Critical Reader. Edited by N. J. Block and Gerald Dworkin. New York: Pantheon, 1976. 93-106.
Reply to Lewontin (1976). Also see Lewontin's "Further Remarks...".

Lewontin, Richard. "Further Remarks on Race and the Genetics of Intelligence." In The IQ Controversy: A Critical Reader. Edited by N. J. Block and Gerald Dworkin. New York: Pantheon, 1976. 107-12.
Response to Jensen (1976).

Lewontin, Richard. "Race and Intelligence." In The IQ Controversy: A Critical Reader. Edited by N. J. Block and Gerald Dworkin. New York: Pantheon, 1976. 78-92.
See reply by Arthur Jensen.

Flynn, James Robert. Race, IQ, and Jensen. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980.

Jensen, Arthur Robert. Bias in Mental Testing. New York: Free Press, 1980.

Shockley, William and Roger Pearson. Shockley on Eugenics and Race: The Application of Science to the Solution of Human Problems. Washington, DC: Scott-Townsend Publishers, 1992.

Lynn, Richard. "Oriental Americans: Their IQ, Educational Attainment and Socioeconomic Status." Personality and Individual Differences 15.2 (1993):237-42.

Jacoby, Russell et al. The Bell Curve Debate: History, Documents, Opinions. New York: Times Books, 1995.

Fraser, Steve and Randall Phony war Kennedy. The Bell Curve Wars: Race, Intelligence, and the future of America. New York: Basic Books, 1995.

Rushton, Philippe. Race, Evolution, and Behavior: A Life History Perspective. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1995.

Hernstein, Richard and Charles Murray. The Bell Curve. New York: Free Press, 1994.



Klineberg, Otto. Race and Psychology. Paris: UNESCO, 1951.

Dunn, L. C. Race and Biology. Paris: UNESCO, 1951.

Leiris, Michel. Race and Culture. Paris: UNESCO, 1951.

Rose, Arnold Marshall. The Roots of Prejudice. Paris: UNESCO, 1951.

UNESCO. The Concept of Race: Results of an Inquiry. Paris: UNESCO, 1951.

Comas, Juan. Racial Myths. Paris: UNESCO, 1951.

Little, Kenneth Lindsay. Race and Society. Paris: UNESCO, 1952.

Levi-Strauss, Claude. Race and History. Paris: UNESCO, 1952.

Morant, G. M. The Significance of Racial Differences. Paris: UNESCO, 1952.

UNESCO. What is Race? Evidence from Scientists. Paris: UNESCO, 1952.

Shapiro, Harry Lionel. Race Mixture. Paris: UNESCO, 1953.

Viet, Jean. Selected Documentation for the Study of Race Relations. Paris: UNESCO, 1958.

Jahoda, Marie. Race Relations and Mental Health. Paris: UNESCO, 1960.

Shapiro, Harry Lionel. The Jewish People: A Biological History. Paris: UNESCO, 1960.

Hunter, Guy and UNESCO. Industrialisation and Race Relations: A Symposium. London: Oxford University Press, 1965.

UNESCO. The Race Question in Modern Science: Race and Science. New York: Columbia University Press, 1969.
Contains all the brochures which have appeared separately in the UNESCO series "The Race Question in Modern Science." This collection has been published under the same title but by different publishers from 1957 to 1969.

UNESCO. Four Statements on the Race Question. Paris: UNESCO, 1969.

Montagu, Ashley. Statement on Race. New York: Oxford University Press, 1972.
An important book which provides "an annotated elaboration and exposition of the four Statements on Race Issued by the United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization." The UNESCO statements covered here date 1950, 1951, 1964, and 1967.

UNESCO. Apartheid: Its Effects on Education, Science, Culture and Information. Paris: UNESCO, 1972.

Klineberg, UNESCO and Otto. Race as News. Paris: UNESCO, 1974.

Dunn, L. C. and Leo Kuper. Race, Science and Society. Paris: UNESCO, 1975.

UNESCO. Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice; Adopted by the general conference of UNESCO at its twentieth session, Paris, 27 November 1978. Paris: UNESCO, 1979.

UNESCO. Sociological Theories: Race and Colonialism. Paris: UNESCO, 1980.

UNESCO. Racism, Science, and Pseudo-Science: Symposium to Examine Pseudo-Scientific Theories Invoked to Justify Racism and Racial Discrimination. Athens: UNESCO, 1983.



Myrdal, Gunnar. An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy. New York: Harper & Row, 1944.

Becker, Gary Stanley. The Economics of Discrimination. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957.

Moynihan, Daniel P. "Negro Family: The Case for National Action." . Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Labor, Office of Policy, Planning and Research. 1965.
Commonly known as the Moynihan Report.

Veblen, Thorstein. Veblen on Marx, Race, Science, and Economics. New York: Capricorn Books, 1969.
First published under the title The Place of Science in Modern Civilization, and Other Essays.

Newby, I. A. Challenge to the Court: Social Scientists and the Defense of Segregation, 1954-1966. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1969.
Includes responses by some authors whose work is criticized in the book.

Omi, Michael and Howard Winant. Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1980s. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1986.



Lewis, Julian Herman. The Biology of the Negro. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1942.
Including and extensive bibliography of other works on the biology of race.

Dahlberg, Gunnar. Race, Reason and Rubbish: A Primer of Race Biology. New York: Columbia University Press, 1942.
A discussion of race and the fallacies of racism in genetic terms.

Dunn, Leslie and Theodosius Dobzhansky. Heredity, Race, and Society. New York: Mentor Books, 1946.

Kuttner, Robert E. Race and Modern Science; a collection of essays by biologists, anthropologists, sociologists, and psychologists. New York: Social Science Press, 1967.

King, James C. The Biology of Race. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981.

Gibson, Walter. Black Americans: Biological Facts and Fancies. New York: Vintage Press, 1983.

Kiple, Kenneth F. et al. "The Biological Past of the Black." Social Science History 10 (1986):339-506.



Penniman, T. K. A Hundred Years of Anthropology. London: Gerald Duckworth & Co., 1935.
This book, written by the Curator of Oxford's Pitt-Rivers Museum, is interesting for the way the evolution of technology intersects with ideas about race.

Hrdlicka, Ales. Practical Anthropometry. Philadelphia: Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1939.

Boyd, William C. Genetics and the Races of Man: An Introduction to Modern Physical Anthropology. Boston: Heath, 1950.

Livingston, Frank. "On the Non-Existence of Human Races: Current Anthropology." Current Anthropology 3.3 (1962).

Montagu, Ashley. Race, Science, and Humanity. Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand, 1963.

Garn, Stanley M. Readings on Race. Springfield, IL: Thomas, 1968.
This book is a collection of articles - a good sampling of scientific racism in 1960s anthropology.

Lieberman, Leonard. "The Debate over Race: A Study in the Sociology of Knowledge." Phylon 29 (1968):127-41.

Mead, American Association for the Advancement of Science and Margaret. Science and the Concept of Race. New York: Columbia University Press, 1968.
"An outgrowth of a symposium held at the meetings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Washington on December 30, 1966.".


B L A C K S    I N    M E D I C I N E

Austin Flint, M. Contributions Relating to the Causation and Prevention of Disease, and to Camp Diseases; Together with a Report of the Diseases, etc. Among the Prisoners at Andersonville, GA. New York: Hurd and Houghton for the U. S. Sanitary Commission, 1867.

Atkinson, T. P. "Report on the anatomical, physiological, and pathological differences between the white and black races, and the modifications of the treatment of diseases the latter rendered." Transactions of the Medical Society of Virginia (1872).

Burt, W. J. "Report on the anatomical and physiological differences between the white and negro races; the modification of their respective diseases and differences in the treatment resulting therefrom." Transactions of the Texas Medical Association (1876):115-22.

Tiffany, L. "Comparison between the surgical diseases of the white and colored races." Transactions of the American Surgical Association (1887):262-73.

Matas, R. "Surgical Peculiarities of the Negro: A Statistical Inquiry based upon the records of the Charity Hospital of New Orleans (Decennium 1884-94)." Transactions of the American Surgical Association (1894):483-610.

Association, National Medical. "Journal of the National Medical Association." (1909-present).
Journal published by the African-American medical profession.

Harris, Seale. Woman's Surgeon: The Life Story of J. Marion Sims. Summit: CIBA Pharmaceutical Products, 1950.
Laudatory biography of Marion Sims, the "Father of Gynecology," who developed his surgical techniques by experimenting on slave women.

Cobb, W. Montague. "Surgery and the Negro Physician: Some Parallels in Background." Journal of the National Medical Association 43.3 (1951):145-51.
Speech by Cobb, Professor of Anatomy at Howard University, tracing the history of African-Americans and surgery from experimental subject to surgeon.


S T D ' S

Quillian, Daniel David. "Racial Peculiarities: A Cause of the Prevalence of Syphilis in Negroes." American Journal of Dermatology and Genito-Urinary Diseases 10.July (1906):277-79.

McHatton, Henry. "The Sexual Status of the Negro - Past and Present." American Journal of Dermatology and Genito-Urinary Diseases 10.January (1906):6-9.

Murrell, Thomas W. "Syphilis and the American Negro." JAMA 54.11 (1910):846-49.

Peters, Jesse et al. "Untreated Syphilis in the Male Negro: Pathological Findings in Syphilitic and Nonsyphilitic Patients." Journal of Chronic Disease 1.February (1955):127-48.

Panel, Tuskegee Syphilis Study Ad Hoc Advisory. "Final Report." . Washington, DC: U.S. Public Health Service. 1973.


W.E.B.    D U  B O I S

Du Bois, W. E. B. The Philadelphia Negro: A Social Study. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1899/1996.

Du Bois, W. E. B. "The Health and Physique of the Negro American: Report of a Social Study Made Under the Direction of Atlanta University." In Eleventh Conference for the Study of the Negro Problems. Atlanta: Atlanta University Press. 1906.

Du Bois, W. E. B. "The Conservation of Races." In Occasional Papers. Washington, DC: The American Negro Academy. 1897.



The Climatologist, 1891-92.
A monthly journal of medicine devoted to the relation of climate, mineral springs, diet, preventive medicine, race, occupation, life insurance, and sanitary science to disease.
From Philadelphia.

Woodruff, Charles Edward. Expansion of Races. New York: Rebman Co., 1909.

Krantz, Grover S. Climatic Races and Descent Groups. North Quincy, MA: Christopher Publishing House, 1980.


E P I D E M I O L O G Y   &   S T A T I S T I C S

Gould, B. A. Investigations in the Military and Anthropological Statistics of American Soldiers. Cambridge, MA: Riverside Press (Hurd and Houghton for the U. S. Sanitary Commission), 1869.

Hoffman, Frederick L. Race Traits and Tendencies of the American Negro, 1869.

Baxter, J. H. Statistics, Medical and Anthropological of the Provost-Marshal-General's Bureau, Derived from Records of the Examination for Military Service in the Armies of the United States During the Late War of the Rebellion, of Over a Million. Washington, DC: Government Publishing Office, 1875.

Miller, Kelly. A Review of Hoffman's Race Traits and Tendencies of the American Negro. Washington, DC: The Academy, 1897.

Hoffman, F. L. The Statistical Experiences Data of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Johns Hopkins Hospital Report 17 (1916): Pages

Shaper, A. Gerald and Peter H. Whincup. "Hypertension in Populations of African Origin." The American Journal of Public Health 87.2 (1997):155.



Nott, Josiah Clark. Two Lectures on the Natural History of the Caucasian and Negro Races. Mobile: Dade and Thompson, 1844.

Knox, Robert. The Races of Man: A Fragment. Philadelphia: Lea & Blanchard, 1850.

Nott, Josiah Clark. The Physical History of the Jewish Race. Charleston, 1850.

Douglass, Frederick and University Western Reserve. The Claims of the Negro Ethnologically Considered. An address before the literary societies of Western Reserve College, at commencement, July 12, 1854, 1854.

Nott, Josiah Clark. Types of Mankind; or, ethnological researches, based upon the ancient monuments, paintings, sculptures, and crania of races, and their natural, geological, philological, and biblical history. Miami: Mnemosyne Publishing Co., 1854/1969.

Cartwright, Samuel Adolphus. Ethnology of the Negro or Prognathous Races, 1857.

Nordhoff, C. The Freedmen of South Carolina; some account of their appearance, character, condition, and peculiar customs. New York, 1863.

Nott, Josiah Clark. The Negro Race: Its Ethnology and History, 1866.

Carr, Lucien. Notes on the Crania of New England Indians. Boston: Boston Society of Natural History, 1880.

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