RaceSci
Syllabi
RaceSci

 

Race, Science, and Technology 
Dr. Stefan Helmreich Draper
Course G65.1066
New York University

The category of race has been used to naturalize social inequality by
assigning people to heierarchically ordered groupings based on
assumed biological (and hereditary) difference.  Scientific discourse
has been a key resources in the history of this practice.  But it has also
been a crucial tool for dismantling race.  In the first portion of this course,
"The Construction and Contestation of Scientific Racism," we will examine
these twin tendencies, reading about the rise of evolutionary racism along-
side ideas about reproduction and sex: early 20th century contests over
eugenics in the UK and USA; Nazi notions of "racial hygiene," and the trend
in biological theory from studying race to evaluating populations to, today
examining genes and genomes (a trend that corresponds somewhat to the
rise and fall of sociobiology).  We will also look at links between race and
medical practice.  The second portion of this class, "Racialized Epistem-
ologies and Technosciences," looks more keenly at the place of race in
formulating the problems, approaches, and epistemologies animating
scientific work more generally, even when it is not centrally about race
as such.  We try to understand how the practice of science from histor-
ically subordinated racial positions might allow us to see science and 
technology as well as the history of science and technology differently
We examine these questions with particular attention to North American
political contexts and racial formations.  at the end of the course, we 
consider whether the logic of "race" might not be changing in our
contemporary world of genomics and informatics, and with this the
way we can usefully respond to issues of race, science,a nd technology

REQUIREMENTS

Week 1 Introduction

Gould, Stephen Jay.  1977.  Why We Should Not Name Human
Races-A Biological View.  In Ever Since Darwain: Reflections in
Natural History. New York: Norton, 231-236

Gould, Stephen Jay. 1985. Human Equality Is a Contingent Fact
of History.  In The Flamingo's Smile: Reflections in Natural History.
New York: Norton, 185-198.

Omi, Michael and Howard Winant.  1994. Racial Formation.  In
Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1990s.
Second Edition. New York: Routledge, 53-76.

The Construction and Contestation of Scientific Racism

Week 2 The Colonial Order of Things, Pre-Scientific Racial Formation,
and the Uses of Sex in the Rise of Evolutionary Racism

Stolcke, Verena. 1994. Invaded Women. In women, "Race"
and Writing in the Early Modern Period.  Margo Hendricks and
Patricia Parker, eds. London: Routledge, 272-286.

McClintock, Anne.  1995. The Lay of the Land: Geneologies of
Imperialism.  In Imperial Leather: Race, Gender, and Sexuality in the
Colonial Contest.  New York: Routledge, 21-51.

Gould, Stephen Jay. 1994. The Geometer of Race. Discover.

Kant, Immanuel. 1775. On the Different Races of Man. In Race and
Enlightenment.  Emmanuel Chuckwudi Eze, ed. Oxford: Blackwell
1977, 38-48.

Eze, Emmanuel Chukwudi. 1995. The Colour of Reason: The Idea of
"Race" in Kant's Anthropology.  In Anthropology and the German
Enlightenment: Perspectives on Humanity.  Edited by Katherine
M. Faull.  Lewisburf, PA: Bucknell University Press, 200-241.

Stoler, Ann 1995. Placing Race in the History of Sexuality.
In Race and the Education of Desire: Foucault's History of
Sexuality and the Colonial Order of Things. Durham: Duke 19-45.

Schiebinger, Londa. 1993. Theories of Gender and Race. In
Nature's Body: Gender in the Making of Modern Science. Boston:
Beacon Press, 143-183.

Stepan, Nancy. 1993. Race and Gender: The Role of Analogy in
Science. In The "Racial" Economy of Science: Toward a
Democratic Future, Sandra Harding, ed. Bloomington: Indiana
University Press, 1993, 84-115, read only to 102.

Jacobson, Matthew Frye. 1998. Whiteness and Science, from
"Free White Persons" in the Republic, 1790-1840. In
Whiteness of a Different Colour: Cambridge: Harvard 
University Press, 31-38.

Fedigan, Linda Marie. 1986. Biological Evolution in the
Nineteenth Century, From the Changing Role of Women in
Models of Human Evolution.  Annual Review of Anthropology
15:25-66, read only 27-29.

Darwin, Charles. 1871. The Descent of Man and Selection in
Relation to Sex. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981,
214-236, 240-250, 316-329, 355-358, 368-375, 381-384 (skim)

Week 3 American and British Eugenics

Kevles, Daniel J. 1995. In the Name of Eugenic: Genetics and the
Uses of Human Heredity. Cambridge: Harvard University Press,
chapters 1-9, 11-13 (3-147, 164-211)

Davis, Angela. 1981. Racism, Birth Control, and Reproductive
Rights. From Women, Race, and Class. New York: Vintage Books,
202-221.

Hasian, Marouf, Arif. Jr. 1996. Race and African American
Interpretations of Eugenics. In the Rhetoric of Eugenics in Anglo
American Thought. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 51-88.

Week 4 Racial Formation, Immigration, Law, and Early 20th 
Century American Anthropology


Jacobson, Matthew Frye, 1998. Racea nd American Nativism
from Anglo-Saxons and Others, 1840-1924. In Whiteness of a
Different Coour: Cambridge: Harvard University Press 68-90.

Barker, Lee. 1997. The Ascension of Anthropology as Social
Darwinsim, and Rethinking Race at the Turn of the Century:
W.E.B. Du Bois and Fraz Boas. In From Savage to Negro:
Anthropology and the Construction of Race, 1896-1954.
Berkeley: University of California Press, 26-53, 99-126.

Boas, Franz. 1894. The Half Blood Indian. In Race, Language,
and Culture. New York: The Free Press, 1940, 138-148.


Boas, Franz. 1913. Changes in Bodily Form of Descendent of
Immigrants. In Race, Language, and Culture, 60-75.


Jacobson, Matthew Frye. 19998. Becoming Caucasian. 1924-1965,
and Naturalization and the Courts. In Whiteness of a Different Colour:
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 91-109, 223-240.

Viswesweran, Kamala. 1998. Race and the Culture of Anthropology.
American Anthropologist 100(1):70-83.

Week 5 Science and Race in Latin America and South Africa
Stepan, Nancy Leys. 1991. Eugenics in Latin America: Its Origins
and Institutional Ecology, Racial Poisons and the Politics of 
Heredity in Latin America in the 1920s, and National Identities
and Racial Transformations. In The Hour of Eugenics: Race,
Gender, and Nation in Latin America. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University
Press, 35-101, 135-170.

Bowker, Geoffrey C. and Susan Leigh Star. 2000. The Case of
Race Classification and Reclassification under Apartheid. In
Sorting Things Out: Classification and Its Consequences.
Cambridge: MIT Press, 195-225.

Week 6 Nazi Race Science and Its Legacies

Proctor, Robert. 1988. From Anthropolgie to Rassenkunde in
the German Anthropological Tradition. In Bones, Bodies, Behaviour.
George Stocking, ed. Madison: Unveristy of Wisconsin Press,
138-179.

Proctor, Robert. 1993. Nazi Medicine and the Politics of Knowledge.
In The "Racial" Economy of Science: Toward a Democratic Future,
Sandra Harding, ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 344-358.

Gilman, Sander. 1991. The Jewish Disease: Plague in Germany
1939/1989. In The Jew's Body, New York: Routledge. 210-233.

Barkan, Elazar. 1988. Mobilizing Scientists against Nazi Racism,
1933-1939. In Bones, Bodies, Behaviour. George Stocking, ed.
Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 180-205.

Pross, Christian. 1994. Introduction to Cleansing the Fatherland:
Nazi Medicine and Racial Hygiene. Gotz Aly, Peter Chroust,
and Christian Pross, eds. Baltimore: Johns Hopkinds, 1-21.

Linke, Uli. 1999. Blood, Race, Nation. In German Bodies:
Race and Representation after Hitler. New York: Routledge, 115-151.

Week 7 Reconceptualizing Race and WWII: From Population to
Gene Through Sociobiology

Haraway, Donna. 1989. Remodeling the Human Way of Life: 
Sherwood Washburn and the New Physical Anthropology, 1950-1980.
In Primate Visions. New York: Routledge, 197-206.

UNESCO. 1950 Statement on Race in Statement on Race. Ashley
Montagu, ed. London: Oxford University Press, 1972, 7-13.

Rushton, J.P. 1987. Race Differences in Sexual Behaviour: Testing
an Evolutionary Hypothesis. Journal of Research in Personality 21:
529-551, available online: 
www.mugu.com/cgi-bin/Upstream/People/
Rushton/rushtonsxev.html?embedded=yes&cumulative_category_
title=J.+Phillipe+Rushton&cumulative_category_id=Rushton

Lewontin, R.C. 1993. A Story in Textbooks. In Biology as Ideology:
The Doctrine of DNA. New York: Harperperennial, 87-104.

Haraway, Donna. 1994. Universal Donors in a Vampire Culture, Or
It's All in the Family: Biology Kinship Categories in the 20th century
United States. In Uncommon Ground: Toward Reinventing Nature.
William Cronon, ed. New York: Norton, 321-366.

Duster, Troy. In Press. The Sociology of Science and the Revolution
in Molecular Biology. Prepared for the Blackwell Companion to
Sociology, Blackwell Publishers Limited.

Week 8 Race and Medicine

Kreiger, Nancy and Mary Bassett. 1993. The Health of Black Folk:
Disease, Class, and Ideology in Science. In The "Racial" Economy
of Science: Toward a Democratic Future, Sandra Harding, ed.
Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993, 161-169.

Jones, James. 1993. The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment: "A
Moral Astigmatism. "In The "Racial" Economy of Science: Toward
a Democratic Future, Sandra Harding, ed. Bloominton: Indiana
University Press, 1993, 275-286

Kapsalis, Terri. 1997. Mastering the Female Pelvis: Race and the 
Tools of Reproduction. In Public Privates: Performing Gynecology
from Both Ends of the Speculum. Durham: Duke University Press,
31-59.

Gamble, Vanessa Northington 1995. Roots of the Black Hospital
Reform Movement, 1920-1945. New York: Oxford University Press,
3-34.

Osborne, Newton G. and Marvin D. Feit. 1992. The Use of Race in
Medical Research. JAMA 267(2): 275-279.

Landecker, Hannah. 2000. Immortality, In Vitro: A History of the
HeLa Cell Line. In Biotechnology and Culture: Bodies, Anxieties,
Ethics. Paul Brodwin, ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press,
53-72.

Tapper, Melbourne. 2000. An "Anthropology" of the "American
Negro," 1940-1952. In In The Blood: Sickle Cell Anemia and the
Politics of Race. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 29-54.

Farmer, Paul. 1992. AIDS and Racism: Accusation in the Centre. In
AIDS and Accusation: Haiti and the Geography of Blame. Berkeley:
University of California Press, 208-228.

Racialized Epistemologies and Technologies

Week 9 Critical Race Science Studies: Mapping Racial Economies,
Alternative Histories

Schiebinger, Londa. 1993. Who Should Do Science? In Nature's
Body: Gender in the Making of Modern Science. Boston: Becon
Press, 184-200.

Harding, Sandra. 1993. Eurocentric Scientific Illiteracy- A Challenge
for the World Community. In The "Racial" Economy of Science: Toward
a Democratic Future, Sandra Harding, ed. Bloomington: Indiana
University Press, 1-22.

Hess, David. 1995. The Cultural Construction of Science and Technology.
In Science and Technology in a Multicultural World: The Cultural Politics
of Facts and Artifacts. New York: Columbia University Press, 18-53.

Stepan, Nancy Leys and Sander L. Gilman. 1991. Appropriating the
Idioms of Science: The Rejection of Scientific Racism. In The "Racial"
Economy of Science: Toward a Democratic Future, Sandra Harding, ed.
Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993, 170-193.

Haraway, Donna. 1989. Apes in Eden, Apes in Space: Mothering as a
Scientist for National Geographic. In Primitive Visions. New York:
Routledge, 133-156.

Week 10 African-American Technoscientific, Histories and Futures

Hine, Darlene Clark. 1993. Co-Laborers in the Work of the Lord:
19th Century Black Women Physicians. In The "Racial" Economy
of Science: Toward a Democratic Future, Sandra Harding, ed.
Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 210-227.

Manning, Kenneth. 1993. Ernest Everett Just: the Role of Foundation
Support for Black Scientists 1920-1929. In The "Racial" Economy of
Science: Toward a Democratic Future, Sandra Harding, ed. Bloominton:
Indiana University Pres, 228-238.

Sands, Aimee. 1993. Never Meant to Survive: A Black Woman's Journey
-An Interview with Evelynn Hammonds. In The "Racial" Economy of Science
and Technology. In The "Racial" Economy of Science: Toward a
Democratic Future, Sandra Harding, ed. Bloomington: Indiana University
Press, 249-253.

Gilroy, Paul. 1993. Whose Millennium Is This? Blackness: Pre-modern,
Post-modern, and Anti-moern. In Small Acts: Thoughts on the Politics of
Black Cultures. London: Serpent's Tail, 153-165.

Eglash, Ron. 1997. The African Heritage of Benjamin Banneker. Social
Studies of Science 27:307-315.

Eglash, Ron. 1995. African Influences in Cybernetics. In The Cybord
Handbook, Chris Hables Gray, ed., with the assistance of Heidi J.
Figueroa-Sarriera and Steven Mentor. New York: Routledge, 17-27.

Eglash, Ron and Julian Bleecker. forthcoming. The Race for Cyberspace:
Information Technology in the Black Diaspora. Science as Culture, 
available online: http://www.rpi.edu/~eglash/eglash.dir/ethnic.dir/r4cyb.dir/r4cybh.htm

Roberts, Adam. 2000. Race. In Science Fiction. London: Routledge, 118-
145.

Miller, Paul (aka DJ Spooky Subliminal Kid). 1999 Afro-Futurism:
A Statement of Intentions-Outside In, Inside Out, 
http://www.afrofuturism.net/text/Manifestos/Miller01.html

Williams, Ben. 2001. Black Secret Technology: Detroit Techno and the 
Infromation Age. In Technicolor: Race, Technology, and Everday Life.
Alondra Nelson and Thuy Linh N. Tu with Alicia Headlam Hines, eds.
New York: NYU Press, 154-176.

Week 11 Land, History, Science, and Knowledge in Native America

Jaimes, M. Annette. 1992. Federal Indian Identification Policy: A
Usurpation of Indigenous Sovereignty in North America. In The State
of Native America: Genocide, Colonization, and Resistance. M. Annette
Jaimes, ed. Boston: South End Press, 123-138.

Churchill, Ward, and Winona LaDuke. 1992. Native North America: The
Political Economy of Radioactice Colonialism. In The State of Native
America: Genocide, Colonization, and Resistance. M. Annette Jaimes, ed.
Boston: South End Press, 241-266.

Young, M. Jane. 1987. "Pity the Indians of Outer Space.": Native American
Views of the Space Program. Western Folklore 46: 269-279.

Scott, Colin. 1996. Science for the West, Myth for the Rest? The Case of
James Bay Cree Knowledge Construction. In Naked Science:
Anthropological Inquiry into Boundaries, Power, Knowledge. Laura Nader,
ed. New York: Routledge, 69-86.

Bielawski, Ellen. 1996. Inuit Indigenous Knowledge and Science in the Arctic.
In Naked Science: Anthropological Inquiry into Boundaries, Power,
Knowledge. Laura Nader, ed. New York: Routledge, 216-227.

Eglash, Ron. 2000. Computation, Complexity, and Coding in Native American
Knowledge Systems. To appear in Judith Hanks, ed. Native American
Mathematics, NCTM, available online: 
www.rensselaer.edu/~eglash/eglash.dir/nacyb.dir/nacomplx.htm

Hess, David. 1995. Cosmopolitan Technologies, Native Peoples and 
Resistance Struggles. In Science and Technology in a Multicultural 
World: The Cultural Politics of Facts and Artifacts. New York: Columbia 
University Press, 211-249.

Week 12
Citizenship, Race, Border Crossings, Appropriated Technology,
Cyborg Identities Wong, Cheuk-Yin. 2000. The Los Alamos Incident and its Effects on Chinese-American Scientists. Talk presented at the session on "Science and National Security" organized by the American Physical Society on April 29, 2000 at Long Beach, California, available online: www.ocpaweb.org/llnl/WongAPS.txt Gusterson, Hugh. n.d. Five Reasons To Be Concerned, www.wenholee.org/wenho-mit2.html Glanz, James. 2000. Glass Ceilings, Harassment Deter Asian American Scientists from National Labs, The New York Times, July 16, 2000, available online: modelminority.com/society/losalamos.htm Niu, Greta Ai-Yu. 2000. Cyber Commerce and Community: Asian Pacific America and the Asian Pacific Rim. From Cyberculture Studies as American Studies: Locating Design, Discourse, and Diversity in Cyberspace. Detroit, Michigan, October 12 - 15, 2000ASA 2000 Online Panels: epsilon3.georgetown.edu/~coventrm/asa2000/panel4/niu.html
Eglash, Ron. 1997. Appropriating Technology: An Introduction, available online: www.rensselaer.edu/~eglash/eglash.dir/atintro.htm Sandoval, Chela. 1995. New Sciences: Cyborg Feminism and the Methodology of the Oppressed. In The Cyborg Handbook, Chris Hables Gray, ed., with the assistance of Heidi J. Figueroa-Sarriera and Steven Mentor, New York: Routledge, 407-421. Gomez-Peña, Guillermo. 2000. Ethno-cyborgs and Genetically Engineered Mexicans, and The Virtual Barrio@The Other Frontier (or the Chicano Interneta). In Dangerous Border Crossers: The Artist Talks Back. London: Routledge, 45-57, 247-260. Week 13 Race in the Digital Age

Gilroy, Paul. 2000. The Crisis of "Race" and Raciology. In Against Race: Imagining Political Culture Beyond the Color Line. Cambridge: Belknap/Harvard, 11-53. Gonzalez, Jennifer. 2000. The Appended Subject: Race and Identity as Digital Assemblage. In Race in Cyberspace. Beth E. Kolko, Lisa Nakamura, and Gilbert B. Rodman, eds. New York: Routledge. 27-50. Burkhalter, Byron. 1999. Reading Race Online: Discovering Racial Identity in Usenet Discussions. In Communities in Cyberspace. Mark A. Smith, and Peter Kollock, eds. London: Routledge, 60-75. Nakamura, Lisa. 1995. Race in/for Cyberspace: Identity Tourism and Racial Passing on the Internet. The Cybercultures Reader. David Bell and Barbara M. Kennedy, eds. New York: Routledge, 712-720, available online: www.humanities.uci.edu/mposter/syllabi/readings/nakamura.html ____________ . 2000. Keeping It (Virtually) Real: the Discourse of Cyberspace as an Object of Knowledge. From Cyberculture Studies as American Studies: Locating Design, Discourse, and Diversity in Cyberspace. Detroit, Michigan, October 12-15, ASA 2000 Online Panels: epsilon3.georgetown.edu/~coventrm/asa2000/panel4/nakamura.html
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