Medicine, Race, and Ethnicity
Conference Course for Undergraduates, Fall 1994
Prof. Warwick Anderson, History of Science, Harvard

This course surveys the medical and scientific constructions
of categories of race and ethnicity since 1800. We will
place the development of racial theories of disease in a
broad social and political context - and, in particular,
explain the medical salience of race in the setting of
slavery and colonialism. While the North American context is
emphasized, we will also discuss developments in the British
and French empires, and within Europe. You should note, too,
that exigencies of scheduling have meant that the focus of
this course is more on the invention of racial categories
than on racism in the actual delivery of health care --
though these subjects are not (and should not be) entirely

Assessment will be as follows:

Participation in sections 10%
Two class papers 20%
Midterm exam 30%
Final take-home exam 40%

September 20

September 22
Race before 1800; Exploration

September 27 
Race and slavery

September 29
The Enlightenment and Racial Classification; Great Chain
of Being

Richard Cooper, "A note on the biological concept of
  race, "American Heart Journal108 (1984):
Doris Y. Wilkinson and Gary King, " Conceptual and
  methodological issues in the use of race as a
  variable," in David P. Willis, ed., Health
  Politics and Black Americans(New Brunswick:
  Transaction, 1989), pp. 56-71.
Newton, G. Osborne and Marvin D. Feit, " The use of
  race in medical research," JAMA267 (1992):
"The uses of race in medical research: [Letters]"
  JAMA267 (1992): 3150-51.
Michael Banton, "The Idiom of Race: a critique of
  presentism," Research in Race and Ethnic
  Relations2 (1980): 21-42.

October 4 
Monogenism; Blumenbach, Cuvier, Prichard, Lawrence

October 6 
Polygenism; Knot, Hunt

Blumenbach, "Observations on the bodily conformation
  and mental capacity of the Negroes,"
  Philosophical Magazine3 (1799): 141-46.
Alexander von Humboldt, Cosmos(London: John Murray,
  1859, vol. 1, pp. 350-357.
James Cowled Prichard, Researches into the Physical
  History of Man([1813] London, 1851), vol. 1, pp.
William Lawrence, Lectures on Physiology, Zoology and the
  Natural History of Man(London, 1822), pp. 411-34.
James Hunt, On the Negro's Place in Nature(New York:
  Van Evrie, Horton and Co., 1864).

October 13 
American School of Ethnology; Morton, Gliddon, Nott,

Josiah Nott, Two Lectures on the Natural History of
  Caucasian and Negro Races(Mobile: Dade and Thompson,
  1844), pp. 1-14.
Frederick Douglass, The Claims of the Negro,
  Ethnologically Considered.(Rochester: Lee, Mann and
  Co, 1854).
John S. Haller, "The Negro and the southern physician:
  a study of medical and racial attitudes, 100-160,"
  Medical History16 (1972): 238-53.
James D. Guillory, "The pro-slavery arguments of Dr.
  Samuel Cartright." Louisiana History9
  (1968): 209-227.

Oct. 18 
Measurement; Phrenology and Pigmentation

Oct 20 
Racial Competition; Darwin, Wallace, Huxley

Lucien Carr, Notes on the Crania of New England
  Indians.(Boston, 1880).
Stephen Jay Gould, The Mismeasure of Man.(New York:
  W.W. Norton and Co., 1981), pp. 30-72.
Robert Knox, The Races of Men: A
  Fragment.(Philadelphia: Lee and Blanchard, 1850),
  pp. 154-63.
Sander Gilman, "The Jewish nose: are Jews white? Or,
  the history of the nose job,: The Jew's Body.(New
  York: Rutledge, 1991), pp. 169-93.

Oct. 25 
Human Acclimatization

Oct. 27 
Racial Immunities

Charles Darwin, Descent of Man.(London, 1871) pp.
Alfred Russel Wallace, :Development of human races,"
  Journal of the Anthropology Society2 (1864):
T.H. Huxley, "Emancipation black and white
  [1865]," in Science and Education(New York,
  1896), pp.64-71.
Frederick Hoffman, Race Traits and Tendencies of the
  America Negro.(New York: Macmillan, 1896), pp. 1-32.

Nov. 1 
Race and Venereal Disease

Nov. 3 
Race and Tuberculosis

John S. Haller, "The physician versus the Negro:
  medical and anthropological concepts of race in the late
  nineteenth century," Bulletin of the History of
  Medicine44 (1970): 154-67.
Thomas W. Murrell, "Syphilis and the American Negro: a
  medico-sociological study," JAMA54 (1910):
Allan Brandt, "Racism and Research: The Case of the
  Tuskegee Syphilis Study," Hastings Center
  Report8 (1978): 21-29.
Evelynn Hammonds, "Race, Sex, AIDS: The Construction of
  'Other'," Radical America20 (1987): 55-62.

Nov. 8 

Nov. 10 
Mid-Term Exam

Optional Reading
Stuart Creighton Miller, The Unwelcome Immigrant: The
  American Image of the Chinese, 1785-1882.(Berkeley:
  UC Press, 1969), pp. 83-112.

Nov. 15 
Physical Anthropology; Beddoe, Haddon, Ripley, Keith

Nov. 17 
Degeneration and the War of the Races; Nordau, Lankester,
Chamberlain, Grant

John Beddoe, "Color and Race," Journal of the
  Anthropology Institute of Great Britain and
  Ireland35 (1905): 219-50.
Arthur Keith, "Presidential Address: On Certain Factors
  in the Evolution of the Races," Journal of the
  Royal Anthropology Institute64 (1916): 10-33.
George W. Stocking, Jr., "The Persistence of Polygenist
  thought in Post-Darwinian Anthropology, ' in his
  Race, Culture and Evolution: Essays in the History of
  Anthropology(New York: Free Press, 1968), pp. 42-64.
Richard Soloway, "Counting the Degenerates: The
  statistics of Race Deterioration in Edwardian
  England," Journal of Contemporary History17
  (1982): 137-64.

Nov. 22
British Eugenics; Galton, Pearson

Nov. 24 
American Eugenics; Davenport

Optional Section
Francis Galton, "Hereditary Talent and Character,"
  Macmillan's Magazine12 (1865): 318-27.
Francis Galton, "The Comparative Worth of Different
  Races," in Hereditary Genius(London, 1982),
  pp. 392-404. 
C.B. Davenport, "Effects of Race Intermingling, "
  Proceedings of the American Philosophical
  Society130 (1917): 364-68.

Nov. 29 
Nazi Race Science

Dec. 1 
Cultural Anthropology and Environmentalism; Boas

Paul Weindling, "Nazi Racial Hygiene, " in
  Health, Race and German Politics Between National
  Unification and Nazism, 1870-1945.(Cambridge:
  Cambridge Univ. Press, 1989), pp. 489-541.
Franz Boas, "Changes in the Bodily Form of Descendents
  of Immigrants," in his Race, Language and
  Culture([1922] New York: Free Press, 1966), pp.
Edward Beardsley, "The American Scientist as Social
  Activist: Franz Boas, Burt G. Wilder, and the Cause of
  Racial Justice," Isis64 (1973): 50-66.
"Mice and Men in Edinburgh: Reports from the genetics
  conference," Journal of Heredity30 (1939):
Gunnar Myrdal, "The American Definition of Negro,"
  in An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern
  Democracy(New York: Harper and Bros, 1944), vol. 1,
  pp. 113-117, and vol. 2, pp. 1198-99.

Dec 6 
Ethnicity; Park, Hogben, Huxley

Dec. 8 
On Human Diversity

W.E.B. DuBois, Conservation of Races, Occasional
  Papers No. 2 (New York: Arno Press, 1969), pp. 5-15.
Anthony Appiah, "The Uncompleted Argument: DuBois and
  the Illusion of Race," Critical Inquiry12
  (1986): 21-37.
Richard Lewontin, S. Rose and L. Kamin, "The Politics
  of Biological Determinism, " in Not in Our
  Genes(Pantheon, 1984), pp. 17-36.

Dec. 13 
Guest Lecturer Anthony Appiah

Dec. 14 
Conclusion; Strategies of Identity
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