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Instructor's Guide, Race and Health
Ed Morman, Associate Librarian for Historical Collections,
The New York Academy of Medicine
1216 Fifth Avenue
New York NY 10029
212-822-7200

emorman@health.nyam.org

I would like to acknowledge Vanessa Gamble for making her
syllabus available when I first began teaching this course.

This is a guide I prepared for myself when I began teaching
an undergraduate course on race and medicine in 1993. I
updated it somewhat for subsequent incarnations of the
course in 1994 and 1996. It is organized according to the
thirteen weeks of the semester. In general, the items listed
directly under each heading are material I considered as
assigning for students to read. "Other sources"
are just that-- i.e., other sources I used in developing
lectures.

The course begins by questioning the notion of race. It was
my intention to have students come to the recognition that
"race" is a social category, and not a biological
reality. I also wanted them to understand race as bearing
some similarities to class, but still as a distinct
"axis of oppression." I point out that racial
categories are quite fluid and that some groups readily
understood to be "white" in today's America,
namely Jews and Irish Americans, were racialized in the
past. The particular racial oppression of blacks -- and, in
fact, the racial definition of "blackness" -- is
rooted in the capture and enslavement of black Africans, and
the two centuries of race-based slavery in the country.

After reviewing the history of the concept of race, I turned
to problems in African-American health. The key issue to
grapple with here is this: How can we account for the
historical differential in health status between African
Americans and whites in this country, if race has no
biological reality? I answer this question first by
discussing the different class structure of the black and
white populations in the U.S. Put crudely, black people tend
to be poorer, and poorer people tend to be less healthy.
Secondly, as measure of social status distinct from class,
race as a social category accounts for most of the residual
difference -- it is harder to be a black person than a white
person in this society, and that takes its toll. Finally,
the remaining, very small, health status difference can be
accounted for by biological differences that happen to
correlate with the inherited visual cues that define race
for us (i.e., skin color, hair texture, etc.). The most
obvious example is sickle-cell anemia.

In discussing healers and health workers, I provide a
respectful look at traditional and folk healing roles.
Within the biomedical health care system, I discuss the
historical reasons for the disproportionate number of blacks
in the lowest-paid and lowest status health jobs as compared
with the relative scarcity of African American physicians
and especially specialists. I look at the traditional
connection between nursing care and domestic service, and
pay attention to the important work of non-professional
African Americans in roles such as nursing aides and kitchen
workers.

I taught this course and similar courses to medical students
while I was at Johns Hopkins. I am not sure whether I will
have the opportunity to teach at my current position, but I
am interested in curriculum development, and would like to
engage in discussion related to history of race and health.

The thirteen weeks in this course cover the following
specific topics. 


Editors note:
Because of its length, this guide has been hypertexted. In
addition to scrolling through the guide, you may click on a
topic to go directly to that section.) 


1. 

Introduction: the meaning of "race."

2. 

The history of race: the social and scientific construction
of race by Europeans

3. 

The meaning of race: African-Americans in the United States
today, and race as an independent variable in
epidemiology.

4.

Scientific racism and scientific anti-racism.

5. 

Health status and access to health care of African-Americans
du^ring slavery, Civil War, and Reconstruction.

6.

Race, Class and Health in the Twentieth Century, part 1

7. 

Race, Class and Health in the Twentieth Century, part 2

8.

African Americans as Guinea Pigs: The Tuskegee syphilis
experiment.

9.

Race, Gender, Sexuality and Health

10. 

African-American healers: the traditional roles.

11. 

Blacks and hospitals.

12.

African-American healers: nurses.

13. 

African-American healers: physicians.




I. The meaning of "race."

"Encountering the Negro Problem: To the Negroes
Themselves" in Gunnar Myrdal,10An American Dilemma:
The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy(New York: Harper
and Row, 1947), 27ff.

Stephen Steinberg, "The Politics of Memory,"
New Politics, Winter 1991: 64-70.

Naomi Zack, "Preface," in Race and Mixed
Race(Philadelphia: Temple U. Press, 1993), xi-xv.



II. The history of race: The social and scientific
construction of race by Europeans


Jan Nederveen Pieterse. White on Black: Images of Africa
and Blacks in Western Popular Culture. New Haven: Yale,
1992.


other resources

Shmuel Almog. Nationalism and Antisemitism in Modern
Europe 1815-1945.New York: Pergamon, 1989.

Elazar Barkan, The Retreat of Scientific Racism: Changing
Concepts of Race in Britain and the United Sttes between the
World Wars(New York: Cambridge University Prss, 1992),
esp. "Introduction," pp. 1-11, and "Colors
into Races," pp. 15-20.

Martin Barker, "Biology and the New Racism," In
David Theo Goldberg, ed., Anatomy of Racism

(Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992), 18-37.
The Biblical and "Scientific" Defense of
Slavery: Religion and "The Negro Problem, edited
with introductions by John David Smith. New York: Garland,
1993 (Anti-Black Thought, 1863-1925, volume 6).

Nicholas P. Canny, The Elizabethan Conquest of Ireland: A
Pattern Established, 1565-76. New York: Barnes and
Noble, 1976.

J. Langdon H. Down, "Observations on an Ethnic
Classification of Idiots," Clinical Lectures and
Reports by the Medical and Surgical Staff3 (1866):
259-262.

Thomas G. Dyer, Theodore Roosevelt and the Idea of
Race(Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press,
1980), Chapters 1, "The Racial Education of Theodore
Roosevelt," and 2, "Theory," pp.1-44.

Barbara J. Fields, "Ideology and Race in American
History," in Region, Race and Reconstruction: Essays
in Honor of C. Vann Woodward(New York: Oxford University
Press, 1982), 143-177.

Barbara Jeanne Fields, "Slavery, race and ideology in
the United States of America." New Left Review,
May/June 1990, no. 181: 95-118.

Maurice Fishberg, Materials for the Physical Anthropology
of the Eastern European Jews(Lancaster, PA: New Era,
1905).

Maurice Fishberg, The Jews: A Study of Race and
Environment(New York: Scribner's, 1911).

David Theo Goldberg, Racist Culture: Philosophy and the
Politics of Meaning(Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell, 1993).

Louis R. Harlan. "Booker T. Washington's Discovery of
Jews," inRegion, Race and Reconstruction: Essays in
Honor of C. Vann Woodward (New York: Oxford University
Press, 1982), 267-279.

Sander Gilman, "The Jewish Nose: Are Jews White? or ,
The History of the Nose Job," Chapter 7 in The Jew's
Body(New York: Routledge, 1991), 169-193.

David Theo Goldberg, "The Social Formation of Racist
Discourse," In Goldberg, ed., Anatomy of
Racism(Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press,
1992), 295-318.

Earnest A. Hooton and C. Wesley Duperuis, The Physical
Anthropology of IrelandCambridge, Mass.: Peabody Museum
of Achaeology, 1955).

Milton Kleg, Hate, Prejudice, and Racism(Albany:
State University of New York Press, 1993), Chapters 3,
"Race: A Biological Concept," and 4, "Race
and Racism."

Henrika Kuklick, The Savage Within: The Social History of
British Anthropology, 1885-1945(New York: Cambridge
University Press, 1992), pp. 116-119, on Irish question in
the 19th century.

Richard Lewontin, "Are the Races Different?" in
Dawn Gill and Les Levidow, editors, Anti-Racist Science
Teaching(London: Free Association, 1987), pp. 198-207.

Alain LeRoy Locke, Race Contacts and Interracial
Relations: Lectures on the Theory and Practice of
Race(Washington: Howard University Press, 1992).

Samuel George Morton. Crania Aegyptica; or, Observations
on Egyption Ethnography derived from Anatomy, History and
the Monuments(Philadelphia: Penington, 1844).

Josiah Charles Nott and Geroge R. Gliddon, Types of
Mankind, or Ethnological Researches . . . Illustrated by
Selections from the Inedited Papers of Samuel George Morton,
M.D. . . .(Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1854).

Lucius Outlaw, "Toward a Critical Theory of
`Race,'" In David Theo Goldberg, ed., Anatomy of
Racism(Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press,
1992), 58-82.

Quinn, The Elizabethans and the Irish.

"Race" in The Barnhart Dictionary of
Etymology(New York: Wilson, 1988), p. 879.

"Race," in The Oxford English Dictionary
(Oxford: Clarendon, 1933), v. 8, p. 87
Racial Determinism and the Fear of Miscegenation,
Pre-1900: Race and "The Negro Problem," Parts 1
and 2.New York: Garland, 1993. (Anti-Black Thought,
1863-1925, volume 7).

G. S. Rousseau, "Le Cat and the Physiology of
Negroes," in Racism in the Eighteenth
Century,edited by Harold E. Pagliaro (Cleveland: Press
of Case Western Reserve University, 1973), 369-386.

Redcliffe N. Salaman, "Heredity and the Jew,"
Eugenics Review, 1912, 3: 187-200.

Phillip R. Sloan, "The Idea of Racial Degeneracy in
Buffon's Histoire Naturelle," in Racism in
the Eighteenth Century, edited by Harold E. Pagliaro
(Cleveland: Press of Case Western Reserve University, 1973),
293-321.

Audrey Smedley, Race in North America: Origin and
Evolution of a Worldview(Boulder, Colo.: Westview,
1993).

Nancy Leys Stepan, The Idea of Race in Science: Great
Britain 1800-1960(Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1982).

Nancy Leys Stepan, "Race and Gender: The Role of
Analogy in Science," In David Theo Goldberg, ed.,
Anatomy of Racism(Minneapolis: University of
Minnesota Press, 1992), 38-57. Reprinted from Isis77
(1986): 261-277. Also reprinted in The "Racial"
Economy of Science: Toward a Democratic Future, edited
by Sandra Harding (Bloomington: Indiana University Press,
1993), 359-376.

George Stocking, "Race," in Dictionary of the
History of Scienceedited by Roy Porter and W.F.Bynum.

Ronald Takaki, "The Tempestin the Wilderness:
The Racialization of Savagery," Journal of American
History, 1992,79: 892-912.

William Charles Wells, Account of a Female of the White
Race of Mankind, Part of Whose Skin Resembles that of a
Negro, &c[1813].



III. The meaning of race: African-Americans in the United
States today, and race as an independent variable in
epidemiology


James Weldon Johnson. The Autobiography of an Ex-Coloured
Man

Kenneth F. Kiple and Virginia Himmelsteib King,
"Preface," in Another Dimension to the Black
Diaspora: Diet, Disease, and Racism(New York: Cambridge
University Press, 1981), xi-xvi.

Michael J. Klag, et al., "The Association of Skin Color
with Blood Pressure in US Blacks with Low Socioeconomic
Status," JAMA, 1991, 265: 599-602.

Nancy Krieger and Mary Basset, "The Health of Black
Folk: Disease, Class, and Ideology in Science,"
Monthly Review, 1986, 38: 74-85. Reprinted in
The "Racial" Economy of Science, edited by
Sandra Harding (Bloomington: Indiana UniversityPress, 1993).


other resources

Richard Cooper. "A note on the biologic concept of race
and its use in epidemiologic research." American
Heart Journal, 1984, 108: 715-22.

Philip D. Curtin, "The Slavery Hypothesis for
Hypertension among African Americans: The Historical
Evidence," American Journal of Public Health,
1992, 82(12): 1681-86.

Davis, F. James. Who is Black? One Nation's
Definition(University Park: Pennsylvania State
University Press, 1991).

Mindy Thompson Fullilove, "Perceptions and
Misperceptions of Race and Drug Use" [editorial],
JAMA, 1993, 269(8): 1034.

Carol J. Rowland Hogue and Martha A. Hargraves, "Class,
Race, and Infant Mortality in the United States,"
American Journal of Public Health, January
1993,83(1): 9-11.

Thomas A. Laveist, "The Political Empowerment and
Health Status of African-Americans: Mapping a New
Territory," American Journal of Sociology97
(1992): 1080-1095.

Warren E. Leary. "Uneasy Doctors Add Race-Consciousness
to Diagnostic Tools." New York Times, September
25, 1990.

Marsha Lillie-Blanton, James C. Anthony, and Charles R.
Schuster, "Probing the Meaning of Racial/Ethnic Group
Comparisons in Crack Cocaine Smoking," JAMA,
1993,269(8): 993-97.

Robert F. Murray. "Skin Color and Blood Pressure:
Genetics or Environment?" JAMA, 1991,
265: 639-640.

Vicente Navarro. "Class and Race: Life and Death
Situations," Monthly Review, September 1991:
1-13.

Gregory Pappas, et al., "The Increasing Disparity in
Mortality between Socioeconomic Groups in the United States,
1960 and 1986,"New England Journal of
Medicine329 (1993): 103-109.

Reginald L. Peniston and Otelio S. Randall. "Coronary
artery disease in Black Americans 1920-1960: the shaping of
medical opinion." Journal of the National Medical
Association, 1989, 81: 591-600.

Doris Y. Wilkinson and Gary King. "Conceptual and
Methodological Issues in the Use of Race as a Variable:
Policy Implications," in Health Policies and Black
Americans, David P. Willis, ed. (New Brunswick:
Transaction, 1989), pp. 56-71.

Thomas W. Wilson and Clarence E. Grim, "Biohistory of
Slavery and Blood Pressure Differences in Blacks Today: A
Hypothesis," Hypertension, 1991,
17(suppl.1): I/122-I/128. 



IV. Scientific racism and scientific anti-racism


Nancy Leys Stepan, "Race and Gender: The Role of
Analogy in Science," In David Theo Goldberg, ed.,
Anatomy of Racism(Minneapolis: University of
Minnesota Press, 1992), 38-57. Reprinted from Isis77
(1986): 261-277. Reprinted in The "Racial"
Economy of Science: Toward a Democratic Future, edited
by Sandra Harding (Bloomington: Indiana University Press,
1993), 359-376.

John S. Haller, "The Physician versus the Negro:
Medical and Anthropological Concepts of Race in the Late
Nineteenth Century," Bulletin of the History of
Medicine, 1970, 44: 154-167.

Jeffrey C. Stewart, "Introduction," in Alain LeRoy
Locke, Race Contacts and Interracial Relations: Lectures
on the Theory and Practice of Race (Washington: Howard
University Press, 1992), xix-lx.

V.P. Franklin, "Black Social Scientists and the Mental
Testing Movement, 1920-1940," in Reginald L. Jones,
ed., Black Psychology, 3d ed (Berkeley: Cobb &
Henry, 1991), 207-224. 

Martin Barker, "Biology and the New Racism," In
David Theo Goldberg, ed., Anatomy of Racism
(Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992),
18-37. Reprinted from Barker, The New Racism:
Conservativism and the Ideology of the Tribe(1981).

Gerald Horne, "Race Backwards: Genes, Violence, Race,
and Genocide," CovertAction Quarterly, Winter
1992/93, no. 43: 29-35.

David L. Wheeler, "Federal Research Effort on Violence
is Not Racist, Review Concludes," Chronical of
Higher Education, March 24, 1993, p. A12.

Nancy Leys Stepan and Sander L. Gilman, "Appropriating
the Idioms of Science: The Rejection of Scientific
Racism," in The "Racial" Economy of
Science: Toward a Democratic Future, edited by Sandra
Harding (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993),
170-193.


other resources

Mark Aldrich, "Progressive Economists and Scientific
Racism: Walter Willcox and Black Americans, 1895-1910."
Phylon, 1979,40: 1-14.

Edward H. Beardsley, "The American Scientist as Social
Activist: Franz Boas, Burt G. Wilder, and the Cause of
Racial Justice, 1900-1915." Isis, 1973,
64: 50-66.
The Biblical and "Scientific" Defense of
Slavery: Religion and "The Negro Problem, edited
with introductions by John David Smith. New York: Garland,
1993 (Anti-Black Thought, 1863-1925, volume 6).

Albert Deutsch, "The First U.S. Census of the Insane
(1840) and its Use as Pro-Slavery Propaganda,"
Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 1944, 15,
469-482. Reprinted in Medicine, Nutrition, Demography,
and Slavery, edited by Paul Finkelman (New York:
Garland, 1989), pp. 15-28.

Thomas G. Dyer, Theodore Roosevelt and the Idea of
Race(Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press,
1980), Chapters 1, "The Racial Education of Theodore
Roosevelt," and 2, "Theory," pp.1-44.

Peter Fryer, "Pseudo-scientific Racism," in Dawn
Gill and Les Levidow, editors, Anti-Racist Science
Teaching(London: Free Association, 1987), pp. 178-197. 

Richard M. Lerner.Final Solutions: Biology, Prejudice,
and Genocide(University Park: Pennsylvania State
University Press, 1992)., Chapter 5, "Biological
Determinism, Women and Blacks: The Past as Prologue to the
Future," pp. 127-148.

Frank B. Livingstone, "On the Nonexistence of
Races," in The "Racial" Economy of
Science: Toward a Democratic Future, edited by Sandra
Harding (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993),
133-141. Reprinted from The Concept of Race, edited
by Ashley Montague (1964).

Pauline M. H. Mazumdar. Eugenics, Human Genetics and
Human Failings: The Eugenics Society, Its Sources and Its
Critics in Britain(New York: Routledge, 1992).

"Racial Beliefs," Chapter 4 in Gunnar Myrdal,
An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern
Democracy(New York: Harper and Row, 1947), 83-112.

"Racial Characteristics," Chapter 6 of Gunnar
Myrdal, An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern
Democracy(New York: Harper and Row, 1947), 137-153.
Racial Determinism and the Fear of Miscegenation,
Pre-1900: Race and "The Negro Problem," Parts 1
and. New York: Garland, 1993. (Anti-Black Thought,
1863-1925, volume 7 and 8).

Richard H. Popkin, "Medicine, Racism, Anti-Semitism: A
Dimension of Enlightenment Culture," in The
Languages of Psyche: Mind and Body in Enlightenment
Thought, edited by G.S. Rousseau (Berkeley: University
of California Press, 1990), 405-442.

Richard H. Popkin, "The Philosophical Basis of
Eighteenth-Century Racism," in Racism in the
Eighteenth Century, edited by Harold E. Pagliaro
(Cleveland: Press of Case Western Reserve University, 1973),
245-262. 



V. Health status and access to health care of
African-Americans during slavery, Civil War, and
Reconstruction


Peter H. Wood, Black Majority: Negroes in Colonial South
Carolina from 1670 through the Stono Rebellion (New
York: Knopf, 1974), chapter 3, "`The Soveraign Ray of
Health,'" in 63-91. 

Todd L. Savitt, "Slave Health and Southern
Distinctiveness." In: Todd L. Savitt and James Harvey
Young, ed., Disease and Distinctiveness in the American
South. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1988.
pp. 120-53. (Also published as "Black health on the
plantation: masters, slaves and physicians." In: Judith
Walzer Leavitt and Ronald L. Numbers, ed., Sickness and
Health in America: Readings in the History of Medicine and
Public Health, Second edition, revised. Madison:
University of Wisconsin Press, 1985. pp. 313-330.) [on
reserve in MSEL; in folder]

John S. Haller, "The Negro and the Southern Physician:
A Study of Medical and Racial Attitudes 1800-1860,"
Medical History, 1972, 16: 238-253. Reprinted
in Medicine, Nutrition, Demography, and Slavery,
edited by Paul Finkelman (New York: Garland, 1989), pp.
172-187. 

Leslie Howard Owens, This Species of Property: Slave Life
and Culture in the Old South(New York: Oxford University
Press, 1976), chapter 2, "Into the Fields: Life,
Disease, and Labor in the Old South," pp. 19-49; and
chapter 3, "Blackstrap Molasses and Cornbread--Diet and
Its Impact on Behavior," pp. 50-69.

Gaines M. Foster, "The Limitations of Federal Health
Care for Freedmen, 1862-1868," Journal of Southern
History, 1982, 48: 349-372.


other resources

Berlin, Ira, et al, eds., "Health," in Freedom:
A Documentary History of Emancipation, 1861-1867, Series
2 The Black Military Experience(Cambridge, 1982),
633-637.

John Campbell, "Work, Pregnancy, and Infant Mortality
among Southern Slaves,"Journal of Interdisciplinary
History, 1984, 14: 793-812.

Corson, Eugene Rollin, "The Vital Equation of the the
Colored Race and Its Future in the United Sates," in
The Wilder Quarter-Century Book: A Collection of Original
Papers Dedicated to Professor Burt Green Wilder(Ithaca:
Comstock, 1893), pp. 115-175. [argues that Blacks will
become extinct. Wilder himself was anti-racist] 

John Duffy, "Slavery and Slave Health in Louisiana,
1766-1825," Bulletin of the Tulane University
Medical Faculty, 1967, 26: 1-6. Reprinted in
Medicine, Nutrition, Demography, and Slavery, edited
by Paul Finkelman (New York: Garland, 1989), pp. 29-34.

Walter Fisher, "Physicians and Slavery in the
Antebellum Southern Medical Journal," Journal of the
History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 1968,
23: 36-49. Reprinted in Medicine, Nutrition,
Demography, and Slavery, edited by Paul Finkelman (New
York: Garland, 1989), pp. 52-65.

J.D. Guillory, "The Pro-Slavery Arguments of Dr. Samuel
A. Cartwright," Louisiana History,1968,
9: 209-227.

Gail S. Hasson, "Health and Welfare of Freedmen in
Reconstruction Alabama," Alabama Review, 1982,
35: 94-110.

Michael P. Johnson, "Smothered Slave Infants: Were
Slave Mothers at Fault?" Journal of Southern
History, 1981, 47: 493-520.

Kemble, Frances Anne, Journal of a Residence on a Georgia
Plantation 1838-1839(London: Longman, Green, 1863),
97-101, 222-223, 229-230. 

Kenneth F. Kiple and Virginia Himmelsteib King, Another
Dimension to the Black Diaspora: Diet, Disease, and
Racism(New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981).

Marshall Scott Legan, "Disease and the Freedmen in
Mississippi during Reconstruction," Journal of the
History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 1973,28:
257-267.

Larry R. Morrison, "`Nearer to the Brute Creation': The
Scientific Defense of American Slavery before 1830,"
Southern Studies, 1980, 19: 228-242.

Theophilus O. Powell, "The Increase of Insanity and
Tuberculosis in the Southern Negro Since 1860,"
Journal of the Americasn Medical Association, 1896,
27: 1185-1188.

Todd L. Savitt, "Filariasis in the United States,"
Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied
Sciences, 1977, 29: 140-150.

Todd L. Savitt, Medicine and Slavery: The Diseases and
Health Care of Blacks in Antebellum Virginia(Urbana:
University of Illinois Press, 1978).

Todd L. Savitt, "Understanding the Medical Past through
Literature: Bloodletting and the Louisiana Swamp
Doctor," Oklahoma State Medical Association
Journal, 1982, 75: 174-177.

Bennett H. Wall, "Medical Care of Ebenezer Pettigrew's
Slaves," Mississippi Valley Historical Review,
1950, 37: 451-470. [Reprinted in Medicine,
Nutrition, Demography, and Slavery, edited by Paul
Finkelman (New York: Garland, 1989), pp. 331-350.

Robert David Ward and William Warren Rogers, "Racial
Inferiority, Convict Labor, and Modern Medicine: A Note on
the Coalburg Affair," Alabama Historical
Quarterly, 1982,44: 203-211.

John Harley Warner, "Cultural Nationalism and Tropical
Fevers: Models of Colonial Medicine in the American South,
1840-1860," in Medicalizacion de la Ciencia y
Cultura Nacional, edited by A. Lafuente, et al. (Madrid:
Doce Calles, 1993), 511-518.

D. O. Whitten, "Medical Care of Slaves: Louisiana Sugar
Region and South Carolina Rice District," Southern
Studies, 1977, 16: 153-180.



VI. Race, Class and Health in the Twentieth Century, part
1


Beardsley, A History of Neglect, pp. 1-155


other resources

Barbara Bates, Bargaining for Life: A Social History of
Tuberculosis, 1876-1938(Philadelphia: University of
Pennsylvania Press, 1992), Ch. 16, "P.S. I am . . .
Colored," pp. 288-310.

Brown, Roscoe C. "The National Negro Health Week
Movement," Journal of Negro Education, 1937,
6: 553-64.

Priscilla Ferguson Clement, "Managing on their Own:
Ailing Black Women in Philadelphia and Charleston,
1870-1918," in Wings of Gauze: Women of Color and
the Experience of Health and Illness(Detroit: Wayne
State University Press, 1993), pp. 180-190.

Cobb, W. Montague, "Medical Care and the Plight of the
Negro," Crisis, July 1947, 54: 201-211.
Reprinted as a pamphlet (New York: NAACP, August 1947). 

Bessie E. Cobbs, "Health on Wheels in
Mississippi," American Journal of Nursing, 1941,
41: 551-554.

Cornely, Paul B., "Segregation and Discrimination in
Medical Care in the United States," American Journal
of Public Health and the Nation's Health,
1956,46: 1074-81.

Davis, Lenwood G. A History of Tuberculosis in the Black
Community: A Working Bibliography(Monticello Ill.:
Council of Planning Librarians, 1975). Exchange Bibliography
859.

Eugene B. Elder, "The Management of the Race Question
in Hospitals," Transactions of the American Hospital
Association, 1907,9: 127-130. 

Vanessa Northington Gamble, editor, Germs Have No Color
Line: Blacks and American Medicine, 1900-1940(New York:
Garland, 1989)

Gover, Mary. Mortality among Southern Negroes since 1920,
with Comparative Data for Southern Whites and Northern
Negroes(Washington, Government Printing Office, 1937).
Public Health Service Bulletin No. 235.

Joel D. Howell and Catherine G. McLaughlin. "Race,
Income, and the Purchase of Medical Care by Selected 1917
Working-Class Urban Families." Journal of the
History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 1992,
47: 439-461.

Claude F. Jacobs, "Benevolent Societies of New Orleans
Blacks during the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth
Centuries," Louisiana History, 1988, 29:
21-33.

Lawrence Lee, "The Negro as a Problem in Public Health
Charity." American Journal of Public Health,
1915, 5: 207-211.

Lewis, Julian Herman, The Biology of the
Negro(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1942),
chapter 4, "Medical Diseases," 99-304; chapter 5,
"Surgical Diseases," 305-361, chapter 6,
"Obstetrics and Gynecology," 362-368; chapter 7,
"Diseases of the Skin," 369-392; chapter 8,
"Diseases of the Eye, Ear, Nose, and Throat,"
393-398; and chapter 9, "Dental Diseases,"
399-407.

David McBride, "The Black-White Mortality Differential
in New York State, 1900-1950: A Socio-Historical
Reconsideration," Afro-Americans in New York Life
and History, 1990, 14: 71-89.

David McBride, From TB to AIDS, chapters 1-4, pp.
9-124 [on shelf]

David McBride, "The Henry Phipps Institute, 1903-1937:
pioneering tuberculosis work with an urban minority."
Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 1987, 61:
78-97.

Michael G. Michaelson, "Sickle Cell Anaemia: An
`Interesting Pathology'" in Dawn Gill and Les Levidow,
editors, Anti-Racist Science Teaching(London: Free
Association, 1987), 59-75.

"Population," Chapter 7 in Gunnar Myrdal, An
American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern
Democracy(New York: Harper and Row, 1947), 157-181. 

Reilly, Philip, "Sickle Cell Anemia Laws," in
Genetics, Law, and Social Policy(Cambridge: Harvard
University Press, 1977), 62-86. [in folder]

Todd L. Savitt, "The Invisible Malady: Sickle Cell
Anemia in America, 1910-1970," Journal of the
National Medical Association, 1981, 73

(8): 739-746.

Anne F. Scott, "Most Invisible of All: Black Women's
Voluntary Association," Journal of Southern
History, 1990, 61: 3-22.

Robert B. Scott, "Health Care Priority and Sickle Cell
Anemia," Journal of the American Medical
Association, 1970, 214: 731-734.

Torchia, Marion M. "Tuberculosis among American
Negroes: medical research on a racial disease,
1830-1950."Journal of the History of Medicine and
Allied Sciences, 1977, 32: 252-79.

Torchia, Marion M. "The tuberculosis movement and the
race question, 1890-1950." Bulletin of the History
of Medicine, 1975, 49: 152-68.

Doris Y. Wilkinson, "For Whose Benefit? Politics and
Sickle Cell," The Black Scholar, May 1974,
5(8): 26-31.



VII. Race, Class and Health in the Twentieth Century,
II


Beardsley, History of Neglect pp. 156-314 (159pp.)
[in bookstore, on reserve at MSEL, on shelf, notes on ch.11
and ch. 12 in folder]


other resources

Margaret S. Boone. Capital Crime: Black Infant Mortality
in America(Newberry Park, CA: Sage, 1989).

Angela Y. Davis, "Sick and Tired of Being Sick and
Tired: The Politics of Black Women's Health," in The
Black Women's Health Book, edited by Evelyn C. White
(Seattle: Seal Press, 1990), 18-26.

Zora Neale Hurston. "My Most Humiliating Jim Crow
Experience." In Marion Gray Secundy, ed, Trials,
Tribulations and Celebrations, pp. 23-24.

Jones, Edith Irby, "Closing the Health Status Gap for
Blacks and Other Minorities," Journal of the
National Medical Association, 1986,78: 485-488.

David McBride. From TB to AIDS, chapter 5, pp.
127-157.

Miller, S. M. "Race in the Health of America,"
inHealth Policies and Black Americans, David P.
Willis, ed. (New Brunswick: Transaction, 1989), pp. 500-531.

"Perspectives in Disease Prevention and Health
Promotion: Report of the Secretary's Task Force on Black and
Minority Health," Journal of the American Medical
Association, 1986, 255: 3347-3348.



VIII. African Americans as Guinea Pigs: The Tuskegee
syphilis experiment


Jones. Bad Blood, chapters 1-13, pp. 1-220.


other sources

Brandt, Allan M. "Racism and research: The case of the
Tuskegee syphilis study." Hastings Center
Report, 1978, 8: 21-29. Reprinted in Judith
Walzer Leavitt and Ronald L. Numbers, editors, Sickness
and Health in America: Readings in the History of Medicine
and Public Health. Second edition, revised. Madison:
University of Wisconsin Press, 1985. pp.313-330.

Benedek, Thomas G. "The 'Tuskegee Study' of syphilis:
analysis of moral versus methodologic aspects."
Journal of Chronic Diseases, 1978, 31: 35-50.

F. N. Boney, "Slaves as Guinea Pigs: Georgia and
Alabama Episodes," Alabama Review, 1984,
37: 45-51.

H. H. Hazen, "Syphilis in the American
Negro,"Journal of the American Medical
Association,1914, 63: 463-466.

Thomas W. Murrell, "Syphilis and the American Negro: A
Medico-Sociologic Study," Journal of the American
Medical Association, 1910, 54: 846-849.

Savitt, Todd L. "The Use of Blacks for Medical
Experimentation in the Old South," Journal of
Southern History, 1982, 48: 331-348. Reprinted in
Medicine, Nutrition, Demography, and Slavery, edited
by Paul Finkelman (New York: Garland, 1989), pp. 273-90.

Tom W. Schick, "Race, class and medicine: "Bad
Blood" in twentieth century America" (Review of
Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, by James
H. Jones), Journal of Ethnic Studies, 1982,
10: 97-105.

Martha Solomon, "The rhetoric of dehumanization: an
analysis of medical reports of the Tuskegee syphilis
project." Western Journal of Speech
Communication, 1985, 49: 233-47.

"Twenty Years After: The Legacy of the Tuskegee
Syphilis Study" [articles by Athur L. Caplan, Harold
Edgar, Patricia A. King, James H. Jones], Hastings Center
Report, November-December 1992, 22(6): 29-40.



IX. Race, Gender, Sexuality and Health


Blanche Schrack, "Editorial Comment," Birth
Control Review, September 1919: 3(9): 3-4.
Birth Control Review, June 1932, v.16, no. 6:

[Editorial], pp. 163-64.

George S. Schuyler, "Quantity or Quality," pp.
165-66.

W.E.B. DuBois, "Black Folk and Birth Control,"
pp.166- 67.

Charles S. Johnson, "A Question of Negro Health,"
pp. 167- 69.

Elmer A. Carter, "Eugenics for the Negro," pp.
169-70.

Midian O. Bousfield, "Negro Public Health Work Needs
Birth Control," pp. 170-171. 

Walter A. Terpenning, "God's Chillun," pp. 171-72.

S. J. Holmes, "The Negro Birth Rate," pp. 172-73.

Constance Fisher, "The Negro Health Worker Evaluates
Birth Control," pp. 174-75.

W. G. Alexander, "A Medical Viewpoint," p. 175.

"Clinical Service for the Negro," pp. 176-77.

Walter F. Willcox, "Changes in Negro and White Birth
Rates," pp. 179-180.

Isabella V. Granger, "Birth Control in Harlem,"
Birth Control Review, May 1938, 22: 91-92.

E. S. Lewis and N. Louise Young, "Baltimore's Negro
Maternal Health Center," Birth Control Review,
May 1938, 22: 93-94.

Jessie M. Rodrique, "The Black Community and the Birth
Control Movement," in Kathy Peiss and Christina
Simmons, eds., Passion and Power: Sexuality in
History(Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989).
Reprinted in Ellen Dubois and Vicki Ruiz, Unequal
Sisters(New York: Routledge, 1990), pp. 333-44.

James Jones, Bad Blood, chapter 14, pp. 220-241.

Harlon Dalton, "AIDS in Blackface,"
Daedalus, Summer 1989, 118: 205-227.


other sources

Robert G. Weisbord, "Birth Control and the Black
American: A Matter of Genocide?" Demography,
1973, 10: 571-590. [in folder]

McBride, From AIDS to TB, chapter 6, pp. 159-171.

Evelyn Hammonds, "Race, Sex, AIDS: The Construction of
`Other,'" Radical America, 1987, 20:
55-62.

Thomas, Stephen B. and Sandra Crouse Quinn, "The
Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 1932 to 1972: Implications for HIV
Education ands AIDS Risk Education Programs in the Black
Community," American Journal of Public Health,
1991, 81: 1498-1505.

Ira E. Harrison, "Community AIDS Education: Trials and
Tribulations in Raising Consciousness for Prevention,"
In African Americans in the South: Issues of Race, Class,
and Gender, edited by Hans A. Baer and Yvonne Jones
(Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1992), 79-93.



X. African-American healers: the traditional roles

Motherwit


other sources

Powers, Bethel Ann. "The use of orthodox and black
American folk medicine," ANS: Advances in Nursing
Science, April 1982,4(3): 35-47.

Holmes, Linda Janet. "African American Midwives in the
South," in The American Way of Birth, edited by
Pamela S. Eakins (Philadelphia: Temple University Press,
1986), 273-291.

Hans A. Baer, "Toward a systematic typology of black
folk healers." Phylon, 1982, 43: 327-43. 

Eric J. Bailey. Urban African American Health
Care(Lanham, Md: University Press of America, 1991), see
esp. pp. 24-29.

Sheila P. Davis and Cora A. Ingram, "Empowered
Caretakers: A Historical Perspective on the Roles of Granny
Midwives in Rural Alabama," in Wings of Gauze: Women
of Color and the Experience of Health and
Illness(Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1993),
pp. 191-201.

Ruth A. Dodd, "Midwife Supervision in South
Carolina," Public Health Nurse, 1920: 863-867. 

Wonda Lee Fontenot, "Madame Neau: The Practice of
Ethno-Psychiatry in Rural Louisiana," in Wings of
Gauze: Women of Color and the Experience of Health and
Illness(Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1993),
pp. 41-52.
The Florida Negro: A Federal Writers' Project Legacy,
edited, with an introduction, by Gary W. McDonogh (Jackson:
University of Mississippi Press, 1993), Chapters 8,
"Folklore," 9, "Hoodoo and Voodoo," and
10, "Conjure Shop," pp. 71-87.

Elliott J. Gorn. "Black Magic: Folk Beliefs of the
Slave Community," in Science and Medicine in the Old
South, edited by Ronald L. Numbers and Todd L. Savitt
(Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989), pp.
295-326.

Linda Janet Holmes, "Thank you Jesus to myself: The
life of a traditional Black midwife." In: Evelyn C.
White, editor, The Black Woman's Health Book: Speaking
for Ourselves. Seattle: Seal Press, 1990. Pp. 98-116.

Wilbert C. Jordan, "Voodoo Medicine." Chapter 18
of Textbook of Black-Related Diseases, edited by
Richard Allen Williams (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975), pp.
715-738.

Holly F. Mathews, "Killing the Medical Self-Help
Tradition among African Americans: The Case of Lay Midwifery
in North Carolina, 1912-1983," In African Americans
in the South: Issues of Race, Class, and Gender, edited
by Hans A. Baer and Yvonne Jones (Athens: University of
Georgia Press, 1992), 60-78.

Arvilla Payne-Jackson and John Lee. Folk Wisdom and
Mother Wit: John Lee -- An African American Herbal
HealerWestport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1993.

William D. Piersen, Black Legacy: America's Hidden
Heritage(Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press),
Ch. 5, "Duh Root Doctuh Wuz All We Needed," pp.
99-117.

Loudell F. Snow, "Sorcerers, Saints and Charlatans:
Black Folk Healers in Urban America," Culture,
Medicine and Psychiatry, 1978, 2: 69-106.

Debra Ann Susie, In the Way of our Grandmothers. 

Suzanne J. Terrell, This Other Kind of Doctor:
Traditional Medical Systems in Black Neighborhoods in
Austin, Texas(New York: AMS Press, 1990). 

C.C. Terry, "Midwives: Their Influence on Early Infant
Mortality," American Journal of Public Health,
1191-5, 5: 695-700. 

Wilbur H. Watson, Black Folk Medicine: The Therapeutic
Significance of Faith and Trust(New Brunswick:
Transaction, 1984). See especially the introduction, pp.
1-15. 



XI. Blacks and Hospitals


Vanessa Northington Gamble, "The Negro Hospital
Renaissance: The Black Hospital Movement, 1920-1945,"
in The American General Hospital, edited by Diana E.
Long and Janet Golden (Ithaca: Cornell University Press,
1989), 182-205.

Pete Daniel, "Black Power in the 1920s: The Case of the
Tuskegee Veteran's Hospital," Journal of Southern
History, 1970, 36: 368-388.

Brian, Greenberg. "Coming of Age: Local 1199 in the
1960s." In: Long, Diana Elizabeth and Janet Golden, ed,
The American General Hospital. Ithaca: Cornell
University Press, 1989. pp. 170-187. readings (med) (35pp.)

Vanessa Northington Gamble, "The Negro Hospital
Renaissance: The Black Hospital Movement, 1920-1945,"
in The American General Hospital, edited by Diana E.
Long and Janet Golden (Ithaca: Cornell University Press,
1989), 182-205. [to be copied for reserve here; in folder,
with notes]

Brian Greenberg. "Coming of Age: Local 1199 in the
1960s." In: Long, Diana Elizabeth and Janet Golden, ed,
The American General Hospital. Ithaca: Cornell
University Press, 1989. pp. 170-187. [to be copied for
reserve here, in folder]


other sources

Eugene B. Elder, "The Management of the Race Question
in Hospitals," Transactions of the American Hospital
Association, 1907, 9: 127-130.

"Factors Influencing the Fate of the Negro
Hospital," Journal of the National Medical
Association, 1967, 59: 217-219.

Leon Fink and Brian Greenberg, Upheaval in the Quiet
Zone: A History of Hospital Workers' Union, Local 1199
(Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989).

Vanessa Northington Gamble. The Black Community Hospital:
Contemporary Dilemmas in Historical Perspective(New
York: Garland, 1989).

Vanessa Northington Gamble. Making a Place for
Ourselves. New York: Oxford, 1995.

William Giffin, "The Mercy Hospital Conmtroversy among
Cleveland's Afro-American Civic Leaders, 1927,"
Journal of Negro History, 1976, 61: 327-350.

"Investigation of Negro Hospitals," Journal of
the American Medical Association, 1929, 92:
1375-1376.

Homer A. Jack. "Is Segregation Really Necessary?"
Modern Hospital, June 1951, 76: 52-55, 138.

Julius Rosenwald Fund, Negro Hospitals: A Compilation of
Available Statistics(Chicago, 1931). 

David McBride. Integrating the City of Medicine: Blacks
in Philadelphia Health Care, 1910-1965. Philadelphia:
Temple University Press, 1989. "Blacks Enter Hospital
Employment," pp. 132-138.

Aubre De L. Maynard, Surgeons to the Poor: The Harlem
Hospital Story(New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1978).

Rosenberg, The Care of Strangers

Karen Brodkin Sacks, Caring by the Hour: Women, Work, and
Organizing at Duke Medical Center(Urbana: University of
Illinois Press, 1988).

Rosemary Stevens, In Sickness and in Wealth.

Wygal, Winifred and Dubois, W.E.B., "Julia Derricotte:
Her Character and Her Martyrdom," Crisis, March
1932, 39: 84-87.



XII. African-American healers: the nurse


video: "Sentimental Women Need Not Apply"

Hine. Black Women in White.


other sources

Darlene Clark Hine, "Mable K. Staupers and the
Integration of Black Nurses into the Armed Forces," in
Judith Walzer Leavitt (ed), Women and Health in America:
Historical Readings(Madison: University of Wisconsin
Press, 1984), 497-506.
The Fifty Year Graudates of Freedmen's Hospital School of
Nursing Tell Their Story(Washington: Freedmen's Hospital
Nurses Alumni Clubs, Inc, 1986).

Osolee M. Ruffin, "Jim-Crowing Nurses,"
Crisis, April 1930, 37: 123, 139-140. 

Patricia Ellen Sloan, "A History of the Establishment
and Early Development of Selected Nurse Training Schools for
Afro-Americans: 1886-1906" (Ed.D. diss., Teachers
College, Columbia University, 1978).

Staupers, Mabel Keaton, No Time for Prejudice: A Story of
the Integration of Negroes in Nursing in the United
States(New York: Macmillan, 1961).



XIII. African-American healers: the physician


Todd L. Savitt. "Entering a White Profession: Black
Physicians in the New South, 1880-1920," Bulletin of
the History of Medicine, 1987, 61: 507-540.

Darlene Clark Hine, "Co-Laborers in the Work of the
Lord: Nineteenth-Century Black Women Physicians," in
Send Us a Lady Physician: Women Doctors in America,
1835-1920, edited by Ruth J. Abram (New York: Norton,
1985), 107-120.

Abraham Flexner, Medical Education in the United States
and Canada(New York: Carnegie Foundation, 1910), pp.
180-181, 202-203, 229-233, 279-282, 302-307.

Howard R. Epps, "The Howard University Medical
Department in the Flexner Era: 1910-1929." Journal
of the National Medical Association, 1989, 81:
885-911. 

Susan Hunt, "The Flexner Report and Black Academic
Medicine: An Assignment of Place," Journal of the
National Medical Association, 1993, 85: 151-155.

Todd L. Savitt. "Abraham Flexner and the Black Medical
Schools." In Beyond Flexner: Medical Education in
the Twentieth Century, edited by Barbara Barzansky and
Norman Gevitz (New York: Greenwood, 1992), 65-81.
other sources

Philip Alexander, "John H. Rapier, Jr. and the Medical
Profession in Jamaica, 1860-1862," Jamaica
Journal, 24 (February 1993): 37-46; 25 (October 1993):
55-62.

Sterling A. Brown. "Parish Doctor." in Marian Gray
Secundy, editor, Tirals, Tribulations, and Celebrations,
pp. 7-9.

W. Montague Cobb, The First Negro Medical Society: A
History of the Medico-Chirurgical Society of the District of
Columbia, 1884-1939(Washington: Associated, 1939).

Douglas L. Conner, A Black Physician's Story: Bringing
Hope to Mississippi(Jackson: University of Mississippi
Press, 1985). 

Davis, George, "A Healing Hand in Harlem: Dr. May
Edward Chinn" New York Times Magazine, April 22,
1979. 

Lloyd C. Elam, "Why the Black Medical College is
Different," Journal of the National Medical
Association, 1976, 68: 451-455.

Vanessa Northington Gamble. "On becoming a physician: a
dream not deferred." In: Evelyn C. White, editor,
The Black Woman's Health Book: Speaking for
Ourselves. Seattle: Seal Press, 1990. Pp. 52-64.

B.C.H. Harvey, "Provision for Training Colored Medical
Students." Journal of the National Medical
Association, 1930, 22: 186-189.

Langston Hughes. "Dr. Sidesaddle." in Marian Gray
Secundy, editor, Tirals, Tribulations, and
Celebrations, pp. 10-11.

Roger Lane, William Dorsey's Philadelphia and Ours: On
the Past and Future of the Black City in America, New
York: Oxford University Press, 1991. "The Learned
Occupations," 175-183.

Lightfoot, Sarah Lawrence. Balm in Gilead.

Aubre De L. Maynard, Surgeons to the Poor: The Harlem
Hospital Story(New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1978),
Chapter 4, "Childhood and Education," and Chapter
5 "Interneship and Houseship," pp. 26-45. 

Gloria Moldow, "The Howard University Medical
Department," Chapter 3 of Women Doctors in Gilded
Age Washington: Race, Gender, and
Professionalization(Urbana: University of Illinois
Press, 1987), pp. 37-47.

Herbert M. Morais. The History of the Negro in
Medicine. New York: The Association for the Study of
Negro Life and History, 1967.

"The Negro in the Medical Profession," Chapter 14,
part 6 in Gunnar Myrdal, An American Dilemma: The Negro
Problem and Modern Democracy(New York: Harper and Row,
1947), 322-325.

Todd L. Savitt, "The Education of Black Physicians at
Shaw University, 1882-1918," in Black Americans in
North Carolina and the South, edited by Jeffrey J. Crow
and Flora Hatley (Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina
Press, 1984), 160-188.

Andrew A. Sorensen, "Black Americans and the Medical
Profession, 1930-1970," Journal of Negro
Education, 1972, 41: 337-342. [in folder]

Isabella Vandervall, "Some Problems of the Colored
Woman Physician," The Woman's Medical Journal,
1917, 27: 156-158.
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